A report on Metro Manila

Nichols Field runway with Manila in the background, taken prior to 1941
Metropolitan Manila, or the National Capital Region, is divided morphologically into three major parts. These are the: Central Plateau, Coastal Lowland, and Marikina Valley
Drainage map of the Pasig-Marikina River system
Flooding brought by Typhoon Ketsana (Tropical Storm Ondoy) in 2009 caused 484 deaths in Metro Manila alone.
Commemoration of 119th Rizal Day at Rizal Park
Malacañan Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the Philippines.
The Batasang Pambansa Complex is the seat of the House of Representatives.
MMDA Headquarters (2012)
Districts of Metro Manila
The Smokey Mountain Development and Reclamation Project for the former Smokey Mountain dumpsite and slum community is a prime example of in-city relocation housing for informal settler families in Tondo, City of Manila.
Ayala Avenue, looking westward, in the Makati Central Business District.
Bonifacio Global City and Makati skylines from Grand Hyatt Manila, the tallest building in the Philippines.
Aerial view of the SM Mall of Asia Complex (2016)
Gate of Fort Santiago at the historic walled area of Intramuros, City of Manila. (2013)
San Agustin Church, which was built in 1604 is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Okada Manila is one of Metro Manila's integrated casino resort and hotel complex.
"Spoliarium", displayed at the National Museum of the Philippines
A 2019 Southeast Asian Games basketball game held at the Mall of Asia Arena.
University of the Philippines Diliman is the flagship campus of the University of the Philippines since 1949.
The University of Santo Tomas, established in 1611, has the oldest extant university charter in Asia.
De La Salle University (DLSU)
Camp Crame is the headquarters of the Philippine National Police
Camp Aguinaldo is the headquarters of the Armed Forces of the Philippines
A flyover on EDSA at its intersection with Quezon Avenue.
Portion of South Luzon Expressway at the southern tip of Metro Manila
The Santolan station of the Line 2.
System map of the Metro Manila railway system.
Water zones for Metro Manila and the surrounding areas. Maynilad Water Services operates in the red areas while Manila Water operates in the blue areas.
Makati CBD is the principal central business district of the Philippines.
The Metro Manila skyline from San Mateo, Rizal, looking at Makati CBD, Ortigas CBD, Eastwood City and Bonifacio Global City.
The Northern Metro Manila skyline from San Mateo, Rizal, looking at Manila, Araneta City, and Quezon City.
The Northern Roxas Boulevard Skyline.
The Makati, Bay City, and Entertainment City skylines from Manila Bay.

Seat of government and one of three defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines.

- Metro Manila

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Quezon City

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Most populous city in the Philippines.

Most populous city in the Philippines.

Manuel L. Quezon, the 2nd president of the Philippines and the visionary behind the creation of Quezon City is the namesake of the city
The transfer of the University of the Philippines from Manila to Diliman was a precedent for the creation of Quezon City
Quezon Memorial Circle is the focal point of the newly-established capital city where the proposed Capitol Building of the Philippines is supposed to rise.
Territories ceded by Caloocan to form Quezon City. Existing territorial boundaries. Detached by Commonwealth Act 502 (1939).  Novaliches area. Detached by Republic Act 392 (1949).
The Bantayog ng mga Bayani was dedicated in honor of the all the people that struggled during the Marcos regime.
EDSA Shrine
Elevation map of Quezon City. The drop in elevation along the eastern border of the city follows the length of the West Valley Fault.
2013 Skyline of North EDSA, featuring SM City North EDSA.
Tandang Sora National Shrine in Balintawak is dedicated to Melchora Aquino, who was a prominent figure in the Philippine Revolution.
Historic Socorro Water Towers in Socorro, Cubao which has been converted as the Socorro Barangay Hall.
Balete Drive in New Manila is known in Filipino folklore as a haunted place, where a white lady purportedly appears.
The Philippine Heart Center, one of the country's designer hospitals, was designed in brutalist style.
Immaculate Conception Cathedral in Cubao.
Central Temple of the Iglesia ni Cristo.
Slum in Damayang Lagi
Araneta City in Cubao
Eastwood City in Bagumbayan is the home to country's first and largest cyberpark.
The GMA Network Center in Diliman is the headquarters of GMA Network.
Quezon City Hall, the seat of city government
The DILG-NAPOLCOM Center is the headquarters of the Department of the Interior and Local Government.
BSP Security Plant Complex along East Avenue in NGC I.
Main office of the Social Security System.
Araneta Coliseum
St. Luke's Medical Center – Quezon City (SLMC) is regarded as one of the best private hospitals in the country.
The National Science Complex (NSC) within the University of the Philippines Diliman.
Ateneo de Manila University, regarded as the best private university in the Philippines.
EDSA near Kamuning Station.
EDSA-Aurora Boulevard crossing, showing the viaducts of LRT-2 and MRT-3. An LRT-2 train is seen passing above.
La Mesa Ecopark in the La Mesa Watershed Reservation, which also contains the La Mesa Dam and Reservoir.
The Payatas dumpsite in 2007. It was permanently closed in 2017.
The Katipunan Tree inside the Metro Manila College campus in Novaliches

However, on June 24, 1976, Presidential Decree 940 was enacted, which reverted back to Manila the status of being the national capital while the whole of Metro Manila was designated as the seat of government.

Plate depicting the "nilad" plant (Scyphiphora hydrophylacea), from Augustinian missionary Fray Francisco Manuel Blanco's botanical reference, "Flora de Filipinas"


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Capital of the Philippines, and its second-most populous city.

Capital of the Philippines, and its second-most populous city.

Plate depicting the "nilad" plant (Scyphiphora hydrophylacea), from Augustinian missionary Fray Francisco Manuel Blanco's botanical reference, "Flora de Filipinas"
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription is the oldest historical record in the Philippines. It has the first historical reference to Tondo and dates back to Saka 822 (c. 900).
1734 map of the Walled City of Manila. The city was planned according to the Laws of the Indies.
Ayuntamiento de Manila served as the City Hall during the Spanish Colonial Period.
Spanish cannons on a fortress wall in Manila, circa pre-1900
Tutuban Main Station, which was built in 1887, is the main terminal of the Ferrocaril de Manila-Dagupan (now known as the Philippine National Railways). At the present moment, it serves as a shopping center and a public transit hub.
The 1905 Burnham Plan of Manila recommended improving the city's transit systems by creating diagonal arteries radiating from the new central civic district into areas at the outskirts of the city.
The tranvía running along Escolta Street during the American period.
Aerial view of Manila, 1936
USS Essex TBF-1 Avenger dropping a bomb over Pasig River in Manila targeting the dockyard, 14 November 1944
The destruction brought about by the Battle of Manila in 1945
View of the Rizal Monument in Rizal Park.
Skyline of Manila as seen from Harbour Square.
The Manila Bay sunset
The Manila Bay Beach during the International Coastal Cleanup Day in September 2020
Manila is divided into six congressional districts.
District map of Manila showing its sixteen districts.
Temperature and rainfall
Air pollution in Quiapo-Binondo area.
Street map of Manila city proper indicating points of interest
Ermita-Malate skyline in Manila
The façade of the NCCA Metropolitan Theater, designed by Filipino architect Juan M. Arellano
Jones Bridge was redeveloped in 2019 to "restore" it to its near-original design using Beaux-Arts architecture.
The Luneta Hotel, an example of French Renaissance architecture with Filipino stylized beaux art
People flocking the street market at Plaza Miranda.
A Toyota Vios of the Manila Police District
Aerial view of the Port of Manila, the chief port of the Philippines.
The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the central bank of the Philippines
Skyline of Binondo, the central business district of the city of Manila, as seen from Fort Santiago
Landbank Plaza, the headquarters of the Land Bank of the Philippines.
The historic Plaza Moriones in Fort Santiago, Intramuros.
Divisoria is a popular flea market for locals and tourists.
The National Museum of Fine Arts.
The National Museum of Natural History at Agrifina Circle, Rizal Park.
Aerial view of the city-owned Rizal Memorial Sports Complex, considered as the national sports complex of the Philippines.
Children playing basketball at the ruins of San Ignacio Church in Intramuros
The Intramuros Golf Club
Catholic devotees during the Feast of the Black Nazarene (Traslacíon)
Manila City Hall, the seat of city government
Isko Moreno, the city mayor
Especially since martial law era, Manila, being home of nationally-significant government offices and being the national capital, has been a venue for major protests.
The Smokey Mountain Housing Project was built on a former landfill. Continuous development of housing buildings continues up to the present day.
Jeepneys are one of the most popular modes of transportation in Manila
Pureza station of LRT Line 2 in Santa Mesa
Blumentritt Station of the LRT Line 1
De La Salle University is a Lasallian educational institution established in 1911.
The campus of the University of the City of Manila and Baluarte de San Diego in Intramuros.
Manila Cathedral is the seat of Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Manila
The Minor Basilica of San Sebastián is the only all-steel church in Asia.<ref name="whl">{{Cite web |title=World Heritage: San Sebastian Church |url=https://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/518/ |access-date=April 20, 2008 |website=Tentative List for the World Heritage List |publisher=UNESCO}}</ref>
San Agustín Church in Intramuros, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Binondo Church serves the Roman Catholic Chinese community
Quiapo Church, home of the iconic Black Nazarene whose Traslacion feast is celebrated every January 9
Grand Marian Procession in Intramuros
alt=|Sto. Niño de Pandacan Church before the 2020 fire

The officially defined metropolitan area, called Metro Manila, the "capital region" of the Philippines, includes the much larger Quezon City and the Makati Central Business District.

Aerial view of the Guadalupe ruins, 1932


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Aerial view of the Guadalupe ruins, 1932
Ayala Avenue (1982)
Map of Makati; note that Makati controls strips of land of Barangay Post Proper Northside and Post Proper Southside, Makati.
Ayala Triangle area
The University of Makati
University of Makati Stadium.
The Magallanes Interchange

Makati, officially the City of Makati (Lungsod ng Makati), is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the National Capital Region of the Philippines.


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Archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

Archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

Philip II of Spain
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the oldest known writing found in the Philippines
Manila (1847)
Filipino Ilustrados in Spain formed the Propaganda Movement. Photographed in 1890.
General Douglas MacArthur coming ashore during the Battle of Leyte on October 20, 1944
The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century.
Topography of the Philippines
Mayon is an active stratovolcano, located in the south of the island of Luzon
The Philippine Eagle is endemic to the forests of the country.
A male Celestial monarch seen in Bislig.
Köppen climate classification of the Philippines
Malacañan Palace is the official residence of the president of the Philippines.
President Rodrigo Duterte and U.S. President Donald Trump discuss matters during a bilateral meeting in November 2017.
BRP Jose Rizal (FF-150) is the lead ship of her class of guided missile frigates of the Philippine Navy
Administrative map of the Philippines
Dominant ethnic groups by province
A map that shows all ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines.
The historical Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte. Declared as a National Cultural Treasure by the Philippine government in 1973 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the collective group of Baroque Churches of the Philippines in 1993.
St. Luke's Medical Center in Taguig.
Founded in 1611, the University of Santo Tomas is the oldest extant university in Asia.
Real GPD per capita development of the Philippines
A proportional representation of Philippines exports, 2019
Filipinos planting rice. Agriculture employs 23% of the Filipino workforce.
Headquarters of the International Rice Research Institute in Los Baños, Laguna.
Limestone cliffs of El Nido, Palawan.
An LRT Line 2 train at Santolan station.
Ambuklao Dam in Bokod, Benguet.
A participant of the Ati-Atihan Festival.
A statue in Iriga City commemorating the mano po gesture
Colonial houses in Vigan.
Cariñosa, a Hispanic era dance for traditional Filipino courtship.
José Rizal is a pioneer of Philippine Revolution through his literary works.
Philippines men's national basketball team celebrating the 2015 Southeast Asian Games championship.

Manila is the country's capital, while the largest city is Quezon City; both lie within the urban area of Metro Manila.


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Province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon region in Luzon.

Province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon region in Luzon.

The old Capitol in Pasig, which was the seat of government for the province until the new capitol building in Antipolo was completed
Map of Manila province
The ruins of the first provincial capitol in Santa Rosa, Pasig that was the seat of government for the province until 1950
The new provincial capitol in Antipolo

Rizal is bordered by Metro Manila to the west, Bulacan to the north, Quezon to the east and Laguna to the southeast.


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Limited-access circumferential highway around Manila, the capital city of the Philippines.

Limited-access circumferential highway around Manila, the capital city of the Philippines.

The northern terminus of EDSA at the Bonifacio Monument in Caloocan.
EDSA Extension looking west towards SM Mall of Asia
Heavy traffic on EDSA as seen from Boni station, looking south towards Guadalupe
NLEX-bound EDSA as seen from Roosevelt Avenue overpass, prior to the extension of the LRT Line 1 (LRT-1) of the Manila Light Rail Transit System
EDSA-Aurora Underpass in Quezon City
The bridge connecting LRT-1's EDSA and MRT-3's Taft Avenue stations.

It passes through 6 of Metro Manila's 17 local government units or cities, namely, from north to south, Caloocan, Quezon City, San Juan, Mandaluyong, Makati, and Pasay.


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The map of territory once said to be under the rule of Namayan, which includes Pasay, in modern Metro Manila
Pasay beach, Manila, oil on board by Fabián de la Rosa, 1927
Aerial view of Pasay, circa 1930s
Zones and barangays of Pasay
Headquarters of Philippine Airlines
Pasay City Hall
View of Roxas Boulevard from the Libertad overpass
"Pasay Rotonda", the intersection of EDSA and Taft Avenue
City University of Pasay

Pasay, officially known as the City of Pasay (Lungsod ng Pasay ), is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the National Capital Region of the Philippines.


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The town of Parañaque around 1898, during the American occupation
A burning building along Taft Avenue which was hit during the Japanese air raid in Parañaque, December 13, 1941.
Parañaque from air.
NAIA Terminal 1
Dr. Santos Avenue Avenue near SLEX at the city boundary of Parañaque. Formerly called Sucat Road, the avenue functions as Parañaque's main thoroughfare.

Parañaque, officially known as the City of Parañaque (Lungsod ng Parañaque, ), is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the National Capital Region of the Philippines.


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Old center of Pasig near the Pasig Cathedral
A section of the Bitukang Manok
Aerial view of Pasig, circa 1933
Bahay na Tisa (Tech House), the oldest existing bahay na bato in Pasig, was built in the 1850s.
Remains of the American-era capitol building, when Pasig was the capital of Rizal province
Guanio residence, the site of the "Nagsabado sa Pasig"
Plaza Rizal in the poblacion area. On the center is Concepción Mansion, while on the far right is Pasig Cathedral.
Political map of Pasig
Pasig public market
Ortigas Center
Pasig City Hall
Dr. Sixto Antonio Avenue is a major north–south road in Pasig.
Rizal High School

Pasig, officially known as the City of Pasig (Lungsod ng Pasig), is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the National Capital Region of the Philippines.


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The Mandaluyong city skyline excluding Ortigas Center.
TV5 Media Center
Shaw Boulevard, one of the major thoroughfares in the city
St. Benilde Gymnasium in La Salle Green Hills
Intersection of EDSA and Shaw Boulevard
Mandaluyong City Hall

Mandaluyong, officially known as the City of Mandaluyong (Lungsod ng Mandaluyong), is a 1st class highly urbanized city in the National Capital Region of the Philippines.