Metropolitan Board of Works

Board of WorksThe Metropolismetropolitan area of LondonGeorge VulliamyLondon Metropolitan Board of WorksMetropolismetropolitanmetropolitan area
The Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW) was the principal instrument of London-wide government from December 1855 until the establishment of the London County Council in March 1889.wikipedia
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London County Council

LCCCounty CouncilLondon
The Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW) was the principal instrument of London-wide government from December 1855 until the establishment of the London County Council in March 1889.
From 1855 the Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW) had certain powers across the metropolis, but it was appointed rather than elected.

Middlesex

County of MiddlesexMiddlesex, EnglandMiddlesex County
This meant that three counties had authority over the metropolitan area: Middlesex covered the area north of the Thames and west of the River Lea, Surrey the area to the south and south-west, and Kent the far south east.
From 1855 the southeast was administered, with sections of Kent and Surrey, as part of the area of the Metropolitan Board of Works.

London

London, EnglandLondon, United KingdomLondon, UK
The Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW) was the principal instrument of London-wide government from December 1855 until the establishment of the London County Council in March 1889.
The Metropolitan Board of Works oversaw infrastructure expansion in the capital and some of the surrounding counties; it was abolished in 1889 when the London County Council was created out of those areas of the counties surrounding the capital.

Metropolis Management Act 1855

DistrictMetropolis Management Actmetropolitan area
In order to have a local body to coordinate local work to plan London, Parliament passed the Metropolis Management Act 1855 which created the Metropolitan Board of Works (which also took over the responsibilities of the short-lived Metropolitan Buildings Office and Metropolitan Commission of Sewers, established in 1845 and 1848 respectively).
c.120) was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that created the Metropolitan Board of Works, a London-wide body to co-ordinate the construction of the city's infrastructure.

Metropolitan Buildings Office

Metropolitan Building ActLondon Building Act 1844Metropolitan Buildings Act 1844
In order to have a local body to coordinate local work to plan London, Parliament passed the Metropolis Management Act 1855 which created the Metropolitan Board of Works (which also took over the responsibilities of the short-lived Metropolitan Buildings Office and Metropolitan Commission of Sewers, established in 1845 and 1848 respectively).
In 1855 the assets, powers and responsibilities of the office passed to the Metropolitan Board of Works.

Royal Commission on the City of London

In 1854 the Royal Commission on the City of London proposed to divide London into seven boroughs, each represented on a Metropolitan Board of Works.
The findings of the report led to the creation of the Metropolitan Board of Works by the Metropolis Management Act 1855.

Bills of mortality

Mortality, bill oftables of mortality
It covered the area designated London in the 1851 census (an enlarged variant of the Bills of mortality area fixed in 1726), the alternative proposals had been that it should cover the Metropolitan Police District, the area that coal tax was levied or the area used for the Metropolitan Interments Act 1852.
This area became the district of the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1855, the County of London in 1889 and Inner London in 1965.

Metropolitan Commission of Sewers

Metropolitan Commission of Sewers Act 1848Metropolitan Commissioners of Sewers Act 1848sewer commissioners
In order to have a local body to coordinate local work to plan London, Parliament passed the Metropolis Management Act 1855 which created the Metropolitan Board of Works (which also took over the responsibilities of the short-lived Metropolitan Buildings Office and Metropolitan Commission of Sewers, established in 1845 and 1848 respectively).
It was a precursor of the Metropolitan Board of Works.

John Thwaites (British politician)

John ThwaitesSir John Thwaites
The first nominations took place in December and the Board met first on 22 December 1855 where John Thwaites was elected as Chairman.
Sir John Thwaites (24 May 1815 – 8 August 1870) was a British politician who was the first Chairman of the Metropolitan Board of Works and therefore the first Leader of local government in London.

Joseph Bazalgette

Sir Joseph BazalgetteSir Joseph William BazalgetteBazalegette
A large part of the work of the MBW was under the charge of the Chief Engineer, Joseph Bazalgette, previously engineer with the Metropolitan Commission of Sewers.
As chief engineer of London's Metropolitan Board of Works his major achievement was the creation (in response to the Great Stink of 1858) of a sewer network for central London which was instrumental in relieving the city from cholera epidemics, while beginning the cleansing of the River Thames.

Metropolitan Police District

metropolisMPDMPS district
It covered the area designated London in the 1851 census (an enlarged variant of the Bills of mortality area fixed in 1726), the alternative proposals had been that it should cover the Metropolitan Police District, the area that coal tax was levied or the area used for the Metropolitan Interments Act 1852.

London sewerage system

sewerage systemsewer systemLondon Brick Sewer
A notable achievement of the Board was the creation of the core London sewerage system, including 75 miles (120 km) of main and 1000 miles (1650 km) of street sewers, which solved the problem.
Joseph Bazalgette, a civil engineer and Chief Engineer of the Metropolitan Board of Works, was given responsibility for the work.

Charing Cross Road

Charing CrossCharing Cross Rd
The most important streets built were Charing Cross Road, Garrick Street, Northumberland Avenue, Shaftesbury Avenue, and Southwark Street.
Charing Cross Road was therefore developed, in conjunction with Shaftesbury Avenue, by the Metropolitan Board of Works under an 1877 Act of Parliament.

Great Stink

The Great StinkGreat Stink of 1858Great Stink' of 1858
In 1855 and 1858 there were especially bad summers with the latter being known as "The Great Stink".
The Metropolis Management Act 1855 replaced the commission with the Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW), which took control of the sewers.

Shaftesbury Avenue

Shaftsbury Avenue
The most important streets built were Charing Cross Road, Garrick Street, Northumberland Avenue, Shaftesbury Avenue, and Southwark Street.
Shaftesbury Avenue was built between 1877 and 1886 by the architect George Vulliamy and the engineer Sir Joseph Bazalgette, to provide a north-south traffic artery through the crowded districts of St. Giles and Soho.

Waterloo Bridge

Waterloo
It also rebuilt Putney Bridge, Battersea Bridge, Waterloo Bridge and Hammersmith Bridge.
The bridge was nationalised in 1878 and placed under the control of the Metropolitan Board of Works, which removed the toll from it.

Northumberland Avenue

The most important streets built were Charing Cross Road, Garrick Street, Northumberland Avenue, Shaftesbury Avenue, and Southwark Street.
In June 1874, the whole of Northumberland House was purchased by the Metropolitan Board of Works and demolished to form Northumberland Avenue, which would accommodate hotels.

Southwark Park

Southwark
It first opened in 1869 by the Metropolitan Board of Works as one of its first parks.

Robert Pearsall (architect)

Robert Pearsall
Architects employed by the MBW who specialised in fire stations included Robert Pearsall, responsible for Fulham Fire Station and Woolwich Fire Station.

Streatham Common

Streatham
The board also purchased the manorial rights in Streatham Common and Tooting Common.
The Common was conveyed to the Metropolitan Board of Works and was subsequently administered by the London County Council and Greater London Council before maintenance responsibility passed to the London Borough of Lambeth in 1971.

Hampstead Heath

Hampstead Heath ConstabularyKenwoodVale of Health
The main part of the heath was acquired for the people by the Metropolitan Board of Works.

Southwark Street

The most important streets built were Charing Cross Road, Garrick Street, Northumberland Avenue, Shaftesbury Avenue, and Southwark Street.
In April 1856, the St Saviour's District Board petitioned the Metropolitan Board of Works to create a new street to run between the South Eastern Railway terminus at London Bridge station and the West End.

Coal-tax post

coal taxcoal tax postcoal duties
It covered the area designated London in the 1851 census (an enlarged variant of the Bills of mortality area fixed in 1726), the alternative proposals had been that it should cover the Metropolitan Police District, the area that coal tax was levied or the area used for the Metropolitan Interments Act 1852.
After creation of the Metropolitan Board of Works (MBW) in 1855 the major part of duties went to the Board and were used to pay for the creation of a unified sewerage system in London and the construction of the Thames embankments.

Frederick Marrable

Frederick
It then built its own headquarters at Spring Gardens (which became a metonym for the MBW), designed by its first chief architect Frederick Marrable and built in an Italianate style in 1859.
Frederick Marrable (January 1819 – 22 June 1872) was a British architect who was notable as the first Chief Architect for the Metropolitan Board of Works, responsible for designing its headquarters.

Putney Bridge

Putney
It also rebuilt Putney Bridge, Battersea Bridge, Waterloo Bridge and Hammersmith Bridge.
The Metropolitan Board of Works purchased the bridge in 1879, discontinued the tolls in 1880, and set about its replacement.