Clockwise from top left: Miguel Hidalgo, José María Morelos, Trigarante Army in Mexico City, Mural of independence by O'Gorman, Embrace of Acatempan between Iturbide and Guerrero
Cristóbal de Villalpando, 1695. View of the Plaza Mayor of Mexico City, showing damage of the viceroy's palace by the 1692 rioters (top right).
Depiction of the founding myth of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Codex Mendoza. The eagle perched on a cactus has been incorporated into the Mexican flag since its independence, and was a motif in colonial-era art.
Viceroy José de Iturrigaray, overthrown in a coup d'état by peninsular conspirators in 1808
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, by José Clemente Orozco, Jalisco Governmental Palace, Guadalajara
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan with first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
Banner with the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe carried by Hidalgo and his insurgent militia. Liberal bishop-elect Manuel Abad y Queipo denounced the insurgents' use of her image as a sacrilege.
Cultivation of maize, shown in the Florentine Codex (1576) drawn by an indigenous scribe, with text in Nahuatl on this folio
1810–11 Towns on the Route of Hidalgo's campaign and the regions where the insurgency took hold.
1945 mural by Diego Rivera depicting the view from the Tlatelolco markets into Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the largest city in the Americas at the time
The corner of the Alhóndiga de Granaditas in Guanajuato where insurgents massacred all the Spaniards who went thinking it was a safe refuge. After his execution, Hidalgo's head hung on one corner.
Hernán Cortés and his multilingual cultural translator, Doña Marina ("Malinche"), meeting Moctezuma II from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, a document created ca. 1550 by the Tlaxcalans to remind the Spanish of their loyalty and the importance of Tlaxcala during the conquest of the Aztec Empire.
On 28 September 1810, Hidalgo led the siege of the Alhóndiga de Granaditas in Guanajuato
Smallpox depicted by an indigenous artist in the 1576 Florentine Codex
Father José María Morelos
View of the Plaza Mayor (today Zócalo) in Mexico City (ca. 1695) by Cristóbal de Villalpando
Official seal of the Supreme Junta
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
Congress of Chilpancingo the day of the signing of Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America. Morelos is standing at far right, with the white kerchief
Silver peso mined and minted in colonial Mexico, which became a global currency
Félix María Calleja, royalist military commander and then viceroy of New Spain
Viceroyalty of New Spain following the signing of the 1819 Adams-Onís Treaty
Mariano Matamoros.
Luis de Mena, Virgin of Guadalupe and castas, showing race mixture and hierarchy as well as fruits of the realm, ca. 1750
Vicente Guerrero, mixed-race leader of the insurgency in southern Mexico
Father Hidalgo used this banner of the Virgin of Guadalupe as their emblem
Abrazo de Acatempan, Guerrero and Iturbide form an alliance, 1821.
Siege of the Alhondiga de Granaditas, Guanajuato, 28 Sept. 1810.
Flag of the Army of the Three Guarantees
Flag of the Army of the Three Guarantees, the force formed by ex-royalist Iturbide and insurgent Vicente Guerrero in February 1821
A representation of mestizos in a "Caste Painting" from the colonial era.
Flag of the First Mexican Empire under Agustín I, 1822-23, with the eagle wearing a crown
Oil painting of Agustín de Iturbide
Flag of the First Republic of Mexico, with the eagle without a crown, signaling the new republic
Flag of the Mexican Empire of Iturbide, the template for the modern Mexican flag with the eagle perched on a cactus. The crown on the eagle's head symbolizes monarchy in Mexico.
General Antonio López de Santa Anna
Portrait of Liberal President Benito Juárez
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian, 19 June 1867. Gen. Tomás Mejía, left, Maximiian, center, Gen. Miguel Miramón, right. Painting by Édouard Manet 1868.
President Porfirio Díaz linking himself to independence hero Hidalgo and liberal hero Juárez September 1910.
Francisco I. Madero, who challenged Díaz in the fraudulent 1910 election and was elected president when Díaz was forced to resign in May 1911.
Revolutionary Generals Pancho Villa (left) and Emiliano Zapata (right)
General Álvaro Obregón (far left) shown with a cigar in his left hand and his right arm missing, center with the white beard is First Chief Venustiano Carranza
Logo of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which incorporates the colors of the Mexican flag
Pemex, the national oil company created in 1938 for reasons of economic nationalism; it continues to provide major revenues for the government
NAFTA signing ceremony, October 1992. From left to right: (standing) President Carlos Salinas de Gortari (Mexico), President George H. W. Bush (U.S.), and Prime Minister Brian Mulroney (Canada)
Zapatista leader Comandanta Ramona
Vicente Fox and his opposition National Action Party won the 2000 general election, ending one-party rule.
Topographic map of Mexico
Mexico map of Köppen climate classification
Mexican wolf
Gray whale
The National Palace on the east side of Plaza de la Constitución or Zócalo, the main square of Mexico City; it was the residence of viceroys and Presidents of Mexico and now the seat of the Mexican government.
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
Alfonso García Robles diplomat who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982
A Mexican Navy Eurocopter
Demonstration on 26 September 2015, in the first anniversary of the disappearance of the 43 students in the Mexican town of Iguala
The territorial evolution of Mexico after independence: secession of Central America (purple), Chiapas annexed from Guatemala (blue), losses to the U.S. (red, white and orange) and the reannexation of the Republic of Yucatán (red)
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.
Historical GDP per capita development of Mexico
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Telmex Tower, Mexico City.
The Central Eólica Sureste I, Fase II in Oaxaca. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the region of Mexico with the highest capacity for wind energy. (see Tehuantepecer, a strong wind that affects the region)
Guillermo Haro Observatory in Cananea, Sonora.
Cancun and the Riviera Maya is the most visited region in Latin America
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
El Cajon Dam
Mexican states by population density
Las castas. Casta painting showing 16 racial groupings. Anonymous, 18th century, oil on canvas, 148×104 cm, Museo Nacional del Virreinato, Tepotzotlán, Mexico.
Colonial caste painting of Mexican family in Viceroyalty of New Spain
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1981 Miguel de Cervantes Prize, the 1982 Neustadt International Prize for Literature, and the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Our Lady of Guadalupe, patron saint of Mexico. This painting of her at the Basilica of Guadalupe is among her most notable depictions. Scientists debate if it should be dated 1531, the year of the first apparition was said to appear, or the 1550s.
Cathedral of Zacatecas
General Hospital of Mexico in Mexico City.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Olga Sánchez Cordero, Minister of the Interior (Gobernacion) in President López Obrador's cabinet
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Mexican Muralism. A cultural expression starting in the 1920s created by a group of Mexican painters after the Mexican Revolution.
Monument to Cuauhtémoc, Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City (1887)
Teotihuacán, State of Mexico
The colonial-era Cathedral Mexico City dominates one side of the main square of the capital
Museo Soumaya in Mexico City building
David Alfaro Siqueiros by Héctor García Cobo at Lecumberri prison, Mexico City, 1960.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, "The Tenth Muse." Posthmous portrait Juan Cabrera
Actress Dolores del Río, Hollywood star in the 1920s and 1930s and prominent figure of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema in the 1940s and 1950s
Mole sauce, which has dozens of varieties across the Republic, is seen as a symbol of Mexicanidad and is considered Mexico's national dish.
Portrait of composer Carlos Chávez by Carl van Vechten
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
Logo for the 1968 Mexico Olympics
Plaque in Mexico City commemorating Lucha libre as an intangible cultural heritage
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan, the first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
Temple of Kukulcán (El Castillo) in the maya city of Chichen Itza
Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his Troops (1848)
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
Map of the First Mexican Empire
Students in a burned bus during the protests of 1968
Pico de Orizaba, the highest mountain in Mexico
Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Congress of Mexico
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
Headquarters of the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs
Mexican Federal Police celebration.
Mexico City, the financial center of Mexico
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Large Millimeter Telescope in Puebla.
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
Lake Chapala is Mexico's largest freshwater lake.
Regional variation of ancestry according to a study made by Ruiz-Linares in 2014, each dot represents a volunteer, with most coming from south Mexico and Mexico City.
Map for the year 2000 of the indigenous languages of Mexico having more than 100,000 speakers.
Mexico–United States barrier between San Diego's border patrol offices in California, USA (left) and Tijuana, Mexico (right)
Secretary of Health, Mexico City, Mexico.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Frida Kahlo, the most famous woman artist in Mexican history.
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
El Santo, one of the most famous and iconic Mexican luchadores

The Mexican War of Independence (Guerra de Independencia de México, 16 September 1810 – 27 September 1821) was an armed conflict and political process resulting in Mexico's independence from Spain.

- Mexican War of Independence

The colonial order came to an end in the early nineteenth century with the War of Independence against Spain, started in 1810 in the context of Napoleon's invasion of Spain, and successfully concluded in 1821.

- Mexico

18 related topics


New Spain

Integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and having its capital in Mexico City.

Integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and having its capital in Mexico City.

Giacomo Gastaldi's 1548 map of New Spain, Nueva Hispania Tabula Nova
Spanish historical presence, claimed territories, and expeditions in North America.
In 1794.
New Spain in 1819 with the boundaries established at the Adams–Onís Treaty
Hernán Cortés and La Malinche meet the emperor Moctezuma II in Tenochtitlán, November 8, 1519.
Evangelization of Mexico
An auto-da-fé in New Spain, 18th century
Girolamo Ruscelli's 1561 map of New Spain, Nueva Hispania Tabula Nova
Vázquez de Coronado Sets Out to the North (1540), by Frederic Remington, oil on canvas, 1905
General locations of the Spanish Presidios built in the 1660s, officered by Spaniards and manned by personnel from Mexico and Peru that defended the native Filipino settlements from Muslim, Wokou, Dutch and English attacks.
White represents the route of the Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the flota in the Atlantic; blue represents Portuguese routes.
Viceroy don Antonio de Mendoza and Tlaxcalan Indians battle with the Caxcanes in the Mixtón war, 1541–42 in Nueva Galicia.
José de Gálvez, 1st Marquess of Sonora, Visitador in New Spain, who initiated major reforms
Spanish and Portuguese empires in 1790.
18th-century soldado de cuera in colonial Mexico
Bernardo de Gálvez and his army at the Siege of Pensacola in 1781.
Spanish territorial claims in the northern West Coast of North America, 18th century
On September 28, 1810, Miguel Hidalgo led the siege of the Alhóndiga de Granaditas in Guanajuato
Territories of the Viceroyalty of New Spain which became parts of the United States, Mexico, and other nations by 1900.
Silver coin minted in New Spain. Silver was its most important export, starting in the 16th century. '''8 reales Carlos III - 1778
Indigenous man collecting cochineal with a deer tail by José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez (1777). Cochineal was New Spain's most important export product after silver and its production was almost exclusively in the hands of indigenous cultivators
Arrieros in Mexico. Mules were the main way cargo was moved overland, engraving by Carl Nebel
Pedro de Alvarado, one of the first negotiators to hold office in Hibueras where he founded the towns of San Pedro Sula and Guatemala.
View of the Plaza Mayor of Mexico City, 1695 by Cristóbal de Villalpando
Indian Wedding and Flying Pole, circa 1690
New Spain after the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 (not including the island territories of the Pacific Ocean).
San Miguel chapel in New Mexico.
Church of Santo Domingo, Oaxaca City
Arco de Santa Catalina, Antigua Guatemala
18th century golden altar piece insede the Tegucigalpa cathedral.
Nahua depiction of smallpox, Book XII on the conquest of Mexico in the Florentine Codex (1576)
Español and Mulata with their Morisco children
Mestizo and India with their Coyote children
Carlos Francisco de Croix, 1st Marquess of Croix, Viceroy of New Spain (1766–1771)
Antonio María de Bucareli, Viceroy of New Spain
Juan Vicente de Güemes, 2nd Count of Revillagigedo, Viceroy of New Spain (1789–1794)

Its jurisdiction comprised a huge area that included what are now Mexico, much of the Southwestern U.S. and California in North America, Central America, northern parts of South America, and several territorial Pacific Ocean archipelagos, the largest and most important being the Philippine Islands.

Conspiracies of American-born Spaniards sought to take power, leading to the Mexican War of Independence, 1810-1821.


Two figures from the Xochipala archeological site
Santa Prisca church in Taxco
Hasekura Tsunenaga, the samurai who led the Japanese delegation to Mexico
Vicente Guerrero
Juan Álvarez
Ignacio Manuel Altamirano, born in Tixtla (Guerrero), liberal politician, writer
Zapatistas in El Jilguero
Acapulco Bay
Drawing of a Teopantecuanitlan monolith
Painting 1 of the Caves of Juxtlahuaca.
Entering the Cacahuamilpa Caves
Browsing at a silver shop in Taxco
Guerrero handcraft: two-faced mask, carved in wood
Mezcala or Balsas River in Guerrero
La Roqueta Island off Acapulco

Guerrero, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Guerrero (Estado Libre y Soberano de Guerrero), is one of the 32 states that comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

The state was named after Vicente Guerrero, one of the most prominent leaders in the Mexican War of Independence and the second President of Mexico.

Plan of Iguala

Tricolor flag of the Army of the Three Guarantees

The Plan of Iguala, also known as The Plan of the Three Guarantees ("Plan Trigarante") or Act of Independence of North America, was a revolutionary proclamation promulgated on 24 February 1821, in the final stage of the Mexican War of Independence from Spain.

The Plan stated that Mexico was to become a constitutional monarchy, whose sole official religion would be Roman Catholicism, in which the Peninsulares and Creoles of Mexico would enjoy equal political and social rights.

First Mexican Empire

Coat of arms of the First Mexican Empire.

The Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano, ) was a constitutional monarchy, the first independent government of Mexico and the only former colony of the Spanish Empire to establish a monarchy after independence.

A statue of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in front of the church in Dolores Hidalgo, Guanajuato

Cry of Dolores

A statue of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in front of the church in Dolores Hidalgo, Guanajuato
Close-up of balcony where the president of Mexico gives the annual 'Grito de Dolores' on Independence Day
Image extracted from the book by Vicente Riva Palacio, Julio Zárate (1880) "México a través de los siglos" Tomo III: "La Guerra de Independencia" (1808 - 1821).
President Enrique Peña Nieto at the National Palace balcony during the Grito Mexico, D.F., 15 September 2013
Felipe Calderón Hinojosa gives the Grito on the main balcony at the National Palace during the bicentennial, in Mexico City the night of 15 September of 2010.
Grito de Dolores, 16 September 1810
Our Lady of Sorrows Parish in Dolores Hidalgo, Guanajuato, Mexico
Municipal president giving the "grito" of "¡Viva México!" at the commencement of Independence Day festivities at 11 pm on 16 September 2008 in Ixmiquilpan, Hidalgo

The Cry of Dolores (Grito de Dolores) occurred in Dolores, Mexico, on 16 September 1810, when Roman Catholic priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla rang his church bell and gave the call to arms that triggered the Mexican War of Independence.

There are also celebrations in schools throughout Mexico, and in these cases whenever the bell ringing is reenacted the school or university head utters the traditional words.


Monument to Gaspar Yanga, founder of the first free town of escaped slaves in North America. The settlement is now known as Yanga, Veracruz.
Parts of the fort complex at San Juan de Ulúa were built by enslaved West Africans and indigenous Mexicans. In 2017, the fort and the town of Yanga were declared "Sites of Memory" by INAH and UNESCO as part of The Slave Route Project.
Spanish conquistadors led by Hernán Cortés. The Spaniards are accompanied by native porters, Malinche and a black man who may be Juan Garrido. Codex Azcatitlan.
Casta painting of a Spaniard, a Negra and a Mulatto José de Alcíbar. 18th c.
Artist Ramiro Victor Paz Jimenez demonstrating work at the Museo de las Culturas Afromestizas in Cuajinicuilapa, Guerrero
The parish church of Santa María la Redonda, which was associated with one of the fourteen known confraternities in Mexico City. Called the Coronación de Cristo y San Benito de Palermo, the confraternity later met at the Convent of San Francisco.
Español (Spaniard) + Negra (black women), Mulata. Miguel Cabrera. Mexico 1763
Lupita Nyong'o, Kenyan-Mexican actress.
Afromestiza girls in Punta Maldonado, Cuajinicuilapa, Guerrero.
Girl from Punta Maldonado, Guerrero.
Samo pop singer, was part of the Camila band
Castas painting showing the various race combinations.
Español, Negra, Mulatta José Joaquín Magón.
From Español and Negra, Mulato. Anon. 18th c. Mexico.
De Español y Mulata, Morisca. Anon. 18th c. Mexico.
Lobo y Mestiza, Cambujo. Anon. 18th c.
De Chino y Mulata, Alvarazada. Anon. 18th c.
De Mestizo y Albarazada, Barsina. Anon. 18th c.
From Mulata and Español, Morisca, Juan Patricio Morlete Ruiz. 18th c. Mexico.
"From male Spaniard and Mulatta: Morisca". Miguel Cabrera, 18th c. Mexico.
Las castas mexicanas. Ignacio Maria Barreda. 1777.
Performance of the Danza de los Diablos, associated with the Afro-Mexican population of the Costa Chica.
Musicians accompanying the dancers. Among the instruments used are the quijada and bote.
An Afromestizo from the coast of Oaxaca holding a Pelota mixteca.
Girls in Punta Maldonado, Cuajinicuilapa, Guerrero.
Woman getting ready for the Carnival in Coyolillo, Actopan, Veracruz.

Afro-Mexicans (afromexicanos), also known as Black Mexicans (mexicanos negros), are Mexicans who have heritage from Sub-Saharan Africa and identify as such.

The Mexican nationalist movement, which fueled the Mexican War of Independence from 1810 to 1821, was predicated on the ideological notion that Mexico possessed a unique cultural tradition – a notion which was denied by European imperial elites who asserted that Mexico lacked any basis for nationhood – and resulted in the purposeful erasure of a Black presence from Mexico's history.


A 1628 relief atlas of Acapulco Bay
Codex Tudela: "Acapulco's Yope Indian, at the South Sea"
View of Acapulco, 1879, oil painting by Carl Saltzmann
Hasekura Tsunenaga; the Japanese samurai who led the delegation to Mexico
Puerto Marqués
The Bay of Acapulco from the top of Palma Sola
Acapulco skyline
Fountain of the Huntress Diana
Acapulco International Airport
Caleta Beach
Acapulco Bay
Papagayo Park
Acapulco beach with a Bandera monumental in the background
La Quebrada Cliff Divers
Tlacopanocha, or Tlaco de Panocha, is one of the city's main beaches
Cruise liner at the International Transatlantic Port Lieutenant José Azueta
Acapulco's Miguel Alemán Coastal Avenue
Hands of Brotherhood and cross, Peace Ecumenical Chapel
The Manila-Acapulco Galleon Memorial at Plaza Mexico in Intramuros, Manila

Acapulco de Juárez, commonly called Acapulco ( , also , Acapolco), is a city and major seaport in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, 380 km south of Mexico City.

However, not long after, the Mexican War of Independence began.


Pico de Orizaba
Jamapa River
Mountain formation in the south of the state
Shore of Lake Catemaco
Olmec stone head
Playa Villa Rica, where the Spanish built the first city of Veracruz
Statue of rebel leader Yanga
Depiction of the Battle of Veracruz during the Mexican–American War
Vanilla beans
Petroleum tower in Poza Rica
A portion of the port of Veracruz
Huachinango (red snapper) a la Veracruzana
The Olmec San Martin Pajapan Monument 1 on exhibit in the Museum of Anthropology in Xalapa
Mural depicting the history of Papantla in the town square by Teodoro Cano García
Veracruz lighthouse
El Tajín, Niche pyramid

Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave , officially the Free and Sovereign State of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave (Estado Libre y Soberano de Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

During the Mexican War of Independence, there was support for the insurgents in many parts of the state, with skirmishes erupting in various parts as early as 1811.

Treaty of Córdoba

House where the Treaties of Córdoba were signed.

The Treaty of Córdoba established Mexican independence from Spain at the conclusion of the Mexican War of Independence.

It was signed on August 24, 1821 in Córdoba, Veracruz, Mexico.


Street scene with the San Francisco Church.

Iguala, known officially as Iguala de la Independencia, is a historic city located 102 km from the state capital of Chilpancingo, in the Mexican state of Guerrero in southwestern Mexico.

On February 24, the Plan de Iguala had been signed by Agustín de Iturbide and Vicente Guerrero, ending the long Mexican War of Independence.