Depiction of the founding myth of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Codex Mendoza. The eagle perched on a cactus has been incorporated into the Mexican flag since its independence, and was a motif in colonial-era art.
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan with first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
Cultivation of maize, shown in the Florentine Codex (1576) drawn by an indigenous scribe, with text in Nahuatl on this folio
1945 mural by Diego Rivera depicting the view from the Tlatelolco markets into Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the largest city in the Americas at the time
Hernán Cortés and his multilingual cultural translator, Doña Marina ("Malinche"), meeting Moctezuma II from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, a document created ca. 1550 by the Tlaxcalans to remind the Spanish of their loyalty and the importance of Tlaxcala during the conquest of the Aztec Empire.
Smallpox depicted by an indigenous artist in the 1576 Florentine Codex
View of the Plaza Mayor (today Zócalo) in Mexico City (ca. 1695) by Cristóbal de Villalpando
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
Silver peso mined and minted in colonial Mexico, which became a global currency
Viceroyalty of New Spain following the signing of the 1819 Adams-Onís Treaty
Luis de Mena, Virgin of Guadalupe and castas, showing race mixture and hierarchy as well as fruits of the realm, ca. 1750
Father Hidalgo used this banner of the Virgin of Guadalupe as their emblem
Siege of the Alhondiga de Granaditas, Guanajuato, 28 Sept. 1810.
Flag of the Army of the Three Guarantees, the force formed by ex-royalist Iturbide and insurgent Vicente Guerrero in February 1821
Flag of the First Mexican Empire under Agustín I, 1822-23, with the eagle wearing a crown
Flag of the First Republic of Mexico, with the eagle without a crown, signaling the new republic
General Antonio López de Santa Anna
Portrait of Liberal President Benito Juárez
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian, 19 June 1867. Gen. Tomás Mejía, left, Maximiian, center, Gen. Miguel Miramón, right. Painting by Édouard Manet 1868.
President Porfirio Díaz linking himself to independence hero Hidalgo and liberal hero Juárez September 1910.
Francisco I. Madero, who challenged Díaz in the fraudulent 1910 election and was elected president when Díaz was forced to resign in May 1911.
Revolutionary Generals Pancho Villa (left) and Emiliano Zapata (right)
General Álvaro Obregón (far left) shown with a cigar in his left hand and his right arm missing, center with the white beard is First Chief Venustiano Carranza
Logo of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which incorporates the colors of the Mexican flag
Pemex, the national oil company created in 1938 for reasons of economic nationalism; it continues to provide major revenues for the government
NAFTA signing ceremony, October 1992. From left to right: (standing) President Carlos Salinas de Gortari (Mexico), President George H. W. Bush (U.S.), and Prime Minister Brian Mulroney (Canada)
Zapatista leader Comandanta Ramona
Vicente Fox and his opposition National Action Party won the 2000 general election, ending one-party rule.
Topographic map of Mexico
Mexico map of Köppen climate classification
Mexican wolf
Gray whale
The National Palace on the east side of Plaza de la Constitución or Zócalo, the main square of Mexico City; it was the residence of viceroys and Presidents of Mexico and now the seat of the Mexican government.
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
Alfonso García Robles diplomat who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982
A Mexican Navy Eurocopter
Demonstration on 26 September 2015, in the first anniversary of the disappearance of the 43 students in the Mexican town of Iguala
The territorial evolution of Mexico after independence: secession of Central America (purple), Chiapas annexed from Guatemala (blue), losses to the U.S. (red, white and orange) and the reannexation of the Republic of Yucatán (red)
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.
Historical GDP per capita development of Mexico
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Telmex Tower, Mexico City.
The Central Eólica Sureste I, Fase II in Oaxaca. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the region of Mexico with the highest capacity for wind energy. (see Tehuantepecer, a strong wind that affects the region)
Guillermo Haro Observatory in Cananea, Sonora.
Cancun and the Riviera Maya is the most visited region in Latin America
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
El Cajon Dam
Mexican states by population density
Las castas. Casta painting showing 16 racial groupings. Anonymous, 18th century, oil on canvas, 148×104 cm, Museo Nacional del Virreinato, Tepotzotlán, Mexico.
Colonial caste painting of Mexican family in Viceroyalty of New Spain
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1981 Miguel de Cervantes Prize, the 1982 Neustadt International Prize for Literature, and the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Our Lady of Guadalupe, patron saint of Mexico. This painting of her at the Basilica of Guadalupe is among her most notable depictions. Scientists debate if it should be dated 1531, the year of the first apparition was said to appear, or the 1550s.
Cathedral of Zacatecas
General Hospital of Mexico in Mexico City.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Olga Sánchez Cordero, Minister of the Interior (Gobernacion) in President López Obrador's cabinet
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Mexican Muralism. A cultural expression starting in the 1920s created by a group of Mexican painters after the Mexican Revolution.
Monument to Cuauhtémoc, Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City (1887)
Teotihuacán, State of Mexico
The colonial-era Cathedral Mexico City dominates one side of the main square of the capital
Museo Soumaya in Mexico City building
David Alfaro Siqueiros by Héctor García Cobo at Lecumberri prison, Mexico City, 1960.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, "The Tenth Muse." Posthmous portrait Juan Cabrera
Actress Dolores del Río, Hollywood star in the 1920s and 1930s and prominent figure of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema in the 1940s and 1950s
Mole sauce, which has dozens of varieties across the Republic, is seen as a symbol of Mexicanidad and is considered Mexico's national dish.
Portrait of composer Carlos Chávez by Carl van Vechten
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
Logo for the 1968 Mexico Olympics
Plaque in Mexico City commemorating Lucha libre as an intangible cultural heritage
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan, the first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
Temple of Kukulcán (El Castillo) in the maya city of Chichen Itza
Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his Troops (1848)
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
Map of the First Mexican Empire
Students in a burned bus during the protests of 1968
Pico de Orizaba, the highest mountain in Mexico
Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Congress of Mexico
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
Headquarters of the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs
Mexican Federal Police celebration.
Mexico City, the financial center of Mexico
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Large Millimeter Telescope in Puebla.
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
Lake Chapala is Mexico's largest freshwater lake.
Regional variation of ancestry according to a study made by Ruiz-Linares in 2014, each dot represents a volunteer, with most coming from south Mexico and Mexico City.
Map for the year 2000 of the indigenous languages of Mexico having more than 100,000 speakers.
Mexico–United States barrier between San Diego's border patrol offices in California, USA (left) and Tijuana, Mexico (right)
Secretary of Health, Mexico City, Mexico.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Frida Kahlo, the most famous woman artist in Mexican history.
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
El Santo, one of the most famous and iconic Mexican luchadores

Country in the southern portion of North America.

- Mexico

500 related topics


Puebla (city)

Seat of Puebla Municipality.

Seat of Puebla Municipality.

Writ to recognize Puebla as City signed by Spain's queen Isabella of Portugal, municipal archive
1698 map of the city.
The Biblioteca Palafoxiana, founded by priest Juan de Palafox y Mendoza in 1646, is recognized by UNESCO for being the first public library in the Americas.
Chapel of the Rosario, a masterpiece of Mexican Baroque and once known as the "Eighth Wonder of the World".
Image from the Battle of Puebla in the city center in 1863.
Popocatépetl Volcano
The cable car
International Museum of the Baroque
Cafe at Parque Lineal
Main Theatre
Fort Loreto
Casa de Alfeñique
Church of San Cristóbal
Puebla Cathedral
Church of San Francisco
Nave and altar of the Chapel of the Rosario
Portal Hidalgo and Municipal Palace, in the historic centre
Mole poblano
Chiles en nogada
Cemita with milanesa
Uriarte Talavera workshop facade
Talavera plate by Marcela Lobo
Catarina de San Juan, in a 17th-century woodcut
Cuauhtémoc Stadium
RUTA bus
Puebla-Cholula Tourist Train
Bicycles for rent

It is the capital and largest city of the state of Puebla, and the fourth largest city in Mexico, after Mexico City, Monterrey, and Guadalajara.


State capital of the State of Mexico as well as the seat of the Municipality of Toluca.

State capital of the State of Mexico as well as the seat of the Municipality of Toluca.

Burned Matlatzinca remains of the city of Calixtlahuaca
Tlatoāni Axayacatl, Aztec emperor from 1469 to 1481, under whom the Kingdom of Calixtlahuaca was conquered and annexed by the Aztec empire.
Toluca City Hall.
Nevado de Toluca.
Sun's Lagoon inside the Nevado de Toluca.
Toluca at night.
The Museum of Science and Industry.
Toluca's ITESM campus.
Historic center of the City.
Church of El Carmen.
Foyer of the Toluca Cathedral.
The Toluca Cathedral
The Cosmovitral entrance.
Hombre sol ("Sun man").
'Felipe Villanueva' Concert Hall.
Towers Bicentenary Museum.
Toluca chorizo

With a population of 910,608 as of the 2020 census, Toluca is the fifth most populous city in Mexico.

León, Guanajuato

Santa Fe Industrial Parks
Customs within GTO Inland Port
GPI Railyard
Del Bajío International Airport
Madero street
Main plaza
Church of St. Sebastian at Mártires del 2 de Enero Square
Detail of the façade of the Templo Expiatorio
Municipal Palace
Causeway Arch's Heroes
Wigberto Jiménez Moreno State Library
Transport's Integrated System
Nou Camp (León FC's Stadium)
The Theatre Doblado, located in the historic center

León officially León de Los Aldama (English: Lion of the Aldama) is the most populous city and municipal seat of the municipality of León in the Mexican state of Guanajuato.

Mexico-United States border

Borders of Mexico

Mexico-United States border

Mexico shares international borders with three nations:

Mesoamerica and its cultural areas


Historical region and cultural area in southern North America and most of Central America.

Historical region and cultural area in southern North America and most of Central America.

Mesoamerica and its cultural areas
Ballgame court at Monte Albán
A pair of swinging Remojadas figurines, Classic Veracruz culture, 300 to 900 CE.
Page 9 of the Dresden Codex (from the 1880 Förstermann edition)
El Mirador flourished from 600 BCE to 100 CE, and may have had a population of over 100,000.
Landscape of the Mesoamerican highlands
Yojoa Lake in Honduras.
Tikal is one of the largest archaeological sites, urban centers, and tourist attractions of the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. It is located in the archaeological region of the Petén Basin in what is now northern Guatemala.
Olmec Colossal Head No. 3 1200–900 BCE
Pyramid of the Moon viewed from atop of the Pyramid of the Sun.
Xochicalco, Temple of the Feathered Serpent, 650–900 CE
Detail of the Nunnery Quadrangle at Uxmal, 10th century
Mesoamerica and Central America in the 16th century before Spanish arrival
Examples of the diversity of maize
The Aztec Empire in 1512
K'inich Kan B'alam II, the Classic period ruler of Palenque, as depicted on a stele
Illustration that recreates the structures of the archaeological site of Yarumela or El Chircal in Honduras, this place reflects the Olmec influence that existed in Central America in the pre-classic period.
"Head Variant" or "Patron Gods" glyphs for Maya days
The emblem glyph of Tikal (Mutal)
One of the earliest examples of the Mesoamerican writing systems, the Epi-Olmec script on the La Mojarra Stela 1 dated to around 150 CE. Mesoamerica is one of the five places in the world where writing has developed independently.
The xoloitzcuintle is one of the naguales of the god Quetzalcoatl. In this form, it helps the dead cross the Chicnahuapan, a river that separates the world of the living from the dead.
Zapotec mask of the Bat God.
Ritual human sacrifice portrayed in Codex Laud
A small ceremonial ballcourt at Uaxactun.
Ballgame marker from the classic Lowland Maya site of Chinkultic, Mexico depicting a ballplayer in full gear
The Avenue of the Dead in Teotihuacan, an example of a Mesoamerican settlement planned according to concepts of directionality
Art with ideological and political meaning: depiction of an Aztec tzompantli (skull-rack) from the Ramirez Codex
Holy Spirit Grotto
Joya de Cerén
Casa Blanca
San Andres
Sculpture of "The Acrobat" from Tlatilco
Pyramid of the archaeological site of La Venta 1000-400 BCE
Cuicuilco 800–600 BCE
The partly excavated main structure of San José Mogote 1500–500 BCE
Monte Albán, Building J in the foreground. 200 BCE – 200 CE
Great Goddess of Teotihuacan 200–500 CE
A reconstruction of Guachimontones, flourished from 200 to 400 CE
Temple of the Owl, Dzibanche 200–600 CE
Acanceh, 200–300 CE<ref>{{cite web|url=|title=Mesoweb Articles|}}</ref>
Mask located on the "Temple of the Masks" Kohunlich c. 500 CE
Main palace of Palenque, 7th century AD
K'inich Janaab Pakal I of Palenque 603–683 AD
Copan Stela H commissioned by Uaxaclajuun Ubʼaah Kʼawiil 695–738 AD
Jaina Island type figure (Maya) 650–800 AD
Cacaxtla, Mural depicting the Bird Man 650–900 AD
Chichen Itza, Temple of the Jaguars 900–1000 AD
Governor's Palace rear view and details, 10th century CE, Uxmal
Codz Poop, 7th–10th centuries CE Kabah
Sayil, three-story palace, 600–900 CE
Chichen Itza, "Temple of Three Dintels" 600–1000 CE
Palace of Mitla, Oaxaca 12th century
The Calendar temple of Tlatelolco, 1200 CE
Detail of page 20 from the Codex Zouche-Nuttall, 14–15th century
Pectoral mixtec, Shield of Yanhuitlan.
Aztec sun stone, early 16th century

It extends from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica.

The Aztec Empire in 1519 within Mesoamerica


The Aztec Empire in 1519 within Mesoamerica
Aztec metal axe blades. Prior of the arrival of the European settlers, see: Metallurgy in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica
Large ceramic statue of an Aztec eagle warrior
A page from the Codex Boturini depicting the departure from Aztlán
The Valley of Mexico with the locations of the main city states in 1519
The coronation of Motecuzuma I, Tovar Codex
Ahuitzotl in Codex Mendoza
The meeting of Moctezuma II and Hernán Cortés, with his cultural translator La Malinche, 8 November 1519, as depicted in the Lienzo de Tlaxcala
"The Martyrdom of Cuauhtémoc", (1892) painting by Leandro Izaguirre
Folio from the Codex Mendoza showing a commoner advancing through the ranks by taking captives in war. Each attire can be achieved by taking a certain number of captives.
Jaguar warrior uniform as tax pay method, from Codex Mendoza
Folio from the Codex Mendoza showing the rearing and education of Aztec boys and girls in an ages list, how they were instructed in different types of labor, and how they were harshly punished for misbehavior
Pre-Hispanic "Tepeyac" Road of city-state of Tlatelolco ruins with semi-underground unidentified small and simply built buildings, probably houses (left). Tlatelolco archaeological site.
The maximal extent of the Aztec Empire
Cultivation of maize, the main foodstuff, using simple tools. Florentine Codex
Typical Aztec black on orange ceramic ware
Diorama model of the Aztec market at Tlatelolco
A folio from the Codex Mendoza showing the tribute paid to Tenochtitlan in exotic trade goods by the altepetl of Xoconochco on the Pacific coast
Map of the Island city of Tenochtitlan
Mexico-Tenochtitlan urban standard, Templo Mayor Museum
Great Temple in Historic center of Mexico City
The deity Tezcatlipoca depicted in the Codex Borgia, one of the few extant pre-Hispanic codices
Aztec cosmological drawing with the god Xiuhtecuhtli, the lord of fire in the center and the four corners of the cosmos marked by four trees with associated birds, deities and calendar names, and each direction marked by a dismembered limb of the god Tezcatlipoca. From the Codex Fejérváry-Mayer
The "Aztec calendar stone" or "Sun Stone", a large stone monolith unearthed in 1790 in Mexico City depicting the five eras of Aztec mythical history, with calendric images.
Ritual human sacrifice as shown in the Codex Magliabechiano
Ma (hand) and pach (moss). In Nahuatl, handmoss is synonym of raccoon.
Frame drum huehuetl played by a youth in Aztec-themed costume in Amecameca, State of Mexico, 2010
Page from the pre-Columbian Codex Borgia a folding codex painted on deer skin prepared with gesso
The Coatlicue statue in the National Museum of Anthropology
Aztec feather shield displaying the "stepped fret" design called xicalcoliuhqui in Nahuatl (c. 1520, Landesmuseum Württemberg)
Codex Kingsborough, showing the abuse by Spaniards of a Nahua under the encomienda Spanish labor system
Depiction of smallpox during the Spanish conquest in Book XII of the Florentine Codex
José Sarmiento de Valladares, Count of Moctezuma, viceroy of Mexico
Motecuhzoma II's Teocalli of the Sacred War emblem, this depiction mythologically describes the reason when Aztecs searched an eagle on a cactus hunting a rattlesnake for begin the new city, the founding myth of Mexica.
Tezontle is a material for elements in architectural styles.
Virgin of Guadalupe and the symbols of the founding of Tenochtitlan, Josefus De Ribera Argomanis. (1778)
Monument to Cuauhtémoc, inaugurated 1887 by Porfirio Díaz in Mexico City
Detail of Diego Rivera's mural depicting the Aztec market of Tlatelolco at the Mexican National palace
President Porfirio Díaz in 1910 at the National Museum of Anthropology with the Aztec Calendar Stone. The International Congress of Americanists met in Mexico City in 1910 on the centennial of Mexican independence.
Metro Moctezuma, with a stylized feathered crown as its logo
Las Tortilleras, an 1836 lithograph after a painting by Carl Nebel of women grinding corn and making tortillas.
Chapulines, grasshoppers toasted and dusted with chilis, continue to be a popular delicacy.
Urban standard details; Mexico-Tenochtitlan wall remnants stone bricks in Templo Mayor Museum (Mexico City)
The Mask of Xiuhtecuhtli; 1400–1521; cedrela wood, turquoise, pine resin, mother-of-pearl, conch shell, cinnabar; height: {{convert|16.8|cm|in|abbr=on}}, width: {{convert|15.2|cm|in|abbr=on}}; British Museum (London)
The Mask of Tezcatlipoca; 1400–1521; turquoise, pyrite, pine, lignite, human bone, deer skin, conch shell and agave; height: {{convert|19|cm|in|abbr=on}}, width: {{convert|13.9|cm|in|abbr=on}}, length: {{convert|12.2|cm|in|abbr=on}}; British Museum
Double-headed serpent; 1450–1521; Spanish cedar wood (Cedrela odorata), turquoise, shell, traces of gilding & 2 resins are used as adhesive (pine resin and Bursera resin); height: {{convert|20.3|cm|in|abbr=on}}, width: {{convert|43.3|cm|in|abbr=on}}, depth: {{convert|5.9|cm|in|abbr=on}}; British Museum
Chalchihuite relief of Ehecatl Temple; basalt; overall: {{convert|31.4|x|33.82|cm|in|abbr=on}}; discovered in August 2005 during repairs on the Mexico City Cathedral's floor; Ehecatl Temple in Cathedral archeological site (Mexico City)
Page 12 of the Codex Borbonicus, (in the big square): Tezcatlipoca (night and fate) and Quetzalcoatl (feathered serpent); before 1500; bast fiber paper; height: {{convert|38|cm|in|abbr=on}}, length of the full manuscript: {{convert|142|cm|in|abbr=on}}; Bibliothèque de l'Assemblée nationale (Paris)
Aztec calendar stone; 1502–1521; basalt; diameter: {{convert|3.58|m|ft|abbr=on}}; thick: {{convert|98|cm|in|abbr=on}}; discovered on 17 December 1790 during repairs on the Mexico City Cathedral; National Museum of Anthropology (Mexico City)
Underground Great Temple's Chacmool statue; 1440–1469; painted earthenware; length: {{convert|1.26|m|ft|abbr=on}}; Templo Mayor (Mexico City)
Tlāloc effigy vessel; 1440–1469; painted earthenware; height: {{convert|35|cm|in|abbr=on}}; Templo Mayor Museum (Mexico City)
Kneeling female figure; 15th–early 16th century; painted stone; overall: {{convert|54.61|x|26.67|cm|in|abbr=on}}; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Frog-shaped necklace ornaments; 15th–early 16th century; gold; height: {{convert|2.1|cm|in|abbr=on}}; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)

The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.

The Maya area within Mesoamerica

Maya civilization

Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and highly developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.

Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its logosyllabic script—the most sophisticated and highly developed writing system in pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.

The Maya area within Mesoamerica
Remains in Joya de Cerén, a Classic-era settlement in El Salvador buried under volcanic ash around 600 AD. Its preservation has greatly helped in the study of everyday life in a Maya farming community.
Maya area
Stela D from Quiriguá, representing king Kʼakʼ Tiliw Chan Yopaat
Calakmul was one of the most important Classic period cities.
Chichen Itza was the most important city in the northern Maya region.
Zaculeu was capital of the Postclassic Mam kingdom in the Guatemalan Highlands.
Mayapan was an important Postclassic city in the northern Yucatán Peninsula.
Page from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala showing the Spanish conquest of Iximche, known as Cuahtemallan in the Nahuatl language
Drawing by Frederick Catherwood of the Nunnery complex at Uxmal
1892 photograph of the Castillo at Chichen Itza, by Teoberto Maler
Stela from Toniná, representing the 6th-century king Bahlam Yaxuun Tihl
Classic period sculpture showing sajal Aj Chak Maax presenting captives before ruler Itzamnaaj Bʼalam III of Yaxchilan
Lintel 16 from Yaxchilán, depicting king Yaxun Bʼalam in warrior garb
The Puuc-style Labna gateway. The passage is formed by a corbel arch, a common element in Maya architecture.
Reconstruction of the urban core of Tikal in the 8th century AD
Fired bricks with animal designs from Comalcalco. Made from brick since there was a lack of readily available stone, it is unique among major Maya sites.
Terminal Classic palace complex at Sayil, in northern Yucatán
Temple I, at Tikal, was a funerary temple in honour of king Jasaw Chan Kʼawiil I.
Model of a triadic pyramid at Caracol, Belize
Map of Mayan language migration routes
Pages from the Postclassic period Paris Codex, one of the few surviving Maya books in existence
Maya script on Cancuén Panel 3 describes the installation of two vassals at Machaquilá by Cancuén king Taj Chan Ahk.
Ceramic vessel painted with Maya script in the Ethnologisches Museum, Berlin
Reading order of Maya hieroglyphic text
Representation of an astronomer from the Madrid Codex
Relief sculpture of a decapitated ballplayer, adorning the Great Ballcourt at Chichen Itza
Maize was a staple of the Maya diet.
The Museo Nacional de Arqueología y Etnología, in Guatemala City

The Maya civilization developed in the area that today comprises southeastern Mexico, all of Guatemala and Belize, and the western portions of Honduras and El Salvador.

New Spain

Integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and having its capital in Mexico City.

Integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and having its capital in Mexico City.

Giacomo Gastaldi's 1548 map of New Spain, Nueva Hispania Tabula Nova
Spanish historical presence, claimed territories, and expeditions in North America.
In 1794.
New Spain in 1819 with the boundaries established at the Adams–Onís Treaty
Hernán Cortés and La Malinche meet the emperor Moctezuma II in Tenochtitlán, November 8, 1519.
Evangelization of Mexico
An auto-da-fé in New Spain, 18th century
Girolamo Ruscelli's 1561 map of New Spain, Nueva Hispania Tabula Nova
Vázquez de Coronado Sets Out to the North (1540), by Frederic Remington, oil on canvas, 1905
General locations of the Spanish Presidios built in the 1660s, officered by Spaniards and manned by personnel from Mexico and Peru that defended the native Filipino settlements from Muslim, Wokou, Dutch and English attacks.
White represents the route of the Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the flota in the Atlantic; blue represents Portuguese routes.
Viceroy don Antonio de Mendoza and Tlaxcalan Indians battle with the Caxcanes in the Mixtón war, 1541–42 in Nueva Galicia.
José de Gálvez, 1st Marquess of Sonora, Visitador in New Spain, who initiated major reforms
Spanish and Portuguese empires in 1790.
18th-century soldado de cuera in colonial Mexico
Bernardo de Gálvez and his army at the Siege of Pensacola in 1781.
Spanish territorial claims in the northern West Coast of North America, 18th century
On September 28, 1810, Miguel Hidalgo led the siege of the Alhóndiga de Granaditas in Guanajuato
Territories of the Viceroyalty of New Spain which became parts of the United States, Mexico, and other nations by 1900.
Silver coin minted in New Spain. Silver was its most important export, starting in the 16th century. '''8 reales Carlos III - 1778
Indigenous man collecting cochineal with a deer tail by José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez (1777). Cochineal was New Spain's most important export product after silver and its production was almost exclusively in the hands of indigenous cultivators
Arrieros in Mexico. Mules were the main way cargo was moved overland, engraving by Carl Nebel
Pedro de Alvarado, one of the first negotiators to hold office in Hibueras where he founded the towns of San Pedro Sula and Guatemala.
View of the Plaza Mayor of Mexico City, 1695 by Cristóbal de Villalpando
Indian Wedding and Flying Pole, circa 1690
New Spain after the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 (not including the island territories of the Pacific Ocean).
San Miguel chapel in New Mexico.
Church of Santo Domingo, Oaxaca City
Arco de Santa Catalina, Antigua Guatemala
18th century golden altar piece insede the Tegucigalpa cathedral.
Nahua depiction of smallpox, Book XII on the conquest of Mexico in the Florentine Codex (1576)
Español and Mulata with their Morisco children
Mestizo and India with their Coyote children
Carlos Francisco de Croix, 1st Marquess of Croix, Viceroy of New Spain (1766–1771)
Antonio María de Bucareli, Viceroy of New Spain
Juan Vicente de Güemes, 2nd Count of Revillagigedo, Viceroy of New Spain (1789–1794)

Its jurisdiction comprised a huge area that included what are now Mexico, much of the Southwestern U.S. and California in North America, Central America, northern parts of South America, and several territorial Pacific Ocean archipelagos, the largest and most important being the Philippine Islands.


A 1628 relief atlas of Acapulco Bay
Codex Tudela: "Acapulco's Yope Indian, at the South Sea"
View of Acapulco, 1879, oil painting by Carl Saltzmann
Hasekura Tsunenaga; the Japanese samurai who led the delegation to Mexico
Puerto Marqués
The Bay of Acapulco from the top of Palma Sola
Acapulco skyline
Fountain of the Huntress Diana
Acapulco International Airport
Caleta Beach
Acapulco Bay
Papagayo Park
Acapulco beach with a Bandera monumental in the background
La Quebrada Cliff Divers
Tlacopanocha, or Tlaco de Panocha, is one of the city's main beaches
Cruise liner at the International Transatlantic Port Lieutenant José Azueta
Acapulco's Miguel Alemán Coastal Avenue
Hands of Brotherhood and cross, Peace Ecumenical Chapel
The Manila-Acapulco Galleon Memorial at Plaza Mexico in Intramuros, Manila

Acapulco de Juárez, commonly called Acapulco ( , also , Acapolco), is a city and major seaport in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, 380 km south of Mexico City.

Clockwise from top left: Miguel Hidalgo, José María Morelos, Trigarante Army in Mexico City, Mural of independence by O'Gorman, Embrace of Acatempan between Iturbide and Guerrero

Mexican War of Independence

Clockwise from top left: Miguel Hidalgo, José María Morelos, Trigarante Army in Mexico City, Mural of independence by O'Gorman, Embrace of Acatempan between Iturbide and Guerrero
Cristóbal de Villalpando, 1695. View of the Plaza Mayor of Mexico City, showing damage of the viceroy's palace by the 1692 rioters (top right).
Viceroy José de Iturrigaray, overthrown in a coup d'état by peninsular conspirators in 1808
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, by José Clemente Orozco, Jalisco Governmental Palace, Guadalajara
Banner with the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe carried by Hidalgo and his insurgent militia. Liberal bishop-elect Manuel Abad y Queipo denounced the insurgents' use of her image as a sacrilege.
1810–11 Towns on the Route of Hidalgo's campaign and the regions where the insurgency took hold.
The corner of the Alhóndiga de Granaditas in Guanajuato where insurgents massacred all the Spaniards who went thinking it was a safe refuge. After his execution, Hidalgo's head hung on one corner.
On 28 September 1810, Hidalgo led the siege of the Alhóndiga de Granaditas in Guanajuato
Father José María Morelos
Official seal of the Supreme Junta
Congress of Chilpancingo the day of the signing of Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America. Morelos is standing at far right, with the white kerchief
Félix María Calleja, royalist military commander and then viceroy of New Spain
Mariano Matamoros.
Vicente Guerrero, mixed-race leader of the insurgency in southern Mexico
Abrazo de Acatempan, Guerrero and Iturbide form an alliance, 1821.
Flag of the Army of the Three Guarantees
A representation of mestizos in a "Caste Painting" from the colonial era.
Oil painting of Agustín de Iturbide
Flag of the Mexican Empire of Iturbide, the template for the modern Mexican flag with the eagle perched on a cactus. The crown on the eagle's head symbolizes monarchy in Mexico.

The Mexican War of Independence (Guerra de Independencia de México, 16 September 1810 – 27 September 1821) was an armed conflict and political process resulting in Mexico's independence from Spain.