Giacomo Gastaldi's 1548 map of New Spain, Nueva Hispania Tabula Nova
Depiction of the founding myth of Mexico-Tenochtitlan from the Codex Mendoza. The eagle perched on a cactus has been incorporated into the Mexican flag since its independence, and was a motif in colonial-era art.
Spanish historical presence, claimed territories, and expeditions in North America.
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan with first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
In 1794.
Cultivation of maize, shown in the Florentine Codex (1576) drawn by an indigenous scribe, with text in Nahuatl on this folio
New Spain in 1819 with the boundaries established at the Adams–Onís Treaty
1945 mural by Diego Rivera depicting the view from the Tlatelolco markets into Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the largest city in the Americas at the time
Hernán Cortés and La Malinche meet the emperor Moctezuma II in Tenochtitlán, November 8, 1519.
Hernán Cortés and his multilingual cultural translator, Doña Marina ("Malinche"), meeting Moctezuma II from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, a document created ca. 1550 by the Tlaxcalans to remind the Spanish of their loyalty and the importance of Tlaxcala during the conquest of the Aztec Empire.
Evangelization of Mexico
Smallpox depicted by an indigenous artist in the 1576 Florentine Codex
An auto-da-fé in New Spain, 18th century
View of the Plaza Mayor (today Zócalo) in Mexico City (ca. 1695) by Cristóbal de Villalpando
Girolamo Ruscelli's 1561 map of New Spain, Nueva Hispania Tabula Nova
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
Vázquez de Coronado Sets Out to the North (1540), by Frederic Remington, oil on canvas, 1905
Silver peso mined and minted in colonial Mexico, which became a global currency
General locations of the Spanish Presidios built in the 1660s, officered by Spaniards and manned by personnel from Mexico and Peru that defended the native Filipino settlements from Muslim, Wokou, Dutch and English attacks.
Viceroyalty of New Spain following the signing of the 1819 Adams-Onís Treaty
White represents the route of the Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the flota in the Atlantic; blue represents Portuguese routes.
Luis de Mena, Virgin of Guadalupe and castas, showing race mixture and hierarchy as well as fruits of the realm, ca. 1750
Viceroy don Antonio de Mendoza and Tlaxcalan Indians battle with the Caxcanes in the Mixtón war, 1541–42 in Nueva Galicia.
Father Hidalgo used this banner of the Virgin of Guadalupe as their emblem
José de Gálvez, 1st Marquess of Sonora, Visitador in New Spain, who initiated major reforms
Siege of the Alhondiga de Granaditas, Guanajuato, 28 Sept. 1810.
Spanish and Portuguese empires in 1790.
Flag of the Army of the Three Guarantees, the force formed by ex-royalist Iturbide and insurgent Vicente Guerrero in February 1821
18th-century soldado de cuera in colonial Mexico
Flag of the First Mexican Empire under Agustín I, 1822-23, with the eagle wearing a crown
Bernardo de Gálvez and his army at the Siege of Pensacola in 1781.
Flag of the First Republic of Mexico, with the eagle without a crown, signaling the new republic
Spanish territorial claims in the northern West Coast of North America, 18th century
General Antonio López de Santa Anna
On September 28, 1810, Miguel Hidalgo led the siege of the Alhóndiga de Granaditas in Guanajuato
Portrait of Liberal President Benito Juárez
Territories of the Viceroyalty of New Spain which became parts of the United States, Mexico, and other nations by 1900.
The Execution of Emperor Maximilian, 19 June 1867. Gen. Tomás Mejía, left, Maximiian, center, Gen. Miguel Miramón, right. Painting by Édouard Manet 1868.
Silver coin minted in New Spain. Silver was its most important export, starting in the 16th century. '''8 reales Carlos III - 1778
President Porfirio Díaz linking himself to independence hero Hidalgo and liberal hero Juárez September 1910.
Indigenous man collecting cochineal with a deer tail by José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez (1777). Cochineal was New Spain's most important export product after silver and its production was almost exclusively in the hands of indigenous cultivators
Francisco I. Madero, who challenged Díaz in the fraudulent 1910 election and was elected president when Díaz was forced to resign in May 1911.
Arrieros in Mexico. Mules were the main way cargo was moved overland, engraving by Carl Nebel
Revolutionary Generals Pancho Villa (left) and Emiliano Zapata (right)
Pedro de Alvarado, one of the first negotiators to hold office in Hibueras where he founded the towns of San Pedro Sula and Guatemala.
General Álvaro Obregón (far left) shown with a cigar in his left hand and his right arm missing, center with the white beard is First Chief Venustiano Carranza
View of the Plaza Mayor of Mexico City, 1695 by Cristóbal de Villalpando
Logo of the Institutional Revolutionary Party, which incorporates the colors of the Mexican flag
Indian Wedding and Flying Pole, circa 1690
Pemex, the national oil company created in 1938 for reasons of economic nationalism; it continues to provide major revenues for the government
New Spain after the Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819 (not including the island territories of the Pacific Ocean).
NAFTA signing ceremony, October 1992. From left to right: (standing) President Carlos Salinas de Gortari (Mexico), President George H. W. Bush (U.S.), and Prime Minister Brian Mulroney (Canada)
San Miguel chapel in New Mexico.
Zapatista leader Comandanta Ramona
Church of Santo Domingo, Oaxaca City
Vicente Fox and his opposition National Action Party won the 2000 general election, ending one-party rule.
Arco de Santa Catalina, Antigua Guatemala
Topographic map of Mexico
18th century golden altar piece insede the Tegucigalpa cathedral.
Mexico map of Köppen climate classification
Nahua depiction of smallpox, Book XII on the conquest of Mexico in the Florentine Codex (1576)
Mexican wolf
Español and Mulata with their Morisco children
Gray whale
Mestizo and India with their Coyote children
The National Palace on the east side of Plaza de la Constitución or Zócalo, the main square of Mexico City; it was the residence of viceroys and Presidents of Mexico and now the seat of the Mexican government.
Carlos Francisco de Croix, 1st Marquess of Croix, Viceroy of New Spain (1766–1771)
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
Antonio María de Bucareli, Viceroy of New Spain
Alfonso García Robles diplomat who received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982
Juan Vicente de Güemes, 2nd Count of Revillagigedo, Viceroy of New Spain (1789–1794)
A Mexican Navy Eurocopter
Demonstration on 26 September 2015, in the first anniversary of the disappearance of the 43 students in the Mexican town of Iguala
The territorial evolution of Mexico after independence: secession of Central America (purple), Chiapas annexed from Guatemala (blue), losses to the U.S. (red, white and orange) and the reannexation of the Republic of Yucatán (red)
A proportional representation of Mexico's exports. The country has the most complex economy in Latin America.
Historical GDP per capita development of Mexico
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Telmex Tower, Mexico City.
The Central Eólica Sureste I, Fase II in Oaxaca. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the region of Mexico with the highest capacity for wind energy. (see Tehuantepecer, a strong wind that affects the region)
Guillermo Haro Observatory in Cananea, Sonora.
Cancun and the Riviera Maya is the most visited region in Latin America
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
El Cajon Dam
Mexican states by population density
Las castas. Casta painting showing 16 racial groupings. Anonymous, 18th century, oil on canvas, 148×104 cm, Museo Nacional del Virreinato, Tepotzotlán, Mexico.
Colonial caste painting of Mexican family in Viceroyalty of New Spain
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1981 Miguel de Cervantes Prize, the 1982 Neustadt International Prize for Literature, and the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Our Lady of Guadalupe, patron saint of Mexico. This painting of her at the Basilica of Guadalupe is among her most notable depictions. Scientists debate if it should be dated 1531, the year of the first apparition was said to appear, or the 1550s.
Cathedral of Zacatecas
General Hospital of Mexico in Mexico City.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Olga Sánchez Cordero, Minister of the Interior (Gobernacion) in President López Obrador's cabinet
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Mexican Muralism. A cultural expression starting in the 1920s created by a group of Mexican painters after the Mexican Revolution.
Monument to Cuauhtémoc, Paseo de la Reforma, Mexico City (1887)
Teotihuacán, State of Mexico
The colonial-era Cathedral Mexico City dominates one side of the main square of the capital
Museo Soumaya in Mexico City building
David Alfaro Siqueiros by Héctor García Cobo at Lecumberri prison, Mexico City, 1960.
Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, "The Tenth Muse." Posthmous portrait Juan Cabrera
Actress Dolores del Río, Hollywood star in the 1920s and 1930s and prominent figure of the Golden Age of Mexican cinema in the 1940s and 1950s
Mole sauce, which has dozens of varieties across the Republic, is seen as a symbol of Mexicanidad and is considered Mexico's national dish.
Portrait of composer Carlos Chávez by Carl van Vechten
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
Logo for the 1968 Mexico Olympics
Plaque in Mexico City commemorating Lucha libre as an intangible cultural heritage
View of the Pyramid of the Sun of Teotihuacan, the first human establishment in the area dating back to 600 BCE
Temple of Kukulcán (El Castillo) in the maya city of Chichen Itza
Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his Troops (1848)
New Spain was essential to the Spanish global trading system. White represents the route of the Spanish Manila Galleons in the Pacific and the Spanish convoys in the Atlantic. (Blue represents Portuguese routes.)
Map of the First Mexican Empire
Students in a burned bus during the protests of 1968
Pico de Orizaba, the highest mountain in Mexico
Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the Congress of Mexico
Andrés Manuel López Obrador President of Mexico
Headquarters of the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs
Mexican Federal Police celebration.
Mexico City, the financial center of Mexico
Mexican Stock Exchange building
Large Millimeter Telescope in Puebla.
The Baluarte Bridge is the highest cable-stayed bridge in the world, the fifth-highest bridge overall and the highest bridge in the Americas.
Lake Chapala is Mexico's largest freshwater lake.
Regional variation of ancestry according to a study made by Ruiz-Linares in 2014, each dot represents a volunteer, with most coming from south Mexico and Mexico City.
Map for the year 2000 of the indigenous languages of Mexico having more than 100,000 speakers.
Mexico–United States barrier between San Diego's border patrol offices in California, USA (left) and Tijuana, Mexico (right)
Secretary of Health, Mexico City, Mexico.
Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico
Frida Kahlo, the most famous woman artist in Mexican history.
Palacio de Bellas Artes (Palace of Fine Arts), with murals, other artwork, and a major performance space
Octavio Paz was awarded the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature
Azteca Stadium, Mexico City.
El Santo, one of the most famous and iconic Mexican luchadores

Its jurisdiction comprised a huge area that included what are now Mexico, much of the Southwestern U.S. and California in North America, Central America, northern parts of South America, and several territorial Pacific Ocean archipelagos, the largest and most important being the Philippine Islands.

- New Spain

In 1521, the Spanish Empire and its indigenous allies conquered the Aztec Empire from its capital Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City), establishing the colony of New Spain.

- Mexico

32 related topics


Clockwise from top left: Miguel Hidalgo, José María Morelos, Trigarante Army in Mexico City, Mural of independence by O'Gorman, Embrace of Acatempan between Iturbide and Guerrero

Mexican War of Independence

Clockwise from top left: Miguel Hidalgo, José María Morelos, Trigarante Army in Mexico City, Mural of independence by O'Gorman, Embrace of Acatempan between Iturbide and Guerrero
Cristóbal de Villalpando, 1695. View of the Plaza Mayor of Mexico City, showing damage of the viceroy's palace by the 1692 rioters (top right).
Viceroy José de Iturrigaray, overthrown in a coup d'état by peninsular conspirators in 1808
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, by José Clemente Orozco, Jalisco Governmental Palace, Guadalajara
Banner with the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe carried by Hidalgo and his insurgent militia. Liberal bishop-elect Manuel Abad y Queipo denounced the insurgents' use of her image as a sacrilege.
1810–11 Towns on the Route of Hidalgo's campaign and the regions where the insurgency took hold.
The corner of the Alhóndiga de Granaditas in Guanajuato where insurgents massacred all the Spaniards who went thinking it was a safe refuge. After his execution, Hidalgo's head hung on one corner.
On 28 September 1810, Hidalgo led the siege of the Alhóndiga de Granaditas in Guanajuato
Father José María Morelos
Official seal of the Supreme Junta
Congress of Chilpancingo the day of the signing of Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America. Morelos is standing at far right, with the white kerchief
Félix María Calleja, royalist military commander and then viceroy of New Spain
Mariano Matamoros.
Vicente Guerrero, mixed-race leader of the insurgency in southern Mexico
Abrazo de Acatempan, Guerrero and Iturbide form an alliance, 1821.
Flag of the Army of the Three Guarantees
A representation of mestizos in a "Caste Painting" from the colonial era.
Oil painting of Agustín de Iturbide
Flag of the Mexican Empire of Iturbide, the template for the modern Mexican flag with the eagle perched on a cactus. The crown on the eagle's head symbolizes monarchy in Mexico.

The Mexican War of Independence (Guerra de Independencia de México, 16 September 1810 – 27 September 1821) was an armed conflict and political process resulting in Mexico's independence from Spain.

On 27 September 1821, the Army of the Three Guarantees entered Mexico City, and the following day Iturbide proclaimed the independence of the Mexican Empire, as New Spain was henceforth to be called.

Mexico City

The city was the place of Mexico-Tenochtitlan, the Aztec capital.
Storming of the Teocalli by Cortez and his Troops (1848)
Mexico City Metropolitan Cathedral's (1571–1813) 18th century painting. The cathedral was built by the Spaniards over the ruins of the main Aztec temple.
Mexico City in 1628
Palacio de Mineria, Mexico City. The elevation of silver mining as a profession and the ennoblement of silver miners was a development of the eighteenth-century Bourbon Reforms
A painting of the American assault on the Chapultepec Castle.
Mexican President and later dictator Porfirio Díaz (second from right) commissioned many of the ornate European style buildings constructed from the 1890–1910 and hoped for Mexico City to eventually rival European cities like Paris in opulence
Corpses in front of the National Palace during the Ten Tragic Days. Photographer, Manuel Ramos.
Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera house in San Ángel designed by Juan O'Gorman, an example of 20th-century Modernist architecture in Mexico
Students in a burned bus during the protests of 1968
First ladies Paloma Cordero of Mexico (left) and Nancy Reagan of the United States (right) with U.S. Ambassador to Mexico, John Gavin observing the damage done by the 1985 earthquake.
Satellite image of Mexico City
Trajineras in the canals of Xochimilco. Xochimilco and the historic center of Mexico City were declared a World Heritage Site in 1987.
Air pollution over Mexico City. Air quality is poorest during the winter.
The Chapultepec was an important park during the Aztecs whose access had been limited to its nobility, was declared open to the public by a decree of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in 1530, it is one of the world's largest city parks.
Lightning in the background of the Torre Mayor
Growth of Mexico city's area from 1900 to 2000
Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in La Villa de Guadalupe, the main Catholic pilgrimage site in the Americas. It houses the original image of Our Lady of Guadalupe.
Secretariat of Health building
Central Campus of the University City of the UNAM. Since 2007 the University City is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The National Palace of Mexico
Senate of the Republic
Legislative Palace of San Lázaro
Offices of the Secretariat of Foreign Affairs
Mexico City's Legislative Assembly building
The 16 boroughs of Mexico City
Federal Police headquarters in Mexico City
The Paseo de la Reforma is a wide avenue designed by Ferdinand von Rosenzweig in the 1860s and was modeled after the Champs-Élysées in Paris.
Palacio de Hierro store
The Turibus runs through many of the most important tourist attractions in the city.
The Art Nouveau/Neoclassical Palacio de Bellas Artes is the prominent cultural center in the city
Receptions Hall at the Museo Nacional de Arte
lReconstruction of the entrance to the Hochob temple in the National Museum of Anthropology
Museo Soumaya
The City Theatre built in 1918.
A guajolota, a tamale torta invention.
Televisa headquarters in Mexico City
Azteca Stadium, the 21st largest stadium in the world
Autódromo Hermanos Rodríguez
Mexico City Arena
Mexico City Metro
Metrobús rapid transit bus stop station at Indios Verdes
The Anillo Periférico and Paseo de la Reforma in Miguel Hidalgo
Bicycles available for rental in Zona Rosa
Mexico City International Airport
Felipe Ángeles International Airport

Mexico City (Ciudad de México, ; abbr.: CDMX; Nahuatl: Altepetl Mexico) is the capital and largest city of Mexico, and the most populous city in North America.

The city had been the capital of the Aztec Empire and in the colonial era, Mexico City became the capital of New Spain.


Pico de Orizaba
Jamapa River
Mountain formation in the south of the state
Shore of Lake Catemaco
Olmec stone head
Playa Villa Rica, where the Spanish built the first city of Veracruz
Statue of rebel leader Yanga
Depiction of the Battle of Veracruz during the Mexican–American War
Vanilla beans
Petroleum tower in Poza Rica
A portion of the port of Veracruz
Huachinango (red snapper) a la Veracruzana
The Olmec San Martin Pajapan Monument 1 on exhibit in the Museum of Anthropology in Xalapa
Mural depicting the history of Papantla in the town square by Teodoro Cano García
Veracruz lighthouse
El Tajín, Niche pyramid

Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave , officially the Free and Sovereign State of Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave (Estado Libre y Soberano de Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave), is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.

The first group of Franciscans arrived in Veracruz in 1524, walking barefoot to the capital of the Spanish colony of New Spain.

18th-century portrait of Cortés based on the one sent by the conqueror to Paolo Giovio, which has served as a model for many of his representations since the 16th century

Hernán Cortés

18th-century portrait of Cortés based on the one sent by the conqueror to Paolo Giovio, which has served as a model for many of his representations since the 16th century
Weiditz's depiction of Cortés in 1529.
A map depicting Cortés's invasion route from the coast to the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.
Cortés scuttling his own fleet off the coast of Veracruz in order to eliminate the possibility of retreat.
Cortés and La Malinche meet Moctezuma in Tenochtitlán, November 8, 1519.
Cristóbal de Olid leads Spanish soldiers with Tlaxcalan allies in the conquests of Jalisco, 1522.
A painting from Diego Muñoz Camargo's History of Tlaxcala (Lienzo Tlaxcala), c. 1585, showing La Malinche and Hernán Cortés.
The coat of arms awarded to Cortés, by King Carlos I of Spain.
Sculpture of Juana de Zúñiga, second wife of Cortés, for her tomb.
Portrait of Cortés at Museo del Prado.
Emperor Charles V with Hound (1532), a painting by the 16th-century artist Jakob Seisenegger.
Hernán Cortés, with his coat of arms on the upper left corner. 16th c. Attributed to the Master Saldana. Museo Nacional de Historia. Chapultepec Castle
An engraving of a middle aged Cortés by 19th-century artist William Holl.
Bust Hernán Cortés in the General Archive of the Indies in Seville
Tomb of Cortés in the Hospital de Jesús Nazareno, which he founded in Mexico City.
1000 Spanish peseta note issued in 1992
Monument in Mexico City commemorating the encounter of Cortés and Moctezuma at the Hospital de Jesús Nazareno.
Monument in Mexico City known as "Monumento al Mestizaje".
Scene from the opera La Conquista, 2005

Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, 1st Marquess of the Valley of Oaxaca (1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.

After he overthrew the Aztec Empire, Cortés was awarded the title of Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca, while the more prestigious title of Viceroy was given to a high-ranking nobleman, Antonio de Mendoza.

Alta California

Map of N. America showing California when it was part of New Spain. Map dated 1789 from Dobson's Encyclopedia.
Mexico in 1838. From Britannica 7th edition
Mexican departments created in 1836 (shown after 1845 Texas independence), Las Californias at far left in gray.
Map of Mexico. S. Augustus Mitchell, Philadelphia, 1847. New California is depicted with a north-eastern border at the meridian leading north of the Rio Grande headwaters.

Alta California ('Upper California'), also known as Nueva California ('New California') among other names, was a province of New Spain, formally established in 1804.

Mexico gained independence from Spain on August 24, 1821, upon conclusion of the decade-long Mexican War of Independence.


Monument to Beatriz Hernández, one of the founders of Guadalajara
The Coat of Arms of Guadalajara, granted by Emperor Charles V in 1539
Guadalajara, c. 1836
Centennial Monument to Mexican Independence
Central Guadalajara, c. 1905
Guadalajara and its metropolitan area have grown significantly in the 21st century, surpassing 5 million people in 2018.
Americas Avenue
Parque de los Jalicienses Ilustres
The Barranca de Huentitán
Parque 20 de Noviembre, Zapopan
Radial urban planning in central Guadalajara
Map of the city's zones
Western Guadalajara business district skyline
Street in the historic center
Parque de la Revolución
Parque Rehilete Alcalde
Map of the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area (AMG)
Riu Plaza Hotel, the tallest skyscraper in the city
Hyatt Andares Hotel
Andares shopping mall in the Puerta de Hierro (Zapopan) district
The Teatro Degollado, named after its builder, Santos Degollado, was built in 1855.
Street in the historic center
Guadalajara Regional Museum
San Felipe de Neri Church
The Guadalajara International Film Festival, founded in 1986, is the most important film festival in Latin America.
The handover presentation during the 2007 Pan American Games closing ceremony for the 2011 Pan American Games in Guadalajara
The Guadalajara International Book Fair is the largest Spanish-language fair in the world, as well as the largest book fair in the Americas.
The 2008 Guadalajara International Book Fair's booksellers pavilion
Árbol adentro by José Fors
San José de Gracia Church, built in 1899
Equestrian statue of José María Morelos
Guadalajara Arena (Project)
Plaza de los Mariachis
Jalisco Philharmonic Orchestra
Cafe on Avenida Vallarta
Tequila can only be produced in Jalisco in the regions north of Guadalajara around Santiago de Tequila and Los Altos de Jalisco.
Green Pozole
Estadio Akron, House of Chivas football team, built for the 2010 Copa Libertadores
Estadio Charros, built for the 2011 Pan American Games
City Palace of Guadalajara
Palace of Justice of Jalisco
The municipality of Guadalajara borders five other municipalities.
The University of Guadalajara, founded in 1791, is one of the highest ranking universities in Latin America.
State Library of Jalisco
Guadalajara University Center of Art, Architecture and Design
Guadalajara International Airport is the 10th busiest airport in Latin America and a hub for Aeroméxico, Volaris, Interjet, and VivaAerobus.
Hospicio Cabañas
Palacio del Gobierno
Palacio Legislativo
Guadalajara Monument
Señora del Pilar Church
{{ill|Palacio de Velasco|es|Palacio de Velasco (Guadalajara)|vertical-align=sup}}
Rotonda de los Hombres Ilustres
Guadalajara City Hall
Templo Expiatorio
Señora de la Merced Church
Palacio de Justicia
{{ill|Sanctuary of Guadalupe|es|Santuario de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe (Guadalajara, Jalisco)|vertical-align=sup}}

Guadalajara is a metropolis in western Mexico and the capital of the state of Jalisco.

Guadalajara was founded on 14 February 1542 by Cristóbal de Oñate, a Basque conquistador, as the capital of the Kingdom of Nueva Galicia, part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain.

Conquest of Mexico by Cortés, oil on canvas Conquista de México por Cortés

Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire

One of the primary events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

One of the primary events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.

Conquest of Mexico by Cortés, oil on canvas Conquista de México por Cortés
Cortés and his counselor, the Nahua woman La Malinche, meet Moctezuma in Tenochtitlan, 8 November 1519
The death of Moctezuma, depicted in the Florentine Codex
Smallpox depicted in Book XII on the conquest of Mexico in the Florentine Codex
The capture of Cuauhtemoc. 17th century, oil on canvas.
Bernal Díaz del Castillo's True History of the Conquest of Mexico
Tlaxcalan allies of the Spanish, showing their leaders, porters, as well as a Spanish warrior and a Spanish war dog. Lienzo de Tlaxcala
A comet seen by Moctezuma, interpreted as a sign of impending peril. Diego Durán's account from indigenous informants.
Aztec empire on the eve of the Spanish Invasion
Diego de Velázquez, who commissioned Cortés's limited expedition of exploration in 1519
Hernán Cortés in his later years; his coat of arms on the upper left corner. Painting reproduced in the book America (R. Cronau 19th century).
Map depicting Cortés' conquest route
Codex Azcatitlan depicting the Spanish-Tlaxcalan army, with Cortés and La Malinche, along with an African slave in front the meeting with Moctezuma. The facing page is no longer extant.
Coat of arms of Villa Rica, Veracruz; the first town council founded by the Spanish. The tile mosaic is located in Mexico City.
Cortés scuttling fleet off Veracruz coast
Meeting of Cortés and Xicotencatl
The massacre of Cholula. Lienzo de Tlaxcala
Cholula Massacre, by Felix Parra, 1877.
Map of the Valley of Mexico on the eve of the Spanish conquest
"Motecuhzuma receives Cortés. Mexican dances in the lake." by Juan González and Miguel González. 1698
Conquistadors and their Tlaxcalan allies enter Tenochtitlan
La Noche Triste depicted in the 17th century
A page from the Lienzo de Tlaxcala, depicting the battle of Otumba
"The Last Days of Tenochtitlan, Conquest of Mexico by Cortez", a 19th-century painting by William de Leftwich Dodge.
Hernan Cortés fight with two Aztecs.
Nuño de Guzmán, a rival of Cortés, led Spanish soldiers with Tlaxcalan allies in the conquest of Michoacan.
Pedro de Alvarado's death in 1541, depicted in the indigenous Codex Telleriano-Remensis. The glyph to the right of his head represents his Nahuatl name, Tonatiuh ("Sun").
Evangelization of Mexico
Scene from the opera La Conquista, 2005

The fall of the Aztec Empire was the key event in the formation of the Spanish Empire overseas, with New Spain, which later became Mexico.


State in the Western United States.

State in the Western United States.

A map of California tribal groups and languages at the time of European contact
The coat of arms granted to the Californias by Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza
Mission San Diego de Alcalá drawn as it was in 1848. Established in 1769, it was the first of the California Missions.
Map showing Alta California in 1838, when it was a sparsely populated Mexican province
The flag used by Juan Bautista Alvarado's 1836 movement for Californian independence
The Russians from Alaska established their largest settlement in California, Fort Ross, in 1812.
The Bear Flag of the California Republic was first raised in Sonoma in 1846 during the Bear Flag Revolt.
Yokayo, a village of Pomo people in Ukiah (Mendocino County), c. 1916
Hollywood film studios, 1922
The "Birthplace of Silicon Valley" garage, where Stanford University graduates Bill Hewlett and David Packard developed their first product in the 1930s
A topographic map of California
Big Sur coast, south of Monterey at Bixby Bridge
Yosemite National Park
Cylindropuntia bigelovii in the Joshua Tree National Park
Köppen climate types in California
Death Valley, in the Mojave Desert
Five of the twenty largest wildfires in California history were part of the 2020 wildfire season.
A Joshua Tree (Yucca brevifolia) in Joshua Tree
A forest of redwood trees in Redwood National Park
Sea otter in Morro Bay, California
Mission San Diego de Alcalá, first of the Spanish missions in California
Sunset at Venice Beach
Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum hosted the Summer Olympics in 1932 and 1984.
Torrance High School, one of the oldest high schools in continuous use in California
The University of California, Berkeley is the first and oldest campus of the UC system.
The Claremont Colleges east of L.A. include some of the most selective liberal arts colleges in the U.S.
A tree map depicting the distribution of occupations across California
Orange Grove outside of Santa Paula
The Googleplex in Mountain View, California, is the corporate headquarters of Google. Silicon Valley is a center for the global technology industry.
Economic regions of California
Moss Landing Power Plant, located on the coast of Monterey Bay
Solar Energy Generating Systems, located in the Mojave Desert
The Golden Gate Bridge
The Judge Harry Pregerson Interchange in Los Angeles, one of California's tall "stack" interchanges
Map of California showing the primary roadways
Amtrak California train in Pinole
Aerial view of the Delta–Mendota Canal (left) and the California Aqueduct, at the Interstate 205 crossing west of Tracy
California budget 2022-2023
The California State Capitol in Sacramento
Democrats Jerry Brown and Eric Garcetti. Brown served twice as Governor of California and Garcetti is currently serving as Mayor of Los Angeles.
California GDP by sector in 2017<ref name="auto">{{Cite web |title=SAGDP2N Gross domestic product (GDP) by state |url= |access-date=December 21, 2018 |publisher=Bureau of Economic Analysis}}</ref>
Had California been an independent country in 2021 its gross domestic product (nominal) would have been ranked fifth in the world.<ref>{{Cite web |title=5. Report for Selected Countries and Subjects |url= |url-status=dead |archive-url= |archive-date=March 23, 2019 |access-date=December 15, 2018}}</ref>
Köppen climate types in California
The famous Tunnel tree at Yosemite National Park in May of 2022

Prior to European colonization, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America and contained the highest Native American population density north of what is now Mexico.

In 1804, it was included in Alta California province within the Viceroyalty of New Spain.

First Mexican Empire

Coat of arms of the First Mexican Empire.

The Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano, ) was a constitutional monarchy, the first independent government of Mexico and the only former colony of the Spanish Empire to establish a monarchy after independence.

The territory of the Mexican Empire corresponded to the borders of Viceroyalty of New Spain, excluding the Captaincies General of Cuba, Santo Domingo and the Philippines.

Hernán Cortés led the Conquest of Mexico and expanded the Spanish Empire in the Americas


Conquistadors or conquistadores (, ; meaning 'conquerors') were the explorer-soldiers of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires of the 15th and 16th centuries.

Conquistadors or conquistadores (, ; meaning 'conquerors') were the explorer-soldiers of the Spanish and Portuguese Empires of the 15th and 16th centuries.

Hernán Cortés led the Conquest of Mexico and expanded the Spanish Empire in the Americas
Afonso de Albuquerque expanded the Portuguese Empire across the Indian Ocean
The surrender of Granada in 1492. The last Moorish sultan of Granada, Muhammad XII, before Ferdinand and Isabella.
Christopher Columbus and his Spanish crew making their first landfall in the Americas in 1492
Hernando de Soto and Spanish conquistadors seeing the Mississippi River for the first time.
Conquistadors praying before a battle at Tenochtitlan
Francisco Pizarro meets with the Inca emperor Atahualpa, 1532
A figure of a Moor being trampled by a conquistador's horse at the National Museum of the Viceroyalty in Tepotzotlan.
Francisco Pizarro
Hernán Cortés and his counsellor, the Indian woman La Malinche meet Moctezuma II in Tenochtitlan, 8 November 1519. Facsimile (c. 1890) of Lienzo de Tlaxcala.
Hagåtña (Agaña) is the capital of the United States territory of Guam, ancient city of the Spanish possessions in Oceania.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa and spanish conquistadors claiming the Pacific Ocean for Spain in 1513.
Diego de Almagro led the first Spanish expedition south of Peru into Chile 1535–37.
Francisco de Orellana and his men became the first to travel the entire length of the Amazon River in 1541–1542
Pedro de Alvarado
Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada, conquistador of the New Kingdom of Granada.
Francisco de Villagra
Francisco de Borja y Aragón
The conquistador Juan Ponce de León (Santervás de Campos, Valladolid, Spain). He was the first European to arrive at the current U.S. and led the first European expedition to Florida, which he named.
Monument to Cabeza de Vaca in Houston, Texas.
Route of Narváez expedition (until November 1528), and a reconstruction of Cabeza de Vaca's later wanderings
The Coronado expedition, 1540–1542
A map showing the de Soto route through the Southeast, 1539–1542
Nicolás de Ovando
Areas of Alaska and British Columbia Explored by Spain
Statue of Miguel López de Legazpi, Cebu City, Philippines
Spanish possessions in Asia and Oceania
Bronze figure of a Portuguese soldier made by Benin culture in West Africa around 1600
Two brass plates depicting a bearded Portuguese soldier before 1500 on top and Benin warriors at the bottom
A page (folio 67), depicting indigenous Mexican warriors in the Codex Mendoza
Vasco da Gama
1630 map of the Portuguese fort and the city of Malacca
Forte de Nossa Senhora da Conceição de Ormuz (Fort of Our Lady of the Conception), the Portuguese Castle on Hormuz Island (Iran)
Nagasaki in Japan was founded in 1570 by Portuguese explorers
Fort Jesus in Mombasa (Kenya), seen from the inside
Portuguese North America (in present-day Canada); Vaz Dourado, c.1576.
Cabral's voyage to Brazil and India, 1500
The Portuguese victory at the Second Battle of Guararapes, ended Dutch presence in Brazil.
António Raposo Tavares, a bandeirante, led in 1648–1652 the largest continental expedition made in the Americas until then, from São Paulo to the east, near the Andes (via Mato Grosso, the Paraguay River, the Grande River, the Mamoré River, and the Madeira River), and to the Amazon River and the Atlantic
Battle of Cartagena de Indias March–May 1741, during this battle the Spanish Empire defeated a British fleet of over 30,000 professional soldiers, 51 warships and 135 transport ships counting the Spanish army only less than 2400 professional soldiers, 600 natives and 6 ships.
Álvaro de Bazán, Spanish admiral famous for never having lost a battle.
The combined Spanish and Portuguese empires during the Iberian Union (1580–1640)
Aztecs dying of smallpox, ("The Florentine Codex" 1540–85)
Map of the Island of California, circa 1650; restored.
1541 founding of Santiago de Chile
Bronze equestrian statue of Francisco Pizarro in Trujillo, Spain
Philip II of Spain (1527–1598).
Alonso de Ovalle's 1646 engraving of the conquistadors García Hurtado de Mendoza, Pedro de Villagra and Rodrigo de Quiroga
Shrunken head of a mestizo man by the Jívaro indigenous people. In 1599, the Jívaro destroyed Spanish settlements in eastern Ecuador and killed all the men.
A group of 16th century conquistadors that participated in the Spanish conquest of Peru (second expedition) along with their leader, Francisco Pizarro.
Spanish conquistador in the Pavilion of Navigation in Seville, Spain.
Basque Countrymen near the France–Spain border in 1898, with characteristic horse, donkey and dogs. These were the type of animals introduced to America.
Spanish Mastiff used in expeditions and guard
Ephemeris by Abraham Zacuto in Almanach Perpetuum, 1496
A Portuguese caravel
Portolan of Angelino Dulcert (1339) showing Lanzarote island
Pre-mercator navigation chart of the Coast of Africa (1571), by Fernão Vaz Dourado (Torre do Tombo, Lisbon)
Portuguese Empire
Spanish Empire
Iberian Union (1581–1640)
The Magellan–Elcano voyage. The first travel around the world.
The Manila-Acapulco trade route started in 1568 and Spanish treasure fleets (white) and its eastwards rivals, the Portuguese India Armadas routes of 1498–1640 (blue)
Inés Suárez was a Spanish conquistadora, successfully defending Santiago against a Mapuche attack in 1541
Gonzalo Guerrero, a shipwrecked Spanish mariner who married a Maya woman and later fought with the Mayas against the conquistadors
Conquest of the Canary Islands (1402–1496)
Bandeirantes were crucial in Portuguese exploration, colonization, and pacification of the Brazilian interior.

From the territories of the Aztec Empire, conquistadors expanded Spanish rule to northern Central America and parts of what is now the southern and western United States, and from Mexico sailing the Pacific Ocean to the Philippines.

The viceroy of New Spain Antonio de Mendoza, for whom is named the Codex Mendoza, commissioned several expeditions to explore and establish settlements in the northern lands of New Spain in 1540–42.