Michael S. Hart

Michael Hart
Michael Stern Hart (March 8, 1947 – September 6, 2011) was an American author, best known as the inventor of the e-book and the founder of Project Gutenberg (PG), the first project to make e-books freely available via the Internet.wikipedia
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Project Gutenberg

Gutenberg ProjectGutenberg.orgProject Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation
Michael Stern Hart (March 8, 1947 – September 6, 2011) was an American author, best known as the inventor of the e-book and the founder of Project Gutenberg (PG), the first project to make e-books freely available via the Internet.
It was founded in 1971 by American writer Michael S. Hart and is the oldest digital library.

E-book

ebooke-bookseBooks
Michael Stern Hart (March 8, 1947 – September 6, 2011) was an American author, best known as the inventor of the e-book and the founder of Project Gutenberg (PG), the first project to make e-books freely available via the Internet.
Despite the extensive earlier history, several publications report Michael S. Hart as the inventor of the e-book.

RepRap project

RepRapRAMPS RepRap 2.0 (Mendel)
He was also a member of the RepRap Project, which aims at creating a self-replicating machine.

United States

AmericanU.S.USA
Michael Stern Hart (March 8, 1947 – September 6, 2011) was an American author, best known as the inventor of the e-book and the founder of Project Gutenberg (PG), the first project to make e-books freely available via the Internet.

Internet

onlinethe Internetweb
Michael Stern Hart (March 8, 1947 – September 6, 2011) was an American author, best known as the inventor of the e-book and the founder of Project Gutenberg (PG), the first project to make e-books freely available via the Internet. Although the focus of computer use there tended to be data processing, Hart was aware that it was connected to a network (part of what would become the Internet) and chose to use his computer time for information distribution.

ARPANET

ARPA networkDarpanetAdvanced Research Projects Agency Network
He published e-books years before the Internet existed via the ARPANET, and later on BBS networks and Gopher servers.

Bulletin board system

BBSbulletin board systemsBBSes
He published e-books years before the Internet existed via the ARPANET, and later on BBS networks and Gopher servers.

Gopher (protocol)

GopherGopher protocolInternet Gopher
He published e-books years before the Internet existed via the ARPANET, and later on BBS networks and Gopher servers.

Digitization

digitizeddigitizingdigitize
Hart devoted his life after founding PG in 1971 to digitizing and distributing literature from works in the public domain with free and expired copyrights.

Public domain

public domain resourcepublic-domainPD
Hart devoted his life after founding PG in 1971 to digitizing and distributing literature from works in the public domain with free and expired copyrights.

Plain text

textplain-texttexts
The first e-books were typed in plain text format and published as text files; other formats were made available later.

Text file

TXT.txttext
The first e-books were typed in plain text format and published as text files; other formats were made available later.

Cryptanalysis

cryptanalystcodebreakingcodebreaker
His father was an accountant and his mother, a former cryptanalyst during World War II, was a business manager at a retail store.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
His father was an accountant and his mother, a former cryptanalyst during World War II, was a business manager at a retail store.

Urbana, Illinois

UrbanaUrbana, ILUrbana-Champaign
In 1958 his family relocated to Urbana, Illinois, and his father and mother became college professors in Shakespearean studies and mathematics education, respectively.

William Shakespeare

ShakespeareShakespeareanShakespearian
In 1958 his family relocated to Urbana, Illinois, and his father and mother became college professors in Shakespearean studies and mathematics education, respectively.

Mathematics education

mathematics educatorMathematicsAlgebra I
In 1958 his family relocated to Urbana, Illinois, and his father and mother became college professors in Shakespearean studies and mathematics education, respectively.

University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

University of IllinoisUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignIllinois
Hart attended the University of Illinois, graduating in just two years with a degree in Human-Machine Interfaces.

Mainframe computer

mainframemainframesmainframe computers
During Hart's time at the University of Illinois, the computer center gave Hart a user's account on its computer system; Hart's brother's best friend was the mainframe operator and gave an account with a virtually unlimited amount of computer time; its value at that time has since been variously estimated at $100,000 or $100,000,000.

Electronic data processing

EDPdata processingComputer data processing
Although the focus of computer use there tended to be data processing, Hart was aware that it was connected to a network (part of what would become the Internet) and chose to use his computer time for information distribution.

United States Declaration of Independence

Declaration of IndependenceAmerican Declaration of IndependenceU.S. Declaration of Independence
Hart related that after his account was created on July 4, 1971, he wanted to "give back" by doing something that could be considered to be of great value and had had a copy of the United States Declaration of Independence, which he had been given at a grocery store after watching fireworks that evening.

Fireworks

fireworkfireworks displayfirework display
Hart related that after his account was created on July 4, 1971, he wanted to "give back" by doing something that could be considered to be of great value and had had a copy of the United States Declaration of Independence, which he had been given at a grocery store after watching fireworks that evening.

Email

e-mailelectronic maile-mails
He typed the text into the computer but was told that it would be unacceptable to transmit it to numerous people at once via e-mail.

E-text

electronic textetexttext
Thus, to avoid crashing the e-mail system, he made the e-text available for people to download.

Digital library

digital librariesdigital repositoryvirtual library
This was the beginning of Project Gutenberg as the first digital library.