Michael Servetus

ServetusMiguel ServetMiguel ServetoMichel de VilleneuveMiguel '''ServetServetDe Villanueva/ServetusMichael "ServetusMichael de VillanuevaMichael de Villeneuve
Michael Servetus (Miguel Serveto as real name, Michel Servet), also known as Miguel Servet, Miguel de Villanueva, Michel Servet, Revés, or Michel de Villeneuve (Tudela, Navarre, 29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553), was a Spanish theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance humanist.wikipedia
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Tudela, Navarre

TudelaTudela in NavarreTutila
Michael Servetus (Miguel Serveto as real name, Michel Servet), also known as Miguel Servet, Miguel de Villanueva, Michel Servet, Revés, or Michel de Villeneuve (Tudela, Navarre, 29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553), was a Spanish theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance humanist.
The poet Al-Tutili, the 12th-century traveler Benjamin of Tudela, the 13th century writer William of Tudela and the physician and theologian Michael de Villanueva were from the city.

Christianismi Restitutio

Christianismi Restituto
He was the first European to correctly describe the function of pulmonary circulation, as discussed in Christianismi Restitutio (1553).
Christianismi Restitutio (English: The Restoration of Christianity) was a book published in 1553 by Michael Servetus.

Polymath

Renaissance manpolyhistorHomo Universalis
He was a polymath versed in many sciences: mathematics, astronomy and meteorology, geography, human anatomy, medicine and pharmacology, as well as jurisprudence, translation, poetry and the scholarly study of the Bible in its original languages.
Other Notable Polymath are : Jose Rizal, Avicenna, Hildegard of Bingen, Michael Servetus, Aristotle, Thomas Young (scientist), Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Ismail al-Jazari and Shem Kuo.]]

University of Zaragoza

ZaragozaUniversidad de ZaragozaZaragoza University
From course 1520/1521 to 1522/1523, Michael Servetus was a student of Liberal Arts in the primitive University of Zaragoza, a Studium Generale of Arts.
That same year of 1520 Michael Servetus, brilliant nephew of Gaspar Lax, started his studies under the direction of his uncle and the other three Masters of Arts (Exerich, Ansías, Miranda, Carnicer, Villalpando).

Pulmonary circulation

pulmonary vesselspulmonary circuitpulmonary
He was the first European to correctly describe the function of pulmonary circulation, as discussed in Christianismi Restitutio (1553).
Other sources credit Spanish physician Michael Servetus (c.

John Calvin

CalvinJean CalvinCalvinist
Thanks to the printer Jean Frellon II, acquaintance of John Calvin and friend of Michel, Servetus and Calvin began to correspond.
During this period, Michael Servetus, a Spaniard regarded by both Roman Catholics and Protestants as having a heretical view of the Trinity, arrived in Geneva.

Medicine

medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine
He was a polymath versed in many sciences: mathematics, astronomy and meteorology, geography, human anatomy, medicine and pharmacology, as well as jurisprudence, translation, poetry and the scholarly study of the Bible in its original languages.
Independently from Ibn al-Nafis, Michael Servetus rediscovered the pulmonary circulation, but this discovery did not reach the public because it was written down for the first time in the "Manuscript of Paris" in 1546, and later published in the theological work for which he paid with his life in 1553.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Vienne

Bishop of VienneArchbishop of VienneVienne
He became personal physician to Pierre Palmier, Archbishop of Vienne, and was also physician to Guy de Maugiron, the lieutenant governor of Dauphiné.
Michael Servetus was living in Vienne, whither he had been attracted by Archbishop Pierre Palmier, when Calvin denounced him to the Inquisition for his books.

Aragon

AragónAragoneseAutonomous Community of Aragon
The ancestors of his father came from the hamlet of Serveto, in the Aragonese Pyrenees.

Erasmus

Desiderius ErasmusErasmus of RotterdamErasmian
Servetus studied under High Master Gaspar Lax, and masters Exerich, Ansias and Miranda, and during those years this education center had been significantly influenced by Erasmus's ideas.

Unitarianism

UnitarianUnitariansUnitarian Church
Peter Gonesius's advocacy of Servetus' views led to the separation of the Polish brethren from the Calvinist Reformed Church in Poland, and laid the foundations for the Socinian movement which fostered the early Unitarians in England like John Biddle.
Matthew F Smith, Information Officer" (Essex Street Chapel, Unitarian Church headquarters, UK) For example, the Unitarian movement has never accepted the Godhood of Jesus, and therefore does not include those nontrinitarian belief systems that do, such as Oneness Pentecostalism, United Pentecostal Church International and the True Jesus Church and the writings of Michael Servetus, all of which maintain that Jesus is God as a single person. Although these groups are unitarians in the common sense, they are not in the proper sense. To avoid confusion, this article is about Unitarianism as a religious movement (proper noun). For the generic form of unitarianism (the Christology), see Nontrinitarianism. Recently some religious groups have adopted the 19th-century term biblical unitarianism to distinguish their theology from Unitarianism.

Gaspar Lax

Lax, Gaspar
Servetus studied under High Master Gaspar Lax, and masters Exerich, Ansias and Miranda, and during those years this education center had been significantly influenced by Erasmus's ideas.
There he had his brilliant nephew Michael Servetus as a student in the same University, who also became in 1525 one of the four Masters of Arts.

Marian Hillar

The Polish-American scholar, Marian Hillar, has studied the evolution of freedom of conscience, from Servetus and the Polish Socinians, to John Locke and to Thomas Jefferson and the American Declaration of Independence.
He is a recognized authority on Michael Servetus and together with classicist and political theorist, C. A. Hoffman, translated the major works of Michael Servetus from Latin into English for the first time.

Andreas Vesalius

VesaliusAndrea VesaliusVesalius, Andreas
In Paris, his teachers included Sylvius, Fernel and Johann Winter von Andernach, who hailed him with Andrea Vesalius as his most able assistant in dissections.

Piotr of Goniądz

Peter GonesiusPiotr z GoniądzaGonesius
Peter Gonesius's advocacy of Servetus' views led to the separation of the Polish brethren from the Calvinist Reformed Church in Poland, and laid the foundations for the Socinian movement which fostered the early Unitarians in England like John Biddle.
However, following his lecture of the anonymous work by Miguel Serveto and similar works by an Italian professor Matteo Gribaldi, Piotr of Goniądz converted to Protestantism and returned to Poland.

Death by burning

burned at the stakeburnt at the stakeburning at the stake
In fact, the council that condemned Servetus was presided over by Ami Perrin (a Libertine) who ultimately on 24 October sentenced Servetus to death by burning for denying the Trinity and infant baptism.
Notable individuals executed by burning include Jacques de Molay (1314), Jan Hus (1415), Joan of Arc (1431), Girolamo Savonarola (1498), Patrick Hamilton (1528), John Frith (1533), William Tyndale (1536), Michael Servetus (1553), Giordano Bruno (1600), Urbain Grandier (1634), and Avvakum (1682).

Jesus

Jesus ChristChristJesus of Nazareth
The next year he published the work Dialogorum de Trinitate (Dialogues on the Trinity) and the supplementary work De Iustitia Regni Christi (On the Justice of Christ's Reign) in the same volume.
With the Protestant Reformation, Christians such as Michael Servetus and the Socinians started questioning the ancient creeds that had established Jesus' two natures.

Jacques Dubois

SylviusJacobus SylviusSylvius
In Paris, his teachers included Sylvius, Fernel and Johann Winter von Andernach, who hailed him with Andrea Vesalius as his most able assistant in dissections.
Some other pupils of Sylvius defended his teaching and work, specially Louis Vasse and Michel de Villeneuve, the latter was considered by Johann Winter von Andernach (colleague and friend of Sylvius) the best galenist of Paris and second anatomist after Vesalius.

Polish Brethren

Ecclesia MinorArianArians
Peter Gonesius's advocacy of Servetus' views led to the separation of the Polish brethren from the Calvinist Reformed Church in Poland, and laid the foundations for the Socinian movement which fostered the early Unitarians in England like John Biddle.
Originally, the Minor Church followed a non-trinitarian doctrine inspired by the writings of Michael Servetus.

Nicholas de la Fontaine

Nicholas de la Fontaine played the more active role in Servetus's prosecution and the listing of points that condemned him.
De la Fontaine brought Michael Servetus to trial on August 14, 1553 on the charges of heresy against Calvinism, as Calvin himself at this point was too incapacitated with various health problems to personally appear at the trial.

List of multiple discoveries

List of independent discoveriesList of multiple discoveries: Fourteenth centuryList of multiple discoveries: seventeenth century
Later independently rediscovered by the Europeans Michael Servetus (1553) and William Harvey (1616).

Servetism

Servetism refers to the theology of Michael Servetus, which affirms that Christ was God manifested in the flesh, yet not as part of a tri-personal God, and that he did not exist previously as the Son, but as the divine Logos (the manifestation of God, or the Word of God) that became the Son after incarnation.

Sebastian Castellio

CastalioCastellioSebastian Castalio
Sebastian Castellio and countless others denounced this execution and became harsh critics of Calvin because of the whole affair.
However, in October 1553, the physician and theologian Michael Servetus was executed in Geneva for blasphemy and heresy – in particular, his repudiation of the doctrine of the Trinity.

Lelio Sozzini

Laelio SozziniLelioLaelius Socinus
Some other anti-trinitarian thinkers began to be more cautious in expressing their views: Martin Cellarius, Lelio Sozzini and others either ceased writing or wrote only in private.
Lelio was at Padua (not Geneva, as is often said) at the date of Servetus's execution (27 October 1553).