Microburst

microburstsdry microburstWindsheara massive blow of wind from abovea strong gust of wind from abovedowndraft of cold airdowndraftsmacroburststraight line windwet microburst
A microburst is an intense small-scale downdraft produced by a thunderstorm or rain shower.wikipedia
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Wind shear

windshearvertical wind shearshear
A microburst can be particularly dangerous to aircraft, especially during landing, due to the wind shear caused by its gust front. The term was defined by mesoscale meteorology expert Ted Fujita as affecting an area 4 km in diameter or less, distinguishing them as a type of downburst and apart from common wind shear which can encompass greater areas.
It is commonly observed near microbursts and downbursts caused by thunderstorms, fronts, areas of locally higher low-level winds referred to as low level jets, near mountains, radiation inversions that occur due to clear skies and calm winds, buildings, wind turbines, and sailboats.

Ted Fujita

Dr. Ted FujitaTetsuya Theodore FujitaFujita, T.T.
The term was defined by mesoscale meteorology expert Ted Fujita as affecting an area 4 km in diameter or less, distinguishing them as a type of downburst and apart from common wind shear which can encompass greater areas.
, he also discovered downbursts and microbursts, and was an instrumental figure in advancing modern understanding of many severe weather phenomena and how they affect people and communities, especially through his work exploring the relationship between wind speed and damage.

Outflow boundary

gust frontoutflow boundariesoutflow
A microburst can be particularly dangerous to aircraft, especially during landing, due to the wind shear caused by its gust front.
Microbursts have a diameter of influence less than 4 km, while macrobursts occur over a diameter greater than 4 km.

Wind

windsgustsgust
A microburst often has high winds that can knock over fully grown trees.
It is commonly observed near microbursts and downbursts caused by thunderstorms, weather fronts, areas of locally higher low level winds referred to as low level jets, near mountains, radiation inversions that occur because of clear skies and calm winds, buildings, wind turbines, and sailboats.

Virga

all of its precipitation evaporatesevaporating before reaching the surfacefall streak
A distinction can be made between a wet microburst which consists of precipitation and a dry microburst which typically consists of virga.
In some instances these pockets of colder air can descend rapidly, creating a wet or dry microburst which can be extremely hazardous to aviation.

Delta Air Lines Flight 191

Delta Flight 191Flight 191191
On August 2, 1985, the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar operating Flight 191 encountered a microburst while on approach to land at DFW.

Eastern Air Lines Flight 66

Flight 66a 1975 plane crashJune 24, 1975
The crash was determined to be caused by wind shear caused by a microburst, but the failure of the airport and the flight crew to recognize the severe weather hazard was also a contributing factor.

Pan Am Flight 759

Flight 759Pan Am 727 Wind sheerplane crash
On July 9, 1982, the Boeing 727 flying this route crashed in the New Orleans suburb of Kenner after being forced down by a microburst shortly after takeoff.

USAir Flight 1016

US Airways Flight 1016Flight 10161016
On July 2, 1994, the flight encountered heavy thunderstorms and microburst-induced windshear while attempting to land, and crashed into heavy trees and a private residence near the airport.

Downburst

straight-line windsstraight-line windmacroburst
The term was defined by mesoscale meteorology expert Ted Fujita as affecting an area 4 km in diameter or less, distinguishing them as a type of downburst and apart from common wind shear which can encompass greater areas.
Microbursts and macrobursts are downbursts at very small and larger scales, respectively.

Precipitation shaft

rain shaft
If a source of dry air is present at higher altitude and the air into which the rain is falling is sufficiently warm, then strong, and possibly damaging microbursts are possible.

Martinair Flight 495

Flight 495Martinair MP 495
Following one unsuccessful attempt to land, the crew was executing a VOR/DME procedure approach to runway 11 (now runway 10) when the aircraft flew through at least two microbursts.

Bhoja Air Flight 213

Flight 213plane crashes
Suddenly, the plane encountered an increasing downdraft (in other word; microburst), as it continued the approach.

Low-level windshear alert system

Low level windshear alert systemLLWASlow level wind shear alert system
Wind shear is the generic term for wind differences over an operationally short distance (in relation to flight) which encompass meteorological phenomena including gust fronts, microbursts, vertical shear, and derechos.

Vertical draft

updraftdowndraftdowndrafts
A microburst is an intense small-scale downdraft produced by a thunderstorm or rain shower.
Extreme cases, known as downbursts and microbursts can be deadly and difficult to predict or observe.

Windthrow

blowdowntree-uprootingsblowdowns

Thunderstorm

thunderstormssevere thunderstormelectrical storm
A microburst is an intense small-scale downdraft produced by a thunderstorm or rain shower.

Aircraft

heavier-than-airheavier-than-air flightheavier-than-air aircraft
A microburst can be particularly dangerous to aircraft, especially during landing, due to the wind shear caused by its gust front.

Aircrew

flight crewcrewcrews
Several fatal and historic crashes have been attributed to the phenomenon over the past several decades, and flight crew training goes to great lengths on how to properly recognize and recover from a microburst/wind shear event.