Microcontroller

microcontrollersMCUmicro-controllermicro controllermicrocontroller unitMCU (Micro Controller Unit)controllermicroprocessor control micro-controllers microcontrollers
A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit, or UC for μ-controller) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit.wikipedia
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System on a chip

SoCsystem-on-a-chipsystem-on-chip
In modern terminology, it is similar to, but less sophisticated than, a system on a chip (SoC); an SoC may include a microcontroller as one of its components.
An SoC integrates a microcontroller or microprocessor with advanced peripherals like graphics processing unit (GPU), Wi-Fi module, or one or more coprocessors.

Sensor

sensorsdetectorsensing
In the context of the internet of things, microcontrollers are an economical and popular means of data collection, sensing and actuating the physical world as edge devices.
With advances in micromachinery and easy-to-use microcontroller platforms, the uses of sensors have expanded beyond the traditional fields of temperature, pressure or flow measurement, for example into MARG sensors.

Microprocessor

microprocessorsprocessorchip
Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications consisting of various discrete chips. The first microprocessor was the 4-bit Intel 4004 released in 1972, with the Intel 8008 and other more capable microprocessors becoming available over the next several years.
Microcontrollers integrate a microprocessor with peripheral devices in embedded systems. These tend to have different tradeoffs compared to CPUs.

Intel MCS-48

8048I80358035
Partly in response to the existence of the single-chip TMS 1000, Intel developed a computer system on a chip optimized for control applications, the Intel 8048, with commercial parts first shipping in 1977.
The MCS-48 microcontroller (µC) series, Intel's first microcontroller, was originally released in 1976.

Texas Instruments TMS1000

TMS 1000TI TMS1100
The result of their work was the TMS 1000, which became commercially available in 1974.
The TMS1000 is a family of microcontroller integrated circuits, introduced by Texas Instruments in 1974.

Texas Instruments

TITexas Instruments (TI)Texas Instruments, Inc.
One book credits TI engineers Gary Boone and Michael Cochran with the successful creation of the first microcontroller in 1971.
TI also produces TI digital light processing (DLP) technology and education technology products including calculators, microcontrollers and multi-core processors.

EEPROM

electrically erasable programmable read-only memoryerasable programmable read only memoryROM
In 1993, the introduction of EEPROM memory allowed microcontrollers (beginning with the Microchip PIC16C84) to be electrically erased quickly without an expensive package as required for EPROM, allowing both rapid prototyping, and in-system programming.
EEPROM (also E 2 PROM) stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory and is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers, integrated in microcontrollers for smart cards and remote keyless systems, and other electronic devices to store relatively small amounts of data but allowing individual bytes to be erased and reprogrammed.

Integrated circuit

integrated circuitsmicrochipchip
A microcontroller (MCU for microcontroller unit, or UC for μ-controller) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit.
These digital ICs, typically microprocessors, DSPs, and microcontrollers, work using boolean algebra to process "one" and "zero" signals.

Programmable read-only memory

PROMPROMsOTP
Program memory in the form of ferroelectric RAM, NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a small amount of RAM.
These types of memories are frequently used in microcontrollers, video game consoles, mobile phones, radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags, implantable medical devices, high-definition multimedia interfaces (HDMI) and in many other consumer and automotive electronics products.

PIC16x84

PIC16C84
In 1993, the introduction of EEPROM memory allowed microcontrollers (beginning with the Microchip PIC16C84) to be electrically erased quickly without an expensive package as required for EPROM, allowing both rapid prototyping, and in-system programming.
The PIC16C84, PIC16F84 and PIC16F84A are 14-bit microcontrollers of which the PIC16C84 was the first introduced in 1993 and hailed as the first PIC microcontroller to feature a serial programming algorithm and EEPROM memory.

Control system

control systemscontrolControls
Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded systems.
Today, most such systems are constructed with microcontrollers or more specialized programmable logic controllers (PLCs).

Central processing unit

CPUprocessorprocessors
In 2002, about 55% of all CPUs sold in the world were 8-bit microcontrollers and microprocessors.
An IC that contains a CPU may also contain memory, peripheral interfaces, and other components of a computer; such integrated devices are variously called microcontrollers or systems on a chip (SoC).

4-bit

four-bit44-
The first microprocessor was the 4-bit Intel 4004 released in 1972, with the Intel 8008 and other more capable microprocessors becoming available over the next several years.
The 4-bit processors were programmed in assembly language or Forth, e.g. "MARC4 Family of 4 bit Forth CPU" because of the extreme size constraint on programs and because common programming languages (for microcontrollers, 8-bit and larger), such as the C programming language, do not support 4-bit data types (C requires that the size of the data type be at least 8 bits, and that all data types other than bitfields have a size that is a multiple of the character size ). While larger than 4-bit values can be used by combining more than one manually, the language has to support the smaller values used in the combining.

Atmel

Atmel CorporationAtmel CorpAtmel Software Framework
One example is the AT91CAP from Atmel.
The company focuses on embedded systems built around microcontrollers.

AT91CAP

One example is the AT91CAP from Atmel.
AT91CAP (AT91CAP Customizable Atmel Microcontrollers) is a family of Atmel microcontrollers based on the 32-bit RISC microprocessors from ARM.

8-bit

8-bit computereight-bit8
Cost has plummeted over time, with the cheapest 8-bit microcontrollers being available for under 0.03 USD in 2018, and some 32-bit microcontrollers around US$1 for similar quantities.
Many 8-bit CPUs or microcontrollers are the basis of today's ubiquitous embedded systems.

I²C

I 2 CI2CI 2 C bus
Dedicated on-chip hardware also often includes capabilities to communicate with other devices (chips) in digital formats such as Inter-Integrated Circuit (I²C), Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI), Universal Serial Bus (USB), and Ethernet. other serial communications interfaces like I²C, Serial Peripheral Interface and Controller Area Network for system interconnect
It is widely used for attaching lower-speed peripheral ICs to processors and microcontrollers in short-distance, intra-board communication.

ARM Cortex-M

Cortex-M3Cortex-M0Cortex-M0+
The device is a "0.04mm3 16nW wireless and batteryless sensor system with integrated Cortex-M0+ processor and optical communication for cellular temperature measurement."
They are intended for microcontroller use, and have been shipped in tens of billions of devices.

CAN bus

CANCAN-busController Area Network
other serial communications interfaces like I²C, Serial Peripheral Interface and Controller Area Network for system interconnect
A Controller Area Network (CAN bus) is a robust vehicle bus standard designed to allow microcontrollers and devices to communicate with each other in applications without a host computer.

Universal asynchronous receiver-transmitter

UARTuniversal asynchronous receiver/transmitter16450 UART
A universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) block makes it possible to receive and transmit data over a serial line with very little load on the CPU.
One or more UART peripherals are commonly integrated in microcontroller chips.

Firmware

flashflashingautomobile firmware
The use of field-programmable devices on a micro controller may allow field update of the firmware or permit late factory revisions to products that have been assembled but not yet shipped.
Most mobile phones have a Firmware Over The Air firmware upgrade capability for much the same reasons; some may even be upgraded to enhance reception or sound quality, illustrating that firmware is used at more than one level in complex products (in a CPU-like microcontroller versus in a digital signal processor, in this particular case).

Embedded system

embedded systemsembeddedembedded device
Microcontrollers are used in automatically controlled products and devices, such as automobile engine control systems, implantable medical devices, remote controls, office machines, appliances, power tools, toys and other embedded systems. Microcontrollers were originally programmed only in assembly language, but various high-level programming languages, such as C, Python and JavaScript, are now also in common use to target microcontrollers and embedded systems.
Modern embedded systems are often based on microcontrollers (i.e. CPUs with integrated memory or peripheral interfaces), but ordinary microprocessors (using external chips for memory and peripheral interface circuits) are also common, especially in more complex systems.

EPROM

EPROMSerasable programmable read only memory2764 EPROM
In 1993, the introduction of EEPROM memory allowed microcontrollers (beginning with the Microchip PIC16C84) to be electrically erased quickly without an expensive package as required for EPROM, allowing both rapid prototyping, and in-system programming. One had EPROM program memory, with a transparent quartz window in the lid of the package to allow it to be erased by exposure to ultraviolet light, often used for prototyping.
Some microcontrollers, from before the era of EEPROMs and flash memory, use an on-chip EPROM to store their program.

Ferroelectric RAM

FRAMFeRAMferroelectric memory
Program memory in the form of ferroelectric RAM, NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip, as well as a small amount of RAM.
In 2005, Ramtron reported significant sales of its FeRAM products in a variety of sectors including (but not limited to) electricity meters, automotive (e.g. black boxes, smart air bags), business machines (e.g. printers, RAID disk controllers), instrumentation, medical equipment, industrial microcontrollers, and radio frequency identification tags.

C (programming language)

CC programming languageC language
Microcontrollers were originally programmed only in assembly language, but various high-level programming languages, such as C, Python and JavaScript, are now also in common use to target microcontrollers and embedded systems.
The language has become available on a very wide range of platforms, from embedded microcontrollers to supercomputers.