Microevolution

micro levelmicro-evolutionmicroevolutionarymicroevolutionary processesmicroevolutionary selectionmirco-
Microevolution is the change in allele frequencies that occurs over time within a population.wikipedia
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Hybrid (biology)

hybridhybridshybridization
Gene transfer between species includes the formation of hybrid organisms and horizontal gene transfer. Such hybrids are generally infertile, due to the two different sets of chromosomes being unable to pair up during meiosis.

Horizontal gene transfer

lateral gene transferhorizontal transfergene transfer
Gene transfer between species includes the formation of hybrid organisms and horizontal gene transfer.

Gene pool

genepoolgenetic poolallelic diversity
Immigration may add new genetic material to the established gene pool of a population.

Reproductive isolation

reproductively isolatedisolating mechanismsisolating mechanism
As barriers to reproduction between two diverging populations are required for the populations to become new species, gene flow may slow this process by spreading genetic differences between the populations.

Great Wall of China

Great WallThe Great Wall of ChinaThe Great Wall
Gene flow is hindered by mountain ranges, oceans and deserts or even man-made structures such as the Great Wall of China, which has hindered the flow of plant genes.

Most recent common ancestor

last common ancestorcommon ancestorrecent common ancestor
Depending on how far two species have diverged since their most recent common ancestor, it may still be possible for them to produce offspring, as with horses and donkeys mating to produce mules.

Horse

horsesracehorseEquus caballus
Depending on how far two species have diverged since their most recent common ancestor, it may still be possible for them to produce offspring, as with horses and donkeys mating to produce mules.

Donkey

burrodonkeysass
Depending on how far two species have diverged since their most recent common ancestor, it may still be possible for them to produce offspring, as with horses and donkeys mating to produce mules.

Mule

mule trainmule trainsmules
Depending on how far two species have diverged since their most recent common ancestor, it may still be possible for them to produce offspring, as with horses and donkeys mating to produce mules.

Infertility

infertilesterilesterility
Such hybrids are generally infertile, due to the two different sets of chromosomes being unable to pair up during meiosis.

Hybrid speciation

hybrid specieshybridHomoploid hybrid speciation
The importance of hybridization in creating new species of animals is unclear, although cases have been seen in many types of animals, with the gray tree frog being a particularly well-studied example.

Gray treefrog

gray tree frogHyla versicolorGrey tree frog
The importance of hybridization in creating new species of animals is unclear, although cases have been seen in many types of animals, with the gray tree frog being a particularly well-studied example.

Inbreeding depression

inbreedingdepress plant vigor
Polyploid hybrids also have more genetic diversity, which allows them to avoid inbreeding depression in small populations.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae

S. cerevisiaeyeastbudding yeast
Horizontal transfer of genes from bacteria to eukaryotes such as the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the adzuki bean beetle Callosobruchus chinensis may also have occurred.

Bdelloidea

bdelloid rotifersbdelloidbdelloid rotifer
An example of larger-scale transfers are the eukaryotic bdelloid rotifers, which appear to have received a range of genes from bacteria, fungi, and plants.

Domain (biology)

domaindomainsdomains of life
Viruses can also carry DNA between organisms, allowing transfer of genes even across biological domains.

Eukaryote

Eukaryotaeukaryoticeukaryotes
Large-scale gene transfer has also occurred between the ancestors of eukaryotic cells and prokaryotes, during the acquisition of chloroplasts and mitochondria.

Chloroplast

chloroplastschloroplast stromaplastoglobuli
Large-scale gene transfer has also occurred between the ancestors of eukaryotic cells and prokaryotes, during the acquisition of chloroplasts and mitochondria.

Mitochondrion

mitochondriamitochondrialmitochondrial membrane
Large-scale gene transfer has also occurred between the ancestors of eukaryotic cells and prokaryotes, during the acquisition of chloroplasts and mitochondria.

Allele

allelesallelicmultiple alleles
Genetic drift is the change in the relative frequency in which a gene variant (allele) occurs in a population due to random sampling.

Botany

botanistbotanicalplant biology
The term microevolution was first used by botanist Robert Greenleaf Leavitt in the journal Botanical Gazette in 1909, addressing what he called the "mystery" of how formlessness gives rise to form.

Robert Greenleaf Leavitt

Leav.
The term microevolution was first used by botanist Robert Greenleaf Leavitt in the journal Botanical Gazette in 1909, addressing what he called the "mystery" of how formlessness gives rise to form.

Developmental biology

developmentdevelopmental biologistdevelopmental
However, Leavitt was using the term to describe what we would now call developmental biology; it was not until Russian Entomologist Yuri Filipchenko used the terms "macroevolution" and "microevolution" in 1927 in his German language work, Variabilität und Variation, that it attained its modern usage.

Theodosius Dobzhansky

DobzhanskyDobzhansky, TheodosiusT. Dobzhansky
The term was later brought into the English-speaking world by Theodosius Dobzhansky in his book Genetics and the Origin of Species (1937).

Genetics and the Origin of Species

The term was later brought into the English-speaking world by Theodosius Dobzhansky in his book Genetics and the Origin of Species (1937).