Microphone

microphonescondenser microphonedynamic microphonemicshotgun microphonecondenser microphonesmikedynamiccardioid microphonedynamic microphones
A microphone, colloquially named mic or mike, is a device – a transducer – that converts sound into an electrical signal.wikipedia
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Public address system

public addressPA systemPA
Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, hearing aids, public address systems for concert halls and public events, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, sound recording, two-way radios, megaphones, radio and television broadcasting, and in computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic sensors or knock sensors.
A public address system (PA system) is an electronic system comprising microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers, and related equipment.

Telephone

phonetelephonesLocal Telephone Service
Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, hearing aids, public address systems for concert halls and public events, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, sound recording, two-way radios, megaphones, radio and television broadcasting, and in computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic sensors or knock sensors.
The essential elements of a telephone are a microphone (transmitter) to speak into and an earphone (receiver) which reproduces the voice in a distant location.

Audio engineer

engineeringengineersound engineer
Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, hearing aids, public address systems for concert halls and public events, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, sound recording, two-way radios, megaphones, radio and television broadcasting, and in computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic sensors or knock sensors.
Audio engineers work on the "...technical aspect of recording—the placing of microphones, pre-amp knobs, the setting of levels. The physical recording of any project is done by an engineer ... the nuts and bolts."

Signal

signalselectrical signalsignaling
A microphone, colloquially named mic or mike, is a device – a transducer – that converts sound into an electrical signal.
For example, a microphone converts an acoustic signal to a voltage waveform, and a speaker does the reverse.

Capacitor

capacitorscapacitivecondenser
The most common are the dynamic microphone, which uses a coil of wire suspended in a magnetic field; the condenser microphone, which uses the vibrating diaphragm as a capacitor plate; and the piezoelectric microphone, which uses a crystal of piezoelectric material.
This name and its cognates are still widely used in many languages, but rarely in English, one notable exception being condenser microphones, also called capacitor microphones.

Radio

radio communicationradio communicationswireless
Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, hearing aids, public address systems for concert halls and public events, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, sound recording, two-way radios, megaphones, radio and television broadcasting, and in computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic sensors or knock sensors.

Diaphragm (acoustics)

diaphragmmembranespeaker cone
The most common are the dynamic microphone, which uses a coil of wire suspended in a magnetic field; the condenser microphone, which uses the vibrating diaphragm as a capacitor plate; and the piezoelectric microphone, which uses a crystal of piezoelectric material.
The varying air pressure of sound waves imparts mechanical vibrations to the diaphragm which can then be converted to some other type of signal; examples of this type of diaphragm are found in microphones and the human eardrum.

Transducer

transducerstransductiontransduce
A microphone, colloquially named mic or mike, is a device – a transducer – that converts sound into an electrical signal.

Megaphone

bullhornloudhailerspeaking trumpet
Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, hearing aids, public address systems for concert halls and public events, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, sound recording, two-way radios, megaphones, radio and television broadcasting, and in computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic sensors or knock sensors.
Since the 1960s the voice-powered acoustic megaphone described above has been replaced by the electric megaphone, which uses a microphone, an electrically-powered amplifier and a folded horn loudspeaker to amplify the voice.

David Edward Hughes

David E. HughesHughesHughes telegraph
This was independently developed by David Edward Hughes in England and Emile Berliner and Thomas Edison in the US.
David Edward Hughes (16 May 1831 – 22 January 1900), was a British-American inventor, practical experimenter, and professor of music known for his work on the printing telegraph and the microphone.

Carbon microphone

carbon transmittercarbon button microphonesbutton microphone
The first microphone that enabled proper voice telephony was the (loose-contact) carbon microphone.
The carbon microphone, also known as carbon button microphone, button microphone, or carbon transmitter, is a type of microphone, a transducer that converts sound to an electrical audio signal.

Preamplifier

preamppre-amplifierpre-amp
Microphones typically need to be connected to a preamplifier before the signal can be recorded or reproduced.
They are typically used to amplify signals from analog sensors such as microphones and pickups.

Ribbon microphone

ribbonribbon micRibbon Microphones
Also in 1923, the ribbon microphone was introduced, another electromagnetic type, believed to have been developed by Harry F. Olson, who essentially reverse-engineered a ribbon speaker.
A ribbon microphone, also known as a ribbon velocity microphone, is a type of microphone that uses a thin aluminum, duraluminum or nanofilm of electrically conductive ribbon placed between the poles of a magnet to produce a voltage by electromagnetic induction.

Electro-Voice

ElectrovoiceEVElectro-Voice Company
Electro-Voice responded with their Academy Award-winning shotgun microphone in 1963.
Electro-Voice (commonly referred to as EV) is an American manufacturer of audio equipment, including microphones, amplifiers, and loudspeakers, focused on pro audio applications such as sound reinforcement.

Wireless microphone

radio microphoneswireless microphonesradio microphone
A wireless microphone contains a radio transmitter.
A wireless microphone, or cordless microphone, is a microphone without a physical cable connecting it directly to the sound recording or amplifying equipment with which it is associated.

Shure

Shure IncorporatedShure BrothersShure Inc.
During the second half of 20th century development advanced quickly with the Shure Brothers bringing out the SM58 and SM57.
The company became a consumer and professional audio-electronics manufacturer of microphones, wireless microphone systems, phonograph cartridges, discussion systems, mixers, and digital signal processing.

Shure SM57

SM57Shure 57
During the second half of 20th century development advanced quickly with the Shure Brothers bringing out the SM58 and SM57.
The Shure SM57 is a low-impedance cardioid dynamic microphone made by Shure Incorporated and commonly used in live sound reinforcement and studio recording.

Hearing aid

hearing aidsHearing instrumentsHearing Aid Compatibility
Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, hearing aids, public address systems for concert halls and public events, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, sound recording, two-way radios, megaphones, radio and television broadcasting, and in computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic sensors or knock sensors.
The principle of HAA operation corresponds to the basic principles of operation of traditional hearing aids: the microphone receives an acoustic signal and converts it into a digital form.

Sound recording and reproduction

recordingrecordedrecordings
Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, hearing aids, public address systems for concert halls and public events, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, sound recording, two-way radios, megaphones, radio and television broadcasting, and in computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic sensors or knock sensors. Microphones typically need to be connected to a preamplifier before the signal can be recorded or reproduced.
Between the invention of the phonograph in 1877 and the first commercial digital recordings in the early 1970s, arguably the most important milestone in the history of sound recording was the introduction of what was then called electrical recording, in which a microphone was used to convert the sound into an electrical signal that was amplified and used to actuate the recording stylus.

Thomas Edison

Thomas Alva EdisonEdisonThomas A. Edison
This was independently developed by David Edward Hughes in England and Emile Berliner and Thomas Edison in the US.
In 1876, Edison began work to improve the microphone for telephones (at that time called a "transmitter") by developing a carbon microphone, which consists of two metal plates separated by granules of carbon that would change resistance with the pressure of sound waves.

Emile Berliner

Emil BerlinerBerlinerBerliner, Emile
This was independently developed by David Edward Hughes in England and Emile Berliner and Thomas Edison in the US.
After some time working in a livery stable, he became interested in the new audio technology of the telephone and phonograph, and invented an improved telephone transmitter (one of the first type of microphones).

Røde Microphones

RødeRodeHenry Freedman
It is also possible to vary the pattern continuously with some microphones, for example, the Røde NT2000 or CAD M179.
Røde Microphones, LLC (stylised RØDE) is an Australian-based designer and manufacturer of microphones, related accessories and audio software.

Valve microphone

condenser microphonecondenser microphones
A valve microphone is a condenser microphone that uses a vacuum tube (valve) amplifier.
A valve microphone is a condenser microphone which uses a valve amplifier rather than a transistor circuit.

Audio signal

audioaudio channelchannel
There are two types, depending on the method of extracting the audio signal from the transducer: DC-biased microphones, and radio frequency (RF) or high frequency (HF) condenser microphones.
Audio signals may be synthesized directly, or may originate at a transducer such as a microphone, musical instrument pickup, phonograph cartridge, or tape head.

Recording studio

studioradio studiorecording studios
They generally produce a high-quality audio signal and are now the popular choice in laboratory and recording studio applications.
The typical recording studio consists of a room called the "studio" or "live room" (and sometimes additional isolation booths) equipped with microphones and mic stands, where instrumentalists and vocalists perform; and the "control room", where sound engineers, sometimes with record producers, as well, operate professional audio mixing consoles, effects units, or computers (post 1980s and 1990s) with specialized software suites to mix, manipulate (e.g., by adjusting the equalization and adding effects) and route the sound for analogue recording (on tape) or digital recording on hard disc.