Microprocessor

microprocessorsprocessorprocessorschipchipsembedded microprocessor32-bitCPUmicro-processorMPU
A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or sometimes up to 8 integrated circuits.wikipedia
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8-bit

8-bit computereight-bit8
The size of data objects became larger; allowing more transistors on a chip allowed word sizes to increase from 4- and 8-bit words up to today's 64-bit words.
8-bit is also a generation of microcomputers in which 8-bit microprocessors were the norm.

Digital signal processor

DSPDSPsdigital signal processors
Taken as a whole, the average price for a microprocessor, microcontroller, or DSP is just over US$6 2002.
A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor (or a SIP block) chip, with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing.

32-bit

32-32 bit32
While this required extra logic to handle, for example, carry and overflow within each slice, the result was a system that could handle, for example, 32-bit words using integrated circuits with a capacity for only four bits each.
32-bit microcomputers are computers in which 32-bit microprocessors are the norm.

Clock signal

clock cycleclockclock cycles
The microprocessor is a multipurpose, clock driven, register based, digital integrated circuit that accepts binary data as input, processes it according to instructions stored in its memory and provides results (also in binary form) as output.
The preeminent example of such complex chips is the microprocessor, the central component of modern computers, which relies on a clock from a crystal oscillator.

Vision processing unit

Visionmachine visionVision processing units
A vision processing unit (VPU) is (as of 2018) an emerging class of microprocessor; it is a specific type of AI accelerator, designed to accelerate machine vision tasks.

64-bit computing

64-bit64 bit64
The size of data objects became larger; allowing more transistors on a chip allowed word sizes to increase from 4- and 8-bit words up to today's 64-bit words.
64-bit microcomputers are computers in which 64-bit microprocessors are the norm.

4-bit

four-bit44-
The size of data objects became larger; allowing more transistors on a chip allowed word sizes to increase from 4- and 8-bit words up to today's 64-bit words.
Some of the first microprocessors had a 4-bit word length and were developed around 1970.

16-bit

16 bit16-16
An 8- or 16-bit processor may be selected over a 32-bit processor for system on a chip or microcontroller applications that require extremely low-power electronics, or are part of a mixed-signal integrated circuit with noise-sensitive on-chip analog electronics such as high-resolution analog to digital converters, or both. Affordable 8-bit microprocessors with 16-bit addressing also led to the first general-purpose microcomputers from the mid-1970s on.
16-bit microcomputers are computers in which 16-bit microprocessors were the norm.

Microcontroller

microcontrollersMCUmicro-controller
In 1997, about 55% of all CPUs sold in the world were 8-bit microcontrollers, of which over 2 billion were sold.
Microcontrollers are designed for embedded applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other general purpose applications consisting of various discrete chips.

Computer

computerscomputer systemdigital computer
The advent of low-cost computers on integrated circuits has transformed modern society.
The first semiconductor transistors in the late 1940s were followed by the silicon-based MOSFET (MOS transistor) and monolithic integrated circuit (IC) chip technologies in the late 1950s, leading to the microprocessor and the microcomputer revolution in the 1970s.

System on a chip

SoCsystem-on-a-chipsystem-on-chip
An 8- or 16-bit processor may be selected over a 32-bit processor for system on a chip or microcontroller applications that require extremely low-power electronics, or are part of a mixed-signal integrated circuit with noise-sensitive on-chip analog electronics such as high-resolution analog to digital converters, or both.
A SoC integrates a microcontroller or microprocessor with advanced peripherals like graphics processing unit (GPU), Wi-Fi module, or one or more coprocessors.

Transistor count

transistor densitytransistorsdoubling of transistors
Following the development of MOS integrated circuit chips in the early 1960s, MOS chips reached higher transistor density and lower manufacturing costs than bipolar integrated circuits by 1964.
It is the most common measure of IC complexity (although the majority of transistors in modern microprocessors are contained in the cache memories, which consist mostly of the same memory cell circuits replicated many times).

Supercomputer

high-performance computinghigh performance computingsupercomputing
Continued increases in microprocessor capacity have since rendered other forms of computers almost completely obsolete (see history of computing hardware), with one or more microprocessors used in everything from the smallest embedded systems and handheld devices to the largest mainframes and supercomputers.
The CM-1 used as many as 65,536 simplified custom microprocessors connected together in a network to share data.

MOSFET

metal-oxide-semiconductorMOSMOS integrated circuit
Following the development of MOS integrated circuit chips in the early 1960s, MOS chips reached higher transistor density and lower manufacturing costs than bipolar integrated circuits by 1964. Integrated circuit processors are produced in large numbers by highly automated metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) fabrication processes, resulting in a low unit price.
MOSFET scaling and miniaturization has been driving the rapid exponential growth of electronic semiconductor technology since the 1960s, and enable high-density integrated circuits (ICs) such as memory chips and microprocessors.

Federico Faggin

Faggin, Federico
The earliest MOS transistors had aluminium metal gates, which Italian engineer Federico Faggin replaced with silicon self-aligned gates to develop the first silicon-gate MOS chip at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1968.
He is best known for designing the first commercial microprocessor, the Intel 4004.

Intel 4004

4004MCS-4first commercially available microprocessor (Intel 4004)
The first single-chip microprocessor was the Intel 4004, released on a single MOS LSI chip in 1971.
It was the first commercially available microprocessor, and the first in a long line of Intel CPUs. The chip design, implemented with the MOS silicon gate technology, started in April 1970, and was created by Federico Faggin who led the project from beginning to completion in 1971.

Central processing unit

CPUprocessorprocessors
In 1997, about 55% of all CPUs sold in the world were 8-bit microcontrollers, of which over 2 billion were sold. The application of MOS LSI chips to computing was the basis for the first microprocessors, as engineers began recognizing that a complete computer processor could be contained on several MOS LSI chips.
Most modern CPUs are microprocessors, where the CPU is contained on a single metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuit (IC) chip.

Moore's law

Moore’s Lawcomputational powermass-produced
MOS chips further increased in complexity at a rate predicted by Moore's law, leading to large-scale integration (LSI) with hundreds of transistors on a single MOS chip by the late 1960s.
Advancements in digital electronics are strongly linked to Moore's law: quality-adjusted microprocessor prices, memory capacity (RAM and flash), sensors, and even the number and size of pixels in digital cameras.

Intel

Intel CorporationIntel Corp.Intel Inside
Faggin later joined Intel and used his silicon-gate MOS technology to develop the 4004, along with Marcian Hoff, Stanley Mazor and Masatoshi Shima in 1971.
It is the world's second largest and second highest valued semiconductor chip manufacturer based on revenue after being overtaken by Samsung Electronics, and is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers (PCs).

Masatoshi Shima

Shima Masatoshi
Faggin later joined Intel and used his silicon-gate MOS technology to develop the 4004, along with Marcian Hoff, Stanley Mazor and Masatoshi Shima in 1971.
He was one of the designers of the world's first microprocessor, the Intel 4004, producing the initial three-chip CPU design at Busicom in 1968, before working with Intel's Ted Hoff, Stanley Mazor and Federico Faggin on the final single-chip CPU design from 1969 to 1970.

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
General-purpose microprocessors in personal computers are used for computation, text editing, multimedia display, and communication over the Internet.
Faggin later used silicon-gate MOS technology to develop the first single-chip microprocessor, the Intel 4004, in 1971.

Intel 8008

8008MCS-88008 processor
It was soon followed by the 8-bit microprocessor Intel 8008 in 1972.
The Intel 8008 ("eight-thousand-eight" or "eighty-oh-eight") is an early byte-oriented microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and introduced in April 1972.

Integrated circuit

integrated circuitsmicrochipchip
The advent of low-cost computers on integrated circuits has transformed modern society. Following the development of MOS integrated circuit chips in the early 1960s, MOS chips reached higher transistor density and lower manufacturing costs than bipolar integrated circuits by 1964. MOS chips further increased in complexity at a rate predicted by Moore's law, leading to large-scale integration (LSI) with hundreds of transistors on a single MOS chip by the late 1960s. A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or sometimes up to 8 integrated circuits.
The application of MOS LSI chips to computing was the basis for the first microprocessors, as engineers began recognizing that a complete computer processor could be contained on a single MOS LSI chip.

Stanley Mazor

Stan MazorS. Mazor
Faggin later joined Intel and used his silicon-gate MOS technology to develop the 4004, along with Marcian Hoff, Stanley Mazor and Masatoshi Shima in 1971.
He is one of the co-inventors of the world's first microprocessor, the Intel 4004, together with Ted Hoff, Masatoshi Shima, and Federico Faggin.

Microcomputer

microcomputersmicrocomputingmicro-computer
Affordable 8-bit microprocessors with 16-bit addressing also led to the first general-purpose microcomputers from the mid-1970s on.
A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU).