A report on Microsoft Windows

Windows 1.0, the first version, released in 1985
Windows 3.0, released in 1990
Previous Windows logo (2012–2021)

Group of several proprietary graphical operating system families developed and marketed by Microsoft.

- Microsoft Windows

150 related topics with Alpha

Overall

OS/360 was used on most IBM mainframe computers beginning in 1966, including computers used by the Apollo program.

Operating system

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System software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs.

System software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common services for computer programs.

OS/360 was used on most IBM mainframe computers beginning in 1966, including computers used by the Apollo program.
PC DOS was an early personal computer OS that featured a command-line interface.
Mac OS by Apple Computer became the first widespread OS to feature a graphical user interface. Many of its features such as windows and icons would later become commonplace in GUIs.
The first server for the World Wide Web ran on NeXTSTEP, based on BSD.
Ubuntu, desktop Linux distribution
Linux, a unix-like operating system was first time released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds. Picture of Tux the penguin, mascot of Linux.
A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer.
Privilege rings for the x86 microprocessor architecture available in protected mode. Operating systems determine which processes run in each mode.
Many operating systems can "trick" programs into using memory scattered around the hard disk and RAM as if it is one continuous chunk of memory, called virtual memory.
File systems allow users and programs to organize and sort files on a computer, often through the use of directories (or "folders").
A screenshot of the Bash command line. Each command is typed out after the 'prompt', and then its output appears below, working its way down the screen. The current command prompt is at the bottom.
A screenshot of the KDE Plasma 5 graphical user interface. Programs take the form of images on the screen, and the files, folders (directories), and applications take the form of icons and symbols. A mouse is used to navigate the computer.

The dominant general-purpose personal computer operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 76.45%.

Microsoft

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American multinational technology corporation which produces computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services headquartered at the Microsoft Redmond campus located in Redmond, Washington, United States.

American multinational technology corporation which produces computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services headquartered at the Microsoft Redmond campus located in Redmond, Washington, United States.

An Altair 8800 computer (left) with the popular Model 33 ASR Teletype as terminal, paper tape reader, and paper tape punch.
Paul Allen and Bill Gates on October 19, 1981, after signing a pivotal contract with IBM
Windows 1.0 was released on November 20, 1985, as the first version of the Microsoft Windows line
In 1996, Microsoft released Windows CE, a version of the operating system meant for personal digital assistants and other tiny computers, shown here on the HP 300LX.
Microsoft released the first installment in the Xbox series of consoles in 2001. The Xbox, graphically powerful compared to its rivals, featured a standard PC's 733 MHz Intel Pentium III processor.
CEO Steve Ballmer at the MIX event in 2008. In an interview about his management style in 2005, he mentioned that his first priority was to get the people he delegates to in order. Ballmer also emphasized the need to continue pursuing new technologies even if initial attempts fail, citing the original attempts with Windows as an example.
Headquarters of the European Commission, which has imposed several fines on Microsoft
Surface Pro 3, part of the Surface series of laplets by Microsoft
The Xbox One console, released in 2013
Satya Nadella succeeded Steve Ballmer as the CEO of Microsoft in February 2014
The Nokia Lumia 1320, the Microsoft Lumia 535 and the Nokia Lumia 530, which all run on one of the now-discontinued Windows Phone operating systems
Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin using a Microsoft HoloLens mixed reality headset in September 2016
Five year history graph of nasdaq: MSFT stock on July 17, 2013
Windows 8 Launch Event in Akihabara, Tokyo on October 25, 2012
The west campus of the Microsoft Redmond campus
Microsoft's Toronto flagship store
Toyota Yaris WRC
1975–1980: First Microsoft logo, in 1975
1980–1982: Second Microsoft logo, in 1980
1982–1987: Third Microsoft logo, in 1982
1987–2012: Microsoft "Pac-Man" logo, designed by Scott Baker and used from 1987 to 2012
2012–present: Fifth Microsoft logo, introduced on August 23, 2012<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://blogs.technet.com/b/microsoft_blog/archive/2012/08/23/microsoft-unveils-a-new-look.aspx |title=Microsoft Unveils a New Look |work=Microsoft |date=August 2012 |access-date=August 23, 2012 |url-status=dead |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120825012157/http://blogs.technet.com/b/microsoft_blog/archive/2012/08/23/microsoft-unveils-a-new-look.aspx |archive-date=August 25, 2012}}</ref>

Its best-known software products are the Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, and the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers.

Windows NT

21 links

Proprietary graphical operating system produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released on July 27, 1993.

Proprietary graphical operating system produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released on July 27, 1993.

Original Windows NT wordmark
Windows 2000 architecture

It was a commercially focused operating system intended to complement consumer versions of Windows that were based on MS-DOS (including Windows 1.0 through Windows 3.1x).

Windows 95 desktop, showing its icons, taskbar and welcome screen

Windows 95

21 links

Consumer-oriented operating system developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows 9x family of operating systems.

Consumer-oriented operating system developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows 9x family of operating systems.

Windows 95 desktop, showing its icons, taskbar and welcome screen
Windows 95 desktop, showing its icons, taskbar and welcome screen
Architectural diagram
command.com running in a Windows console on Windows 95 (MS-DOS Prompt)

Windows 95 merged Microsoft's formerly separate MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows products, and featured significant improvements over its predecessor, most notably in the graphical user interface (GUI) and in its simplified "plug-and-play" features.

Screenshot of macOS Monterey (version 12)

MacOS

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Unix operating system developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.

Unix operating system developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.

Screenshot of macOS Monterey (version 12)
Screenshot of macOS Monterey (version 12)
Simplified history of Unix-like operating systems
OS X logo from 2012 to 2013
macOS logo
Steve Jobs talks about the transition to Intel processors.
A Illustration of Apple's M1 processor.
The original Aqua user interface as seen in the Mac OS X Public Beta from 2000
Screenshot of OS X 10.0
Screenshot of Tiger
OS X Lion was announced at WWDC 2011 at Moscone West
A screenshot of OS X Mavericks
Screenshot of El Capitan

Within the market of desktop and laptop computers it is the second most widely used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows and ahead of ChromeOS.

Windows 8 Start screen, showing default live tile arrangement.

Windows 8

24 links

Major release of the Windows NT operating system developed by Microsoft.

Major release of the Windows NT operating system developed by Microsoft.

Windows 8 Start screen, showing default live tile arrangement.
Windows 8 Start screen, showing default live tile arrangement.
A screenshot of Windows Developer Preview running on a multi-monitor system, showcasing some features
The new File Explorer interface with "Ribbon" in Windows 8
Windows 8 launch event at Pier 57 in New York City
Windows 8 Pro DVD case, containing a 32-bit and a 64-bit installation disc
Snap feature: Xbox Music, alongside Photos snapped into a sidebar to the right side of the screen
Snap feature: Desktop, along Wikipedia App snapped into a sidebar to the right side of the screen. In Windows 8, desktop and everything on it is treated as one Metro-style app.
Windows 8 ultrabooks device showcase in a Microsoft Store in Toronto.

Windows 8 introduced major changes to the operating system's platform and user interface intended to improve its user experience on tablets, where Windows was now competing with mobile operating systems, including Android and iOS.

The command-line interface, showing that the current directory is the root of drive C

MS-DOS

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Operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.

Operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.

The command-line interface, showing that the current directory is the root of drive C
MS-DOS command prompt
MS-DOS (Compaq-DOS) version 1.12 (based on MS-DOS 1.25) for Compaq Personal Computer
MS-DOS 2.11 boot disk for the Leading Edge Model D in its sleeve
MS-DOS 3.3C for the PC-9800 series
MS-DOS version 5.0
German MS-DOS 6.2 Update
MS-DOS version 6.22
Japanese MS-DOS 6.2/V
The original MS-DOS advertisement in 1981
MS-DOS Prompt in Windows 95
Command Prompt in Windows 10
, MS-DOS is still used in some enterprises to run legacy applications, such as this US Navy food service management system.

MS-DOS was the main operating system for IBM PC compatibles during the 1980s, from which point it was gradually superseded by operating systems offering a graphical user interface (GUI), in various generations of the graphical Microsoft Windows operating system.

Apple's iPad (left) and Amazon's Fire, two popular tablet computers

Tablet computer

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Mobile device, typically with a mobile operating system and touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single, thin and flat package.

Mobile device, typically with a mobile operating system and touchscreen display processing circuitry, and a rechargeable battery in a single, thin and flat package.

Apple's iPad (left) and Amazon's Fire, two popular tablet computers
1888 telautograph patent schema
Wireless tablet device portrayed in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)
Apple Newton MessagePad, Apple's first produced tablet, released in 1993
A Fujitsu Siemens Lifebook tablet running Windows XP, released in 2003
The Nokia N800, the first tablet manufactured by Nokia
Steve Jobs introducing the iPad in San Francisco on January 27, 2010
Crossover tablet device types from 2014: Microsoft Surface Pro 3 laplet and Sony Xperia Z Ultra phablet, next to a generic blue lighter for size comparison
Comparison of several mini tablet computers: Amazon Kindle Fire (left), iPad Mini (center), and Google Nexus 7 (right)
Samsung's Galaxy Note series were the first commercially successful phablets.
Microsoft Surface Pro 3, a prominent 2-in-1 detachable tablet
Asus Transformer Pad, a 2-in-1 detachable tablet, powered by the Android operating system
Nvidia Shield Tablet, notable gaming tablet
Games on a Ziosk table ordering tablet at an Olive Garden restaurant
Samsung Galaxy Tab demonstrating multi-touch
Chinese characters like this one meaning "person" can be written by handwriting recognition (人-order.gif, Mandarin: rén, Korean: in, Japanese: jin, nin; hito, Cantonese: jan4). The character has two strokes, the first shown here in brown, and the second in red. The black area represents the starting position of the writing instrument.

The company launched the WinPad project, working together with OEMs such as Compaq, to create a small device with a Windows-like operating system and handwriting recognition.

Windows Me desktop, including taskbar and shortcuts

Windows Me

15 links

Windows Me desktop, including taskbar and shortcuts
Windows Me desktop, including taskbar and shortcuts

Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows Me (marketed with the pronunciation of the pronoun "me"), is an operating system developed by Microsoft as part of its Windows 9x family of Microsoft Windows operating systems.

Screenshot of Windows 95, the first version of Windows in the 9x series

Windows 9x

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Screenshot of Windows 95, the first version of Windows in the 9x series
Screenshot of Windows 95, the first version of Windows in the 9x series
Screenshot of Windows 95, the first version of Windows in the 9x series
Windows 95 logo
Windows 98 logo
Windows Millennium Edition (Me)

Windows 9x is a generic term referring to a series of Microsoft Windows computer operating systems produced from 1995 to 2000, which were based on the Windows 95 kernel and its underlying foundation of MS-DOS, both of which were updated in subsequent versions.