Microsoft Windows

WindowsPCWinMS WindowsWindows PCWindows-basedMS-WindowsWindows operating systemWindows PCsWindows 95/98
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.wikipedia
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Microsoft

Microsoft CorporationMSMicrosoft Corp.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
Its best known software products are the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems, the Microsoft Office suite, and the Internet Explorer and Edge web browsers.

Windows 9x

9xMicrosoft Windows 9xWindows 95/98
Defunct Windows families include Windows 9x, Windows Mobile and Windows Phone.
Windows 9x is a generic term referring to a series of Microsoft Windows computer operating systems produced from 1995 to 2000, which were based on the Windows 95 kernel and its underlying foundation of MS-DOS, both of which were updated in subsequent versions.

Operating system

operating systemsOScomputer operating system
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
The dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%.

Windows NT

NTMicrosoft Windows NTWinNT
Active Windows families include Windows NT and Windows Embedded; these may encompass subfamilies, e.g. Windows Embedded Compact (Windows CE) or Windows Server.
It was intended to complement consumer versions of Windows that were based on MS-DOS (including Windows 1.0 through Windows 3.1x).

MS-DOS

DOSPCMicrosoft DOS
Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs).
MS-DOS was the main operating system for IBM PC compatible personal computers during the 1980s and the early 1990s, when it was gradually superseded by operating systems offering a graphical user interface (GUI), in various generations of the graphical Microsoft Windows operating system.

Windows Server

Microsoft Windows ServerServerWindows Storage Server 2003
Active Windows families include Windows NT and Windows Embedded; these may encompass subfamilies, e.g. Windows Embedded Compact (Windows CE) or Windows Server.
It includes all Windows operating systems that are branded "Windows Server", but not any other Microsoft product.

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer (PC) market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers, tablets and smartphones. The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices (c.f. ).
Since the early 1990s, Microsoft operating systems and Intel hardware have dominated much of the personal computer market, first with MS-DOS and then with Windows.

MacOS

Mac OS XMacOS X
Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers, tablets and smartphones. The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices (c.f. ).
Within the market of desktop, laptop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.

Xbox One system software

Xbox OS version historyA specialized version of WindowsNew Xbox One Experience
A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console.
It is a Windows-based operating system using the Hyper-V virtual machine monitor and contains separate operating systems for games and applications that can run on the console.

Windows Preinstallation Environment

Windows PEWinPEWindows PE (Preinstallation Environment)
Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers (especially on many computers at once), recovery or troubleshooting purposes. The latest version is Windows PE 10.
Windows Preinstallation Environment (also known as Windows PE and WinPE) is a lightweight version of Windows used for the deployment of PCs, workstations, and servers, or troubleshooting an operating system while it is offline.

Macintosh

MacApple MacintoshMacs
Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh (eventually settled in court in Microsoft's favor in 1993). It was announced in November 1983 (after the Apple Lisa, but before the Macintosh) under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Intel-based Macs are capable of running non-Apple operating systems such as Linux, OpenBSD, and Microsoft Windows with the aid of Boot Camp or third-party software.

Windows Mobile

MobileWindows Mobile 6Windows Mobile 6.5
Defunct Windows families include Windows 9x, Windows Mobile and Windows Phone.
It includes a suite of basic applications developed with the Microsoft Windows API, and is designed to have features and appearance somewhat similar to desktop versions of Windows.

Operating environment

environmentssupport environment
Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs).
For example, the first version of Microsoft Windows, Windows 1.0, was not a full operating system, but a GUI laid over DOS albeit with an API of its own.

Apple Inc.

AppleApple ComputerApple Computer, Inc.
Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers, tablets and smartphones. The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices (c.f. ). Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh (eventually settled in court in Microsoft's favor in 1993).
As the market for personal computers increased, Apple's computers lost share to lower-priced products, particularly ones that ran the Microsoft Windows operating system, and the company was financially on the brink.

Smartphone

smartphonessmart phonesmart phones
Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers, tablets and smartphones. The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices (c.f. ). However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
It was also 100% DOS 5.0 compatible, allowing it to run thousands of existing software titles, including early versions of Windows.

Control Panel (Windows)

Control PanelWindows Control PanelControl Panel applet
Components included Calculator, Calendar, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Clock, Control Panel, Notepad, Paint, Reversi, Terminal and Write.
The Control Panel is a component of Microsoft Windows that provides the ability to view and change system settings.

Windows Calculator

Calculatorbuilt-in Windows CalculatorCALC.EXE
Components included Calculator, Calendar, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Clock, Control Panel, Notepad, Paint, Reversi, Terminal and Write.
Windows Calculator is a software calculator included in all versions of Windows.

Microsoft Notepad

Notepad NOTEPAD.EXE
Components included Calculator, Calendar, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Clock, Control Panel, Notepad, Paint, Reversi, Terminal and Write.
Notepad is a simple text editor for Microsoft Windows and a basic text-editing program which enables computer users to create documents.

Microsoft Paint

PaintWindows PaintMS Paint
Components included Calculator, Calendar, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Clock, Control Panel, Notepad, Paint, Reversi, Terminal and Write.
Microsoft Paint (formerly Paintbrush) is a simple raster graphics editor that has been included with all versions of Microsoft Windows.

Windows 1.0

1.01Windows1.00
It was announced in November 1983 (after the Apple Lisa, but before the Macintosh) under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was released on November 20, 1985, as the first version of the Microsoft Windows line.

Windows 2.0

2.02.xMicrosoft Windows 2
Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, and was more popular than its predecessor.
Windows 2.0 is a 16-bit Microsoft Windows GUI-based operating environment that was released on December 9, 1987, and is the successor to Windows 1.0.

Cardfile

CARDFILE.EXEMicrosoft Cardfile
Components included Calculator, Calendar, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Clock, Control Panel, Notepad, Paint, Reversi, Terminal and Write.
Cardfile is a personal information manager, based on index cards, that was distributed with Microsoft Windows starting from the original version 1.01 until Windows NT 4.0 Server.

Windows 2.1x

2.1Microsoft Windows/386Windows 2.1
Windows 2.1 was released in two different versions: Windows/286 and Windows/386.
Windows 2.1x (marketed as Windows/286 and Windows/386) is a family of Microsoft Windows graphical user interface-based operating environments.

Classic Mac OS

Mac OSMacintoshMac
Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer (PC) market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984.
Files in most file systems used with DOS, Windows, Unix, or other operating systems have only one "fork".

Windows 3.0

3.0Windows 3.xMME
Windows 3.0, released in 1990, improved the design, mostly because of virtual memory and loadable virtual device drivers (VxDs) that allow Windows to share arbitrary devices between multi-tasked DOS applications.
Windows 3.0, a graphical environment, is the third major release of Microsoft Windows, and was released on May 22, 1990.