Mid-ocean ridge

spreading centermid-oceanic ridgespreading ridgemid-ocean ridgessubmarine ridgeoceanic ridgeMORBocean ridgeridgemid ocean ridge
A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is a seafloor mountain system formed by plate tectonics.wikipedia
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Seafloor spreading

sea floor spreadingsea-floor spreadingspreading centers
This feature is where seafloor spreading takes place along a divergent plate boundary.
Seafloor spreading is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.

Plate tectonics

tectonic platesplate tectonictectonic
A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is a seafloor mountain system formed by plate tectonics.
Plate movement is thought to be driven by a combination of the motion of the seafloor away from spreading ridges due to variations in topography (the ridge is a topographic high) and density changes in the crust (density increases as newly formed crust cools and moves away from the ridge).

Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Reykjanes RidgeAtlantic RidgeMid-Atlantic
The first discovered mid-ocean ridge was the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which is a spreading center that bisects the North and South Atlantic basins; hence the origin of the name 'mid-ocean ridge'.
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) is a mid-ocean ridge, a divergent tectonic plate or constructive plate boundary located along the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, and part of the longest mountain range in the world.

Seabed

sea floorocean floorseafloor
The production of new seafloor and oceanic lithosphere results from mantle upwelling in response to plate separation.
The mid-ocean ridge, as its name implies, is a mountainous rise through the middle of all the oceans, between the continents.

Divergent boundary

divergentdivergent boundariesdivergent plate boundaries
This feature is where seafloor spreading takes place along a divergent plate boundary.
Most active divergent plate boundaries occur between oceanic plates and exist as mid-oceanic ridges.

List of mountain ranges

longestEuropean mountain rangesList of mountain ranges in Antarctica
The mid-ocean ridges of the world are connected and form the Ocean Ridge, a single global mid-oceanic ridge system that is part of every ocean, making it the longest mountain range in the world.

Magma

magmaticmeltmagmas
The melt rises as magma at the linear weakness between the separating plates, and emerges as lava, creating new oceanic crust and lithosphere upon cooling.
Magma is produced by melting of the mantle and/or the crust at various tectonic settings, including subduction zones, continental rift zones, mid-ocean ridges and hotspots.

East Pacific Rise

Inactive sulfides along the East Pacific Rise (spreading center)southern East Pacific Rise
Slow-spreading ridges such as the Mid-Atlantic Ridge have spread much less far (showing a steeper profile) than faster ridges such as the East Pacific Rise (gentle profile) for the same amount of time and cooling and consequent bathymetric deepening.
The East Pacific Rise is a mid-oceanic ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary located along the floor of the Pacific Ocean.

Ocean

marineoceansmaritime
The mid-ocean ridges of the world are connected and form the Ocean Ridge, a single global mid-oceanic ridge system that is part of every ocean, making it the longest mountain range in the world.
The mid-ocean ridges of the world are connected and form a single global mid-oceanic ridge system that is part of every ocean and the longest mountain range in the world.

Gakkel Ridge

Nansen-Gakkel RidgeArctic Mid-Ocean RidgeGakkel
Ridges that spread at rates
The Gakkel Ridge (formerly known as the Nansen Cordillera and Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge) is a mid-oceanic ridge, a divergent tectonic plate boundary between the North American Plate and the Eurasian Plate.

Mantle (geology)

mantleEarth's mantlemantles
The production of new seafloor and oceanic lithosphere results from mantle upwelling in response to plate separation.
Partial melting of the mantle at mid-ocean ridges produces oceanic crust, and partial melting of the mantle at subduction zones produces continental crust.

Southwest Indian Ridge

African-Antarctic spreading zoneIndian RidgeSouth West Indian Ridge
Ridges that spread at rates
The Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) is a mid-ocean ridge located along the floors of the south-west Indian Ocean and south-east Atlantic Ocean.

Andes

AndeanAndes MountainsAndean region
The continuous mountain range is 65000 km long (several times longer than the Andes, the longest continental mountain range), and the total length of the oceanic ridge system is 80000 km long.
Despite being a type location for calc-alkalic and subduction volcanism, the Andean Volcanic Belt has a large range of volcano-tectonic settings, such as rift systems and extensional zones, transpressional faults, subduction of mid-ocean ridges and seamount chains apart from a large range of crustal thicknesses and magma ascent paths, and different amount of crustal assimilations.

Earth's magnetic field

geomagnetismgeomagneticgeomagnetic field
The orientations of the field preserved in the oceanic crust comprise a record of directions of the Earth's magnetic field with time.
The polarity of the Earth's magnetic field is recorded in igneous rocks, and reversals of the field are thus detectable as "stripes" centered on mid-ocean ridges where the sea floor is spreading, while the stability of the geomagnetic poles between reversals has allowed paleomagnetists to track the past motion of continents.

Rift valley

rift valleysrift zonerift-valley
Slow-spreading ridges (less than 40 mm/yr) generally have large rift valleys, sometimes as wide as 10–20 km (6.2–12.4 mi), and very rugged terrain at the ridge crest that can have relief of up to a 1000 m. By contrast, fast-spreading ridges (greater than 90 mm/yr) such as the East Pacific Rise lack rift valleys.
The most extensive rift valley is located along the crest of the mid-ocean ridge system and is the result of sea floor spreading.

Fracture zone

fracture zones.axial ridge
The flanks of mid-ocean ridges are in many places marked by the inactive scars of transform faults called fracture zones.
A fracture zone is a linear oceanic feature—often hundreds, even thousands of kilometers long—resulting from the action of offset mid-ocean ridge axis segments.

Oceanic crust

oceanicoceanic plateocean crust
The melt rises as magma at the linear weakness between the separating plates, and emerges as lava, creating new oceanic crust and lithosphere upon cooling.

Earth's mantle

mantleEarth mantle
New magma of basalt composition emerges at and near the axis because of decompression melting in the underlying Earth's mantle.
Partial melting of the mantle at mid-ocean ridges produces oceanic crust, and partial melting of the mantle at subduction zones produces continental crust.

Transform fault

transform boundarytransformtransform faults
The spreading center or axis, commonly connects to a transform fault oriented at right angles to the axis.
Geophysicist and geologist John Tuzo Wilson recognized that the offsets of oceanic ridges by faults do not follow the classical pattern of an offset fence or geological marker in Reid's rebound theory of faulting, from which the sense of slip is derived.

Hydrothermal vent

hydrothermal ventsblack smokerblack smokers
Hydrothermal vents fueled by magmatic and volcanic heat are a common feature at oceanic spreading centers.
Hydrothermal vents are commonly found near volcanically active places, areas where tectonic plates are moving apart at spreading centers, ocean basins, and hotspots.

Overlapping spreading centers

overlapping spreading center
At faster spreading rates the axes often display overlapping spreading centers that lack connecting transform faults.
Overlapping spreading centers (OSC) are a feature of spreading centers at mid-ocean ridges.

Oceanic basin

ocean basinbasinbasins
It typically has a depth of ~ 2600 meters and rises about two kilometers above the deepest portion of an ocean basin.
The elements of an active - and growing - oceanic basin include an elevated mid-ocean ridge, flanking abyssal hills leading down to abyssal plains.

Gabbro

gabbrosmetagabbrosmicrogabbro
The crystallized magma forms new crust of basalt known as MORB for mid-ocean ridge basalt, and gabbro below it in the lower oceanic crust.
Much of the Earth's oceanic crust is made of gabbro, formed at mid-ocean ridges.

Mountain range

rangemountain rangeshill range
A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is a seafloor mountain system formed by plate tectonics. The mid-ocean ridges of the world are connected and form the Ocean Ridge, a single global mid-oceanic ridge system that is part of every ocean, making it the longest mountain range in the world.
If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains, then the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65000 km.

Ridge push

ridge-pushRidge push force
Two processes, ridge-push and slab pull, are thought to be responsible for spreading at mid-ocean ridges.
Ridge push (also known as gravitational sliding) or sliding plate force is a proposed driving force for plate motion in plate tectonics that occurs at mid-ocean ridges as the result of the rigid lithosphere sliding down the hot, raised asthenosphere below mid-ocean ridges.