A report on Middle Ages and Petrarch

The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
Petrarch portrait by Altichiero
A late Roman sculpture depicting the Tetrarchs, now in Venice, Italy
Petrarch portrait by Altichiero
Barbarian kingdoms and tribes after the end of the Western Roman Empire
Santa Maria della Pieve in Arezzo
A coin of the Ostrogothic leader Theoderic the Great, struck in Milan, Italy, c. AD 491–501
La Casa del Petrarca (birthplace) at Vicolo dell'Orto, 28 in Arezzo
A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna (Italy), bodyguards, and courtiers.
Summit of Mont Ventoux
Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria
Petrarch's Arquà house near Padua where he retired to spend his last years
An 11th-century illustration of Gregory the Great dictating to a secretary
Original lyrics by Petrarch, found in 1985 in Erfurt
Map showing growth of Frankish power from 481 to 814
Petrarch's Virgil (title page) (c. 1336)
Illuminated manuscript by Simone Martini, 29 x 20 cm Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan.
Charlemagne's palace chapel at Aachen, completed in 805
The Triumph of Death, or The 3 Fates. Flemish tapestry (probably Brussels, c. 1510–1520). Victoria and Albert Museum, London. The three Fates, Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos, who spin, draw out and cut the thread of life, represent Death in this tapestry, as they triumph over the fallen body of Chastity. This is the third subject in Petrarch's poem "The Triumphs". First, Love triumphs; then Love is overcome by Chastity, Chastity by Death, Death by Fame, Fame by Time and Time by Eternity
10th-century Ottonian ivory plaque depicting Christ receiving a church from Otto I
Petrarch revived the work and letters of the ancient Roman Senator Marcus Tullius Cicero
A page from the Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript created in the British Isles in the late 8th or early 9th century
Laura de Noves
Medieval French manuscript illustration of the three classes of medieval society: those who prayed (the clergy) those who fought (the knights), and those who worked (the peasantry). The relationship between these classes was governed by feudalism and manorialism. (Li Livres dou Sante, 13th century)
Dante Alighieri, detail from a Luca Signorelli fresco in the chapel of San Brizio, Duomo, Orvieto.
13th-century illustration of a Jew (in pointed Jewish hat) and the Christian Petrus Alphonsi debating
Statue of Petrarch on the Uffizi Palace, in Florence
Europe and the Mediterranean Sea in 1190
Petrarch's tomb at Arquà Petrarca
The Bayeux Tapestry (detail) showing William the Conqueror (centre), his half-brothers Robert, Count of Mortain (right) and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux in the Duchy of Normandy (left)
Krak des Chevaliers was built during the Crusades for the Knights Hospitallers.
A medieval scholar making precise measurements in a 14th-century manuscript illustration
Portrait of Cardinal Hugh of Saint-Cher by Tommaso da Modena, 1352, the first known depiction of spectacles
The Romanesque Church of Maria Laach, Germany
The Gothic interior of Laon Cathedral, France
Francis of Assisi, depicted by Bonaventura Berlinghieri in 1235, founded the Franciscan Order.
Sénanque Abbey, Gordes, France
Execution of some of the ringleaders of the jacquerie, from a 14th-century manuscript of the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis
Map of Europe in 1360
Joan of Arc in a 15th-century depiction
Guy of Boulogne crowning Pope Gregory XI in a 15th-century miniature from Froissart's Chroniques
Clerics studying astronomy and geometry, French, early 15th century
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
February scene from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Medieval illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th-century copy of L'Image du monde
The early Muslim conquests
Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750

Disdaining what he believed to be the ignorance of the era in which he lived, Petrarch is credited with creating the concept of a historical "Dark Ages".

- Petrarch

In the 1330s, the Italian humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua (or "ancient") and to the Christian period as nova (or "new").

- Middle Ages
The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.

6 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Florence, the birthplace of the European Renaissance. The architectural perspective, and modern systems and fields of banking and accounting were introduced during the Renaissance.

Renaissance

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Florence, the birthplace of the European Renaissance. The architectural perspective, and modern systems and fields of banking and accounting were introduced during the Renaissance.
Portrait of a Young Woman (c. 1480–85) (Simonetta Vespucci) by Sandro Botticelli
View of Florence, birthplace of the Renaissance
Coluccio Salutati
A political map of the Italian Peninsula circa 1494
Pieter Bruegel's The Triumph of Death (c. 1562) reflects the social upheaval and terror that followed the plague that devastated medieval Europe.
Lorenzo de' Medici, ruler of Florence and patron of arts (Portrait by Vasari)
Pico della Mirandola, writer of the famous Oration on the Dignity of Man, which has been called the "Manifesto of the Renaissance".
Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man (c. 1490) demonstrates the effect writers of Antiquity had on Renaissance thinkers. Based on the specifications in Vitruvius' De architectura (1st century BC), Leonardo tried to draw the perfectly proportioned man. (Museum Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice)
Anonymous portrait of Nicolaus Copernicus (c. 1580)
Portrait of Luca Pacioli, father of accounting, painted by Jacopo de' Barbari, 1495, (Museo di Capodimonte).
The world map by Pietro Coppo, Venice, 1520
Alexander VI, a Borgia Pope infamous for his corruption
Adoration of the Magi and Solomon adored by the Queen of Sheba from the Farnese Hours (1546) by Giulio Clovio marks the end of the Italian Renaissance of illuminated manuscript together with the Index Librorum Prohibitorum.
Leonardo Bruni
"What a piece of work is a man, how noble in reason, how infinite in faculties, in form and moving how express and admirable, in action how like an angel, in apprehension how like a god!" – from William Shakespeare's Hamlet.
Château de Chambord (1519–1547), one of the most famous examples of Renaissance architecture
Portrait of Emperor Maximilian I, by Albrecht Dürer, 1519
Erasmus of Rotterdam in 1523, as depicted by Hans Holbein the Younger
São Pedro Papa, 1530–1535, by Grão Vasco Fernandes. A pinnacle piece from when the Portuguese Renaissance had considerable external influence.
The Palace of Facets on the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin
Theotokos and The Child, the late-17th-century Russian icon by Karp Zolotaryov, with notably realistic depiction of faces and clothing.
The Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial, by Juan de Herrera and Juan Bautista de Toledo
A cover of the Lives of the Artists by Giorgio Vasari
Painting of the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, an event in the French Wars of Religion, by François Dubois

The Renaissance is a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries, characterized by an effort to revive and surpass ideas and achievements of classical antiquity.

As a cultural movement, the Renaissance encompassed innovative flowering of Latin and vernacular literatures, beginning with the 14th-century resurgence of learning based on classical sources, which contemporaries credited to Petrarch; the development of linear perspective and other techniques of rendering a more natural reality in painting; and gradual but widespread educational reform.

Posthumous portrait in tempera
by Sandro Botticelli, 1495

Dante Alighieri

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Italian poet, writer and philosopher.

Italian poet, writer and philosopher.

Posthumous portrait in tempera
by Sandro Botticelli, 1495
Dante Alighieri, attributed to Giotto, in the chapel of the Bargello palace in Florence. This oldest picture of Dante was painted just prior to his exile and has since been extensively restored.
Portrait of Dante, from a fresco in the Palazzo dei Giudici, Florence
Mural of Dante in the Uffizi, Florence, by Andrea del Castagno, c. 1450
Statue of Dante at the Uffizi
Statue of Dante in the Piazza Santa Croce in Florence, Enrico Pazzi, 1865
Dante in Verona, by Antonio Cotti
Statue of Dante Alighieri in Verona
Cenotaph in Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence
Recreated death mask of Dante Alighieri in Palazzo Vecchio, Florence
Dante in the national side of the Italian 2 euro coin
Divina Commedia (1472)
Dante, poised between the mountain of purgatory and the city of Florence, displays the incipit Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita in a detail of Domenico di Michelino's painting, Florence, 1465
Dante Alighieri, detail from Luca Signorelli's fresco in the Chapel of San Brizio, Orvieto Cathedral
Illustration for Purgatorio (of The Divine Comedy) by Gustave Doré
Illustration for Paradiso (of The Divine Comedy) by Gustave Doré
Illustration for Paradiso (of The Divine Comedy) by Gustave Doré

His Divine Comedy, originally called Comedìa (modern Italian: Commedia) and later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio, is widely considered one of the most important poems of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the Italian language.

His work set a precedent that important Italian writers such as Petrarch and Boccaccio would later follow.

Florence

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City in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany region.

City in Central Italy and the capital city of the Tuscany region.

View of Florence by Hartmann Schedel, published in 1493
Julius Caesar established Florence in 59 BC.
The Goth King Totila razes the walls of Florence during the Gothic War: illumination from the Chigi manuscript of Villani's Cronica.
The Basilica di San Miniato al Monte
Leonardo da Vinci statue outside the Uffizi Gallery
Girolamo Savonarola being burnt at the stake in 1498. The brooding Palazzo Vecchio is at centre right.
Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor and his family. Leopold was, from 1765 to 1790, the Grand Duke of Tuscany.
Porte Sante cemetery, burial place of notable figures of Florentine history
1/5 Mahratta Light Infantry, Florence, 28 August 1944
Florence with snow cover in December 2009
Seats in the Florence City Council
(2019–2024)
Cattedrale di Santa Maria del Fiore
Palazzo Vecchio
1835 City Map of Florence, still largely in the confines of its medieval city centre
Ponte Vecchio, which spans the Arno river
Florence in the evening --Same picture as above. The same picture--
Palazzo Pitti
Ponte Santa Trinita with the Oltrarno district
The city of Florence as seen from the hill of Fiesole
Florence Duomo as seen from Michelangelo hill
Piazzale degli Uffizi
Palazzo Pitti on Boboli Gardens' side
The façade of the Cathedral
Piazza della Repubblica
Panorama composite, overview of Firenze, taken from the Giardino Bardini viewpoint
Replica of David and other statues, Piazza della Signoria
Tourists flock to the Fontana del Porcellino.
Tourists and restaurant in the Piazza del Duomo
Fiaschi of basic Chianti
Botticelli's Venus, stored in the Uffizi
Sculptures in the Loggia dei Lanzi
Michelangelo's David
The Uffizi are the 10th most visited art museum in the world.
The Palazzo della Signoria, better known as the Palazzo Vecchio (English: The Old Palace)
Brunelleschi's dome
The introduction of the Decameron (1350–1353) by Giovanni Boccaccio
The Teatro della Pergola
Florentine steak in Florence
UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre
A display of proboscideans in the Museo di Storia Naturale di Firenze, or the Natural History Museum of Florence
Luxury boutiques along Florence's prestigious Via de' Tornabuoni
Calcio Storico
Stadio Artemio Franchi
Rectorate's auditorium of University of Florence
Tramway Sirio in Florence
Route map of the tramway
Florence Airport
Mobikes at Parco delle Cascine, Florence
Dante Alighieri
Lorenzo de' Medici
Amerigo Vespucci
Niccolò Machiavelli
The traditional boroughs of the whole comune of Florence
The 5 administrative boroughs of the whole comune of Florence
Leonardo da Vinci statue outside the Uffizi Gallery

Florence was a centre of medieval European trade and finance and one of the wealthiest cities of that era.

The Florentine dialect forms the base of Standard Italian and it became the language of culture throughout Italy due to the prestige of the masterpieces by Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini.

Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European "Dark Age". From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargilla, c. 1450

Dark Ages (historiography)

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Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European "Dark Age". From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargilla, c. 1450
Triumph of Christianity by Tommaso Laureti (1530–1602), ceiling painting in the Sala di Constantino, Vatican Palace. Images like this one celebrate the triumph of Christianity over the paganism of Antiquity.
Medieval production of manuscripts. The beginning of the Middle Ages was also a period of low activity in copying. Note that this graph does not include the Byzantine Empire.
Medieval artistic illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th-century copy of L'Image du monde (c. 1246)

The "Dark Ages" is a term for the Early Middle Ages, or occasionally the entire Middle Ages, in Western Europe after the fall of the Western Roman Empire that characterises it as marked by economic, intellectual and cultural decline.

The concept of a "Dark Age" originated in the 1330s with the Italian scholar Petrarch, who regarded the post-Roman centuries as "dark" compared to the "light" of classical antiquity.

God Speed! by Edmund Blair Leighton, 1900: a late Victorian view of a lady giving a favor to a knight about to do battle

Courtly love

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God Speed! by Edmund Blair Leighton, 1900: a late Victorian view of a lady giving a favor to a knight about to do battle
Court of Love in Provence in the 14th century (after a manuscript in the Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris)
Warfare imagery: the Siege of the Castle of Love on an ivory mirror-back, possibly Paris, ca. 1350–1370 (Musée du Louvre)
Lancelot and Guinevere in Howard Pyle's illustration for The Story of the Champions of the Round Table (1905)
Courtly vignettes on an ivory mirror-case, first third of the 14th century (Musée du Louvre)

Courtly love (fin'amor ; amour courtois ) was a medieval European literary conception of love that emphasized nobility and chivalry.

The topic was also popular with major writers, including Geoffrey Chaucer, Dante and Petrarch.

Leonardo Bruni

Leonardo Bruni

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Italian humanist, historian and statesman, often recognized as the most important humanist historian of the early Renaissance.

Italian humanist, historian and statesman, often recognized as the most important humanist historian of the early Renaissance.

Leonardo Bruni
Leonardo Bruni, engraving by Theodor de Bry
De primo bello punico, 1471
Leonardo Bruni

He was the earliest person to write using the three-period view of history: Antiquity, Middle Ages, and Modern.

The foundation of Bruni's conception can be found with Petrarch, who distinguished the classical period from later cultural decline, or tenebrae (literally "darkness").