A report on ScholasticismUniversity and Middle Ages

14th-century image of a university lecture
The University of Bologna in Italy, founded in 1088, is often regarded as the world's oldest university in continuous operation
The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
Harvard University, founded in 1636, is the oldest university in the United States and is routinely ranked among the world's best universities
A late Roman sculpture depicting the Tetrarchs, now in Venice, Italy
Moroccan higher-learning institution Al-Qarawiyin (founded in 859 A.D.) was transformed into a university under the supervision of the ministry of education in 1963.
Barbarian kingdoms and tribes after the end of the Western Roman Empire
Meeting of doctors at the University of Paris. From a medieval manuscript.
A coin of the Ostrogothic leader Theoderic the Great, struck in Milan, Italy, c. AD 491–501
The University of Oxford is the oldest university in the United Kingdom and among the world's top ranked
A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna (Italy), bodyguards, and courtiers.
The University of St Andrews, founded in 1410, is Scotland's oldest university and one of the UK's best ranked universities.
Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria
Old main building of the University of Basel—Switzerland's oldest university (1460). The university is among the birthplaces of Renaissance humanism
An 11th-century illustration of Gregory the Great dictating to a secretary
17th-century classroom at the University of Salamanca
Map showing growth of Frankish power from 481 to 814
King's College London, established by Royal Charter having been founded by King George IV and Duke of Wellington in 1829, is one of the founding colleges of the University of London.
Charlemagne's palace chapel at Aachen, completed in 805
Peking University in Beijing was founded as the Imperial University of Peking
10th-century Ottonian ivory plaque depicting Christ receiving a church from Otto I
The University of Sydney is Australia's oldest university.
A page from the Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript created in the British Isles in the late 8th or early 9th century
The University of Virginia in Charlottesville, Virginia in the United States was founded in 1819 by American founding father Thomas Jefferson
Medieval French manuscript illustration of the three classes of medieval society: those who prayed (the clergy) those who fought (the knights), and those who worked (the peasantry). The relationship between these classes was governed by feudalism and manorialism. (Li Livres dou Sante, 13th century)
13th-century illustration of a Jew (in pointed Jewish hat) and the Christian Petrus Alphonsi debating
Europe and the Mediterranean Sea in 1190
The Bayeux Tapestry (detail) showing William the Conqueror (centre), his half-brothers Robert, Count of Mortain (right) and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux in the Duchy of Normandy (left)
Krak des Chevaliers was built during the Crusades for the Knights Hospitallers.
A medieval scholar making precise measurements in a 14th-century manuscript illustration
Portrait of Cardinal Hugh of Saint-Cher by Tommaso da Modena, 1352, the first known depiction of spectacles
The Romanesque Church of Maria Laach, Germany
The Gothic interior of Laon Cathedral, France
Francis of Assisi, depicted by Bonaventura Berlinghieri in 1235, founded the Franciscan Order.
Sénanque Abbey, Gordes, France
Execution of some of the ringleaders of the jacquerie, from a 14th-century manuscript of the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis
Map of Europe in 1360
Joan of Arc in a 15th-century depiction
Guy of Boulogne crowning Pope Gregory XI in a 15th-century miniature from Froissart's Chroniques
Clerics studying astronomy and geometry, French, early 15th century
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
February scene from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Medieval illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th-century copy of L'Image du monde
The early Muslim conquests
Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750

Scholasticism was a medieval school of philosophy that employed a critical organic method of philosophical analysis predicated upon the Aristotelian 10 Categories.

- Scholasticism

At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights usually guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term.

- University

In the West, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities.

- Middle Ages

The efforts of this "scholasticism" were focused on applying Aristotelian logic and thoughts about natural processes to biblical passages and attempting to prove the viability of those passages through reason.

- University

Universities developed in the large cities of Europe during this period, and rival clerical orders within the church began to battle for political and intellectual control over these centers of educational life.

- Scholasticism
14th-century image of a university lecture

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