A report on Middle Ages

The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
A late Roman sculpture depicting the Tetrarchs, now in Venice, Italy
Barbarian kingdoms and tribes after the end of the Western Roman Empire
A coin of the Ostrogothic leader Theoderic the Great, struck in Milan, Italy, c. AD 491–501
A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna (Italy), bodyguards, and courtiers.
Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria
An 11th-century illustration of Gregory the Great dictating to a secretary
Map showing growth of Frankish power from 481 to 814
Charlemagne's palace chapel at Aachen, completed in 805
10th-century Ottonian ivory plaque depicting Christ receiving a church from Otto I
A page from the Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript created in the British Isles in the late 8th or early 9th century
Medieval French manuscript illustration of the three classes of medieval society: those who prayed (the clergy) those who fought (the knights), and those who worked (the peasantry). The relationship between these classes was governed by feudalism and manorialism. (Li Livres dou Sante, 13th century)
13th-century illustration of a Jew (in pointed Jewish hat) and the Christian Petrus Alphonsi debating
Europe and the Mediterranean Sea in 1190
The Bayeux Tapestry (detail) showing William the Conqueror (centre), his half-brothers Robert, Count of Mortain (right) and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux in the Duchy of Normandy (left)
Krak des Chevaliers was built during the Crusades for the Knights Hospitallers.
A medieval scholar making precise measurements in a 14th-century manuscript illustration
Portrait of Cardinal Hugh of Saint-Cher by Tommaso da Modena, 1352, the first known depiction of spectacles
The Romanesque Church of Maria Laach, Germany
The Gothic interior of Laon Cathedral, France
Francis of Assisi, depicted by Bonaventura Berlinghieri in 1235, founded the Franciscan Order.
Sénanque Abbey, Gordes, France
Execution of some of the ringleaders of the jacquerie, from a 14th-century manuscript of the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis
Map of Europe in 1360
Joan of Arc in a 15th-century depiction
Guy of Boulogne crowning Pope Gregory XI in a 15th-century miniature from Froissart's Chroniques
Clerics studying astronomy and geometry, French, early 15th century
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
February scene from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Medieval illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th-century copy of L'Image du monde
The early Muslim conquests
Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history.

- Middle Ages
The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.

236 related topics with Alpha

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From the Apocalypse in a Biblia Pauperum illuminated at Erfurt around the time of the Great Famine. Death sits astride a lion whose long tail ends in a ball of flame (Hell). Famine points to her hungry mouth.

Late Middle Ages

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The period of European history lasting from AD 1250 to 1500.

The period of European history lasting from AD 1250 to 1500.

From the Apocalypse in a Biblia Pauperum illuminated at Erfurt around the time of the Great Famine. Death sits astride a lion whose long tail ends in a ball of flame (Hell). Famine points to her hungry mouth.
France in the late 15th century: a mosaic of feudal territories
Silver mining and processing in Kutná Hora, Bohemia, 15th century
Ruins of Beckov Castle in Slovakia
Ottoman miniature of the siege of Belgrade in 1456
Battle of Aljubarrota between Portugal and Castile, 1385
Peasants preparing the fields for the winter with a harrow and sowing for the winter grain. The background shows the Louvre castle in Paris, c. 1410; October as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Jan Hus
European output of manuscripts 500–1500. The rising trend in medieval book production saw its continuation in the period.
Urban dwelling house, late 15th century, Halberstadt, Germany.
Dante by Domenico di Michelino, from a fresco painted in 1465
A musician plays the vielle in a fourteenth-century Medieval manuscript.
Peasants in fields
Joan of Arc
Charles I

The changes brought about by these developments have led many scholars to view this period as the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of modern history and of early modern Europe.

St. Peter's Basilica, the largest Catholic church in the world

Catholic Church

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Largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide.

Largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Catholics worldwide.

St. Peter's Basilica, the largest Catholic church in the world
The first use of the term "Catholic Church" (literally meaning "universal church") was by the church father Saint Ignatius of Antioch in his Letter to the Smyrnaeans (c. 110 AD). Ignatius of Antioch is also attributed the earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" (Χριστιανισμός) c. 100 AD. He died in Rome, with his relics located in the Basilica of San Clemente al Laterano.
This fresco (1481–82) by Pietro Perugino in the Sistine Chapel shows Jesus giving the keys of heaven to Saint Peter.
The Last Supper, a late 1490s mural painting by Leonardo da Vinci, depicting the last supper of Jesus and his twelve apostles on the eve of his crucifixion. Most apostles are buried in Rome, including Saint Peter.
Jesus' commission to Saint Peter
19th-century drawing by Henry William Brewer of Old Saint Peter's Basilica, originally built in 318 by Emperor Constantine
Chartres Cathedral, completed 1220
The Renaissance period was a golden age for Catholic art. Pictured: the Sistine Chapel ceiling painted by Michelangelo
Ruins of the Jesuit Reduction at São Miguel das Missões in Brazil
While, since the 1960s, Pope Pius XII has been accused of not having done enough to shelter Jews from the Holocaust, his defenders claim he secretly encouraged individual Catholic resistance groups, such as that led by priest Heinrich Maier. Maier helped the allies fight against the V-2, which was produced by concentration camp prisoners.
Members of the Canadian Royal 22e Regiment in audience with Pope Pius XII, following the Liberation of Rome in 1944 during World War II
Bishops listen during the Second Vatican Council
Pope John Paul II was credited as a major influence to the end of the Cold War and the fall of communism. Here with U.S. President Ronald Reagan and his wife, Nancy, in 1982.
Francis is the 266th and current pope of the Catholic Church, a title he holds ex officio as bishop of Rome, and sovereign of Vatican City. He was elected in the 2013 papal conclave.
C. 1210 manuscript version of the traditional Shield of the Trinity theological diagram
The Blessed Virgin Mary is highly regarded in the Catholic Church, proclaiming her as Mother of God, free from original sin and an intercessor.
Mass at the Grotto at Lourdes, France. The chalice is displayed to the people immediately after the consecration of the wine.
Baptism of Augustine of Hippo as represented in a sculptural group in Troyes Cathedral (1549), France
Pope Benedict XVI celebrates the Eucharist at the canonisation of Frei Galvão in São Paulo, Brazil on 11 May 2007
A Catholic believer prays in a church in Mexico
The Seven Sacraments Altarpiece triptych painting of Extreme Unction (Anointing of the Sick) with oil being administered by a priest during last rites. Rogier van der Weyden, c. 1445.
Priests lay their hands on the ordinands during the rite of ordination.
Wedding mass in the Philippines
Catholic religious objects – Holy Bible, crucifix and rosary
East Syrian Rite wedding crowning celebrated by a bishop of the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church in India, one of the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the pope and the Catholic Church.
Saint Teresa of Calcutta advocated for the sick, the poor and the needy by practicing the acts of corporal works of mercy.
Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling
Pope Paul VI issued Humanae vitae on 25 July 1968.

The Holy See also confers orders, decorations and medals, such as the orders of chivalry originating from the Middle Ages.

Christianity – Percentage of population by country (2014 data)

Christendom

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Culturally intertwined with.

Culturally intertwined with.

Christianity – Percentage of population by country (2014 data)
This T-and-O map, which abstracts the then known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. More detailed versions place Jerusalem at the center of the world.
Icon depicting the Emperor Constantine and the bishops of the First Council of Nicaea (AD 325) holding the Niceno–Constantinopolitan Creed of 381.
Spread of Christianity by AD 600 (shown in dark blue is the spread of Early Christianity up to AD 325)
St. Stephen's Cathedral, Vienna.
Picture of Christ in Majesty contained in an illuminated manuscript.
There are few old ceramic icons, such as this St. Theodor icon which dates to ca. 900 (from Preslav, Bulgaria).
The structure of a typical Gothic cathedral.
Science, and particularly geometry and astronomy, was linked directly to the divine for most medieval scholars. Since these Christians believed God imbued the universe with regular geometric and harmonic principles, to seek these principles was therefore to seek and worship God.
Relative geographic prevalence of Christianity versus Islam versus lack of either religion (2006).

The term usually refers to the Middle Ages and to the Early Modern period during which the Christian world represented a geopolitical power that was juxtaposed with both the pagan and especially the Muslim world.

Europe depicted by Antwerp cartographer Abraham Ortelius in 1595

History of Europe

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Europe depicted by Antwerp cartographer Abraham Ortelius in 1595
The peasants preparing the fields for the winter with a harrow and sowing for the winter grain, from The Very Rich Hours of the Duke of Berry, c.1410
A Watt steam engine. The steam engine, fuelled primarily by coal, propelled the Industrial Revolution in 19th-century Northwestern Europe.
Map depicting the earliest human migration in prehistoric Europe.
The Treasury of Atreus, or Tomb of Agamemnon in Mycenae 1250 BC
The Parthenon, an ancient Athenian Temple on the Acropolis (hill-top city) fell to Rome in 176 BC
Europe in the year 301 BC
A mosaic showing Alexander the Great battling Darius III
The Roman republic and its neighbours in 58 BC.
Cicero addresses the Roman Senate to denounce Catiline's conspiracy to overthrow the Republic, by Cesare Maccari
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent in 117 AD, under the emperor Trajan
Map of the partition of the Roman Empire in 395, at the death of Theodosius I: the Western Roman Empire is shown in red and the Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantine Empire) is shown in purple
A simplified map of migrations from the 2nd to the 5th century. See also the [[:File:World 820.png|map of the world in 820 AD]].
Map showing Europe in 526 AD with the three dominating powers of the west
Constantine I and Justinian I offering their fealty to the Virgin Mary inside the Hagia Sophia
Europe in the Early Middle Ages
Europe in 1000, with most European states already formed
Europe in 1204.
Europe in 1097, as the First Crusade to the Holy Land commences
The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade
"Christianization of Lithuania in 1387", oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1889, Royal Castle in Warsaw
The spread of the "Black Death" from 1347 to 1351 through Europe
Genoese (red) and Venetian (green) maritime trade routes in the Mediterranean and Black Sea
Portrait of Luca Pacioli, the founder of accounting, by Jacopo de' Barbari (Museo di Capodimonte).
Cantino planisphere, 1502, earliest chart showing explorations by Vasco da Gama, Columbus and Cabral
The Ninety-Five Theses of German monk Martin Luther, which criticized the Catholic Church
Map of Europe in 1648
Europa regina, 1570 print by Sebastian Münster of Basel
Alberico Gentili, the Father of international law.
Animated map showing the evolution of Colonial empires from 1492 to the present
Contemporary woodcut depicting the Second Defenestration of Prague (1618), which marked the beginning of the Bohemian Revolt, which began the first part of the Thirty Years' War.
Maria Theresa being crowned Queen of Hungary in the St. Martin's Cathedral, Pressburg (Bratislava)
After the Peace of Westphalia, Europe's borders were still stable in 1708
Map of Europe in 1794 Samuel Dunn Map of the World
Expansion of Russia (1300–1945)
The boundaries set by the Congress of Vienna, 1815.
London's chimney sky in 1870, by Gustave Doré
The storming of the Bastille in the French Revolution of 1789
Napoleon's army at the retreat from Russia at the Berezina river
Cheering the Revolutions of 1848 in Berlin
Beginning in 1821, the Greek War of Independence began as a rebellion by Greek revolutionaries against the ruling Ottoman Empire.
Breakup of Yugoslavia
Mikhail Bakunin speaking to members of the International Workingmen's Association at the Basel Congress in 1869
Paris Commune, 1871.
Giuseppe Garibaldi's redshirts during the Battle of Calatafimi, part of the Italian Unification.
Otto von Bismarck, Chancellor of Germany
The Berlin Conference (1884) headed by Otto von Bismarck that regulated European colonization in Africa during the New Imperialism period
The Fourth Estate (painting) by Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo.
Europe in 1916
Trenches and sand bags were defences against machine guns and artillery on the Western Front, 1914–1918
Detail from William Orpen's painting The Signing of Peace in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, 28 June 1919, showing the signing of the peace treaty by a minor German official opposite to the representatives of the winning powers.
Interwar Europe in 1923
People gathered at sport event in 1938 (Sweden).
Europeans from various countries relaxing in wave pool in Hungary in 1939 just before the Second World War. Visible inscriptions in numerous languages.
FAI milicia during Spanish Social Revolution
Starving Jewish children in Warsaw Ghetto (1940–1943).
The fight against German Nazis during the Warsaw Uprising in 1944.
American and Soviet troops meet in April 1945, east of the Elbe River.
Western European colonial empires in Asia and Africa disintegrated after World War II (mostly dominated by British and France.)
East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 20 November 1961
Remains of the "Iron curtain" in Devínska Nová Ves, Bratislava (Slovakia).
Marshall Plan dollar amounts
Germans standing on top of the Berlin Wall at the Brandenburg Gate, November 1989; it would begin to be torn apart in the following days.
Changes in national boundaries after the end of the Cold War

The history of Europe is traditionally divided into four time periods: prehistoric Europe (prior to about 800 BC), classical antiquity (800 BC to AD 500), the Middle Ages (AD 500 to AD 1500), and the modern era (since AD 1500).

The siege of Constantinople (1453), French miniature by Jean Le Tavernier after 1455.

Fall of Constantinople

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The capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by the Ottoman Empire.

The capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by the Ottoman Empire.

The siege of Constantinople (1453), French miniature by Jean Le Tavernier after 1455.
The Byzantine Empire in May 1453, just before the fall of Constantinople.
Restored Walls of Constantinople
The chain that closed off the entrance to the Golden Horn in 1453, now on display in the İstanbul Archaeology Museums.
Map of Constantinople and the dispositions of the defenders and the besiegers
The Dardanelles Gun, cast by Munir Ali in 1464, is similar to bombards used by the Ottoman besiegers of Constantinople in 1453 (British Royal Armouries collection).
Modern painting of Mehmed and the Ottoman Army approaching Constantinople with a giant bombard, by Fausto Zonaro.
Painting of the Fall of Constantinople, by Theophilos Hatzimihail
Painting by Fausto Zonaro depicting the Ottoman Turks transporting their fleet overland into the Golden Horn.
Siege of Constantinople as depicted between 1453 and 1475
Painting by the Greek folk painter Theophilos Hatzimihail showing the battle inside the city, Constantine is visible on a white horse
Following the city's conquest, the Church of the Holy Wisdom (the Hagia Sophia) was converted into a mosque.
Sultan Mehmed II the Conqueror, by Gentile Bellini
Siege of Constantinople on a mural at the Moldoviţa Monastery in Romania, painted in 1537
Mehmed the Conqueror enters Constantinople, painting by Fausto Zonaro

Among many modern historians, the Fall of Constantinople is considered the end of the medieval period.

14th-century image of a university lecture

Scholasticism

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14th-century image of a university lecture

Scholasticism was a medieval school of philosophy that employed a critical organic method of philosophical analysis predicated upon the Aristotelian 10 Categories.

Depiction of a Gothic warrior battling Roman cavalry, from the 3rd century Ludovisi Battle sarcophagus

Goths

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Depiction of a Gothic warrior battling Roman cavalry, from the 3rd century Ludovisi Battle sarcophagus
A stone circle in the area of northern Poland occupied by the Wielbark culture, which is associated with the Goths
The Roman Empire under Hadrian, showing the location of the Gothones, then inhabiting the east bank of the Vistula
Gothic invasions in the 3rd century
The 3rd-century Great Ludovisi sarcophagus depicts a battle between Goths and Romans.
Europe in AD 300, showing the distribution of the Goths near the Black Sea
Ring of Pietroassa, dated AD 250 to AD 400 and found in Pietroasele, Romania, features a Gothic language inscription in the Elder Futhark runic alphabet
Athanaric and Valens on the Danube, Eduard Bendemann, 1860
Gizur challenges the Huns by Peter Nicolai Arbo, 1886.
Europe in AD 400, showing the distribution of the Goths in the aftermath of the Hunnic invasion
An illustration of Alaric entering Athens in 395 (the depiction, including Bronze Age armour, is anachronistic)
The maximum extent of territories ruled by Theodoric the Great in 523
The Mausoleum of Theodoric in Ravenna, Italy. The frieze includes a motif found in Scandinavian metal jewellery.
Ruins of the citadel of Doros, capital of the Crimean Goths
An Ostrogothic eagle-shaped fibula, AD 500, Germanisches Nationalmuseum Nuremberg
Detail of the votive crown of Recceswinth, hanging in Madrid. The hanging letters spell [R]ECCESVINTHVS REX OFFERET [King R. offers this].
Visigothic – Pair of eagle fibulae found at Tierra de Barros (Badajoz, southwest Spain) made of sheet gold with amethysts and coloured glass
Ulfilas explains the gospel to the Goths, 1900
Visigothic crypt of Saint Antoninus, Palencia Cathedral
In Spain, the Visigothic nobleman Pelagius of Asturias who founded the Kingdom of Asturias and began the Reconquista at the Battle of Covadonga, is a national hero regarded as the country's first monarch.
Götaland
The island of Gotland
Wielbark culture in the early 3rd century
Chernyakhov culture, in the early 4th century
Roman Empire
Oksywie culture and the early Wielbark culture
Expansion of the Wielbark culture
Przeworsk culture
Germanic spearheads

The Goths (𐌲𐌿𐍄𐌸𐌹𐌿𐌳𐌰; Gothi, ) were a Germanic people who played a major role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of medieval Europe.

Head of the Colossus of Constantine, Capitoline Museums

Constantine the Great

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Roman emperor from 306 to 337 AD, and the first to convert to Christianity.

Roman emperor from 306 to 337 AD, and the first to convert to Christianity.

Head of the Colossus of Constantine, Capitoline Museums
Remains of the luxurious residence palace of Mediana, erected by Constantine I near his birth town of Naissus
Mosaic in the Hagia Sophia, section: Maria as patron saint of Constantinople, detail: donor portrait of Emperor Constantine I with a model of the city
Porphyry bust of the Emperor Galerius
Modern bronze statue of Constantine I in York, England, near the spot where he was proclaimed Augustus in 306
The portrait of Constantine on a Roman coin; the inscription around the portrait is "Constantinus Aug[ustus]"
Public baths (thermae) built in Trier by Constantine, more than 100 m wide by 200 m long and capable of serving several thousand at a time, built to rival those of Rome
Dresden bust of the Emperor Maxentius, who was defeated by Constantine at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge
A gold solidus of "Unconquered Constantine" with the god Sol Invictus behind him, struck in AD 313. The use of Sol's image stressed Constantine's status as his father's successor, appealed to the educated citizens of Gaul, and was considered less offensive than the traditional pagan pantheon to the Christians.
A Roman fresco in Trier, Germany, possibly depicting Constantia, c. 310 AD
Battle of Constantine and Maxentius (detail of part of a fresco by Giulio Romano in the Hall of Constantine in the Raphael Rooms in the Vatican), copy c. 1650 by Lazzaro Baldi, now at the University of Edinburgh
The Milvian Bridge (Ponte Milvio) over the River Tiber, north of Rome, where Constantine and Maxentius fought in the Battle of the Milvian Bridge
Silver medallion of 315; Constantine with a chi-rho symbol as the crest of his helmet
Gold aureus of the Emperor Licinius
Coin struck by Constantine I to commemorate the founding of Constantinople
Constantine burning books by Arian heretics ('Heretici Arriani'), from a 9th-century manuscript now in Vercelli
Pope Sylvester I and Emperor Constantine
Hexagonal gold pendant with double solidus of Constantine the Great in the centre, AD 321, now in the British Museum
A nummus of Constantine
The Baptism of Constantine, as imagined by students of Raphael
Possible portrait of Constantine's daughter Helena and his nephew and son-in-law Julian
Constantius appoints Constantine as his successor by Peter Paul Rubens, 1622
Constantine the Great by Philip Jackson, a statue unveiled in York in 1998.
York Minster is in the background.

The age of Constantine marked a distinct epoch in the history of the Roman Empire and a pivotal moment in the transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages.

Posthumous portrait in tempera
by Sandro Botticelli, 1495

Dante Alighieri

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Italian poet, writer and philosopher.

Italian poet, writer and philosopher.

Posthumous portrait in tempera
by Sandro Botticelli, 1495
Dante Alighieri, attributed to Giotto, in the chapel of the Bargello palace in Florence. This oldest picture of Dante was painted just prior to his exile and has since been extensively restored.
Portrait of Dante, from a fresco in the Palazzo dei Giudici, Florence
Mural of Dante in the Uffizi, Florence, by Andrea del Castagno, c. 1450
Statue of Dante at the Uffizi
Statue of Dante in the Piazza Santa Croce in Florence, Enrico Pazzi, 1865
Dante in Verona, by Antonio Cotti
Statue of Dante Alighieri in Verona
Cenotaph in Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence
Recreated death mask of Dante Alighieri in Palazzo Vecchio, Florence
Dante in the national side of the Italian 2 euro coin
Divina Commedia (1472)
Dante, poised between the mountain of purgatory and the city of Florence, displays the incipit Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita in a detail of Domenico di Michelino's painting, Florence, 1465
Dante Alighieri, detail from Luca Signorelli's fresco in the Chapel of San Brizio, Orvieto Cathedral
Illustration for Purgatorio (of The Divine Comedy) by Gustave Doré
Illustration for Paradiso (of The Divine Comedy) by Gustave Doré
Illustration for Paradiso (of The Divine Comedy) by Gustave Doré

His Divine Comedy, originally called Comedìa (modern Italian: Commedia) and later christened Divina by Giovanni Boccaccio, is widely considered one of the most important poems of the Middle Ages and the greatest literary work in the Italian language.

An altarpiece in Ascoli Piceno, Italy,
by Carlo Crivelli (15th century)

Thomas Aquinas

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Italian Dominican friar and priest, who was an immensely influential philosopher, theologian, and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism; he is known within the scholastic tradition as the Doctor Angelicus, the Doctor Communis, and the Doctor Universalis.

Italian Dominican friar and priest, who was an immensely influential philosopher, theologian, and jurist in the tradition of scholasticism; he is known within the scholastic tradition as the Doctor Angelicus, the Doctor Communis, and the Doctor Universalis.

An altarpiece in Ascoli Piceno, Italy,
by Carlo Crivelli (15th century)
The Castle of Monte San Giovanni Campano
Thomas is girded by angels with a mystical belt of purity after his proof of chastity. Painting by Diego Velázquez.
Triumph of St Thomas Aquinas, "Doctor Communis", between Plato and Aristotle, Benozzo Gozzoli, 1471. Louvre, Paris.
Icon of the crucifixion speaking to Thomas Aquinas is depicted on this stained glass window in Saint Patrick Church (Columbus, Ohio).
Triumph of St. Thomas Aquinas, "Doctor Angelicus", with saints and angels, Andrea di Bonaiuto, 1366. Basilica of Santa Maria Novella, fresco.
The remains of Thomas Aquinas are buried in the Church of the Jacobins in Toulouse.
St. Thomas Aquinas and the Pope
Detail of The Apotheosis of Saint Thomas Aquinas by Francisco de Zurbarán, 1631
Saint Thomas Aquinas by Luis Muñoz Lafuente
Super libros de generatione et corruptione
Super Physicam Aristotelis, 1595
Thomas Aquinas by Bartolomé Esteban Murillo, 1650
17th-century sculpture of Thomas Aquinas
Portrait of St. Thomas by Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra, c. 1649
A stained glass window of Thomas Aquinas in St. Joseph's Catholic Church (Central City, Kentucky)

He has been described as "the most influential thinker of the medieval period" and "the greatest of the medieval philosopher-theologians."