A report on Middle Ages

The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
A late Roman sculpture depicting the Tetrarchs, now in Venice, Italy
Barbarian kingdoms and tribes after the end of the Western Roman Empire
A coin of the Ostrogothic leader Theoderic the Great, struck in Milan, Italy, c. AD 491–501
A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna (Italy), bodyguards, and courtiers.
Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria
An 11th-century illustration of Gregory the Great dictating to a secretary
Map showing growth of Frankish power from 481 to 814
Charlemagne's palace chapel at Aachen, completed in 805
10th-century Ottonian ivory plaque depicting Christ receiving a church from Otto I
A page from the Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript created in the British Isles in the late 8th or early 9th century
Medieval French manuscript illustration of the three classes of medieval society: those who prayed (the clergy) those who fought (the knights), and those who worked (the peasantry). The relationship between these classes was governed by feudalism and manorialism. (Li Livres dou Sante, 13th century)
13th-century illustration of a Jew (in pointed Jewish hat) and the Christian Petrus Alphonsi debating
Europe and the Mediterranean Sea in 1190
The Bayeux Tapestry (detail) showing William the Conqueror (centre), his half-brothers Robert, Count of Mortain (right) and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux in the Duchy of Normandy (left)
Krak des Chevaliers was built during the Crusades for the Knights Hospitallers.
A medieval scholar making precise measurements in a 14th-century manuscript illustration
Portrait of Cardinal Hugh of Saint-Cher by Tommaso da Modena, 1352, the first known depiction of spectacles
The Romanesque Church of Maria Laach, Germany
The Gothic interior of Laon Cathedral, France
Francis of Assisi, depicted by Bonaventura Berlinghieri in 1235, founded the Franciscan Order.
Sénanque Abbey, Gordes, France
Execution of some of the ringleaders of the jacquerie, from a 14th-century manuscript of the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis
Map of Europe in 1360
Joan of Arc in a 15th-century depiction
Guy of Boulogne crowning Pope Gregory XI in a 15th-century miniature from Froissart's Chroniques
Clerics studying astronomy and geometry, French, early 15th century
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
February scene from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Medieval illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th-century copy of L'Image du monde
The early Muslim conquests
Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history.

- Middle Ages
The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.

236 related topics with Alpha

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Investiture of a knight (miniature from the statutes of the Order of the Knot, founded in 1352 by Louis I of Naples).

Feudalism

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Investiture of a knight (miniature from the statutes of the Order of the Knot, founded in 1352 by Louis I of Naples).
Orava Castle in Slovakia. A medieval castle is a traditional symbol of a feudal society.
Herr Reinmar von Zweter, a 13th-century Minnesinger, was depicted with his noble arms in Codex Manesse.
Homage of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis
France in the late 15th century: a mosaic of feudal territories
Depiction of socage on the royal demesne in feudal England, c. 1310

Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that got flourished in medieval Europe between the 7th and 15th centuries.

A 14th century depiction of the 13th century German knight Hartmann von Aue, from the Codex Manesse.

Knight

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Person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a head of state or representative for service to the monarch, the church or the country, especially in a military capacity.

Person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a head of state or representative for service to the monarch, the church or the country, especially in a military capacity.

A 14th century depiction of the 13th century German knight Hartmann von Aue, from the Codex Manesse.
A Norman knight slaying Harold Godwinson (Bayeux tapestry, c. 1070). The rank of knight developed in the 12th century from the mounted warriors of the 10th and 11th centuries.
The battle between the Turks and Christian knights during the Ottoman wars in Europe
David I of Scotland knighting a squire
The miles Christianus allegory (mid-13th century), showing a knight armed with virtues and facing the vices in mortal combat. The parts of his armour are identified with Christian virtues, thus correlating essential military equipment with the religious values of chivalry: 
The helmet is spes futuri gaudii (hope of future bliss), the shield (here the shield of the Trinity) is fides (faith), the armour is caritas (charity), the lance is perseverantia (perseverance), the sword is verbum Dei (the word of God), the banner is regni celestis desiderium (desire for the kingdom of heaven), the horse is bona voluntas (good will), the saddle is Christiana religio (Christian religion), the saddlecloth is humilitas (humility), the reins are discretio (discretion), the spurs are disciplina (discipline), the stirrups are propositum boni operis (proposition of good work), and the horse's four hooves are delectatio, consensus, bonum opus, consuetudo (delight, consent, good work, and exercise).
Tournament from the Codex Manesse, depicting the mêlée
Elements of a harness of the late style of Gothic plate armour that was a popular style in the mid 15th to early 16th century (depiction made in the 18th century)
Page from King René's Tournament Book (BnF Ms Fr 2695)
The Battle of Pavia in 1525. Landsknecht mercenaries with arquebus.
Fortified house – a family seat of a knight (Schloss Hart by the Harter Graben near Kindberg, Austria)
The Battle of Grunwald between Poland-Lithuania and the Teutonic Knights in 1410
Pippo Spano, the member of the Order of the Dragon
The English fighting the French knights at the Battle of Crécy in 1346
Miniature from Jean Froissart Chronicles depicting the Battle of Montiel (Castilian Civil War, in the Hundred Years' War)
A modern artistic rendition of a chevalière of the Late Middle Ages.
A battle of the Reconquista from the Cantigas de Santa Maria
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The Battle of Pavia in 1525. Landsknecht mercenaries with arquebus.

Knighthood in the Middle Ages was closely linked with horsemanship (and especially the joust) from its origins in the 12th century until its final flowering as a fashion among the high nobility in the Duchy of Burgundy in the 15th century.

World population, 10,000 BCE – 2,000 CE (vertical population scale is logarithmic)

Human history

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Narrative of humanity's past.

Narrative of humanity's past.

World population, 10,000 BCE – 2,000 CE (vertical population scale is logarithmic)
Cave painting, Lascaux, France, c. 15,000 BCE
Monumental Cuneiform inscription, Sumer, Mesopotamia, 26th century BCE
Great Pyramids of Giza, Egypt
The Buddha
Persepolis, Achaemenid Empire, 6th century BCE
Pillar erected by India's Maurya Emperor Ashoka
Obelisk of Axum, Ethiopia
Maya observatory, Chichen Itza, Mexico
The Pantheon in Rome, Italy, originally a Roman temple, now a Catholic church
University of Timbuktu, Mali
Hagia Sophia, in Istanbul, is among the most recognizable symbols of the Byzantine civilization.
Great Mosque of Kairouan, Tunisia, founded 670 CE
Crusader Krak des Chevaliers, Syria
St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City.
Notre-Dame de Paris in Paris, France: is among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of Christendom.
A brass "Benin Bronze" from Nigeria
Chennakesava Temple, Belur, India
Battle during 1281 Mongol invasion of Japan
Angkor Wat temple, Cambodia, early 12th century
Moai, Rapa Nui (Easter Island)
Machu Picchu, Inca Empire, Peru
Gutenberg Bible, ca. 1450, produced using movable type
Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man (c. 1490), Renaissance Italy
1570 world map, showing Europeans' discoveries
Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (formerly Constantinople), Turkey
Taj Mahal, Mughal Empire, India
Ming dynasty section, Great Wall of China
Watt's steam engine powered the Industrial Revolution.
Empires of the world in 1898
The first airplane, the Wright Flyer, flew, 1903.
World War I trench warfare
Atomic bombings: Hiroshima, Nagasaki, 1945
Civilians (here, Mỹ Lai, Vietnam, 1968) suffered greatly in 20th-century wars.
Last Moon landing: Apollo 17 (1972)
China urbanized rapidly in the 21st century (Shanghai pictured).
World population, from 10000 BCE to 2000 CE, with projection to 2100 CE
Reconstruction of Lucy, the first Australopithecus afarensis skeleton found
Overview map of the peopling of the world by early humans during the Upper Paleolithic, following to the Southern Dispersal paradigm.

Post-classical history (the "Middle Ages" from about 500 to 1500 CE) witnessed the rise of Christianity, the Islamic Golden Age, and the Renaissance (from around 1300 CE).

Territories of the Roman civilization:

Ancient Rome

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In modern historiography, ancient Rome refers to Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD. It encompasses the Roman Kingdom (753–509 BC), Roman Republic (509–27 BC) and Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD) until the fall of the western empire.

In modern historiography, ancient Rome refers to Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD. It encompasses the Roman Kingdom (753–509 BC), Roman Republic (509–27 BC) and Roman Empire (27 BC–476 AD) until the fall of the western empire.

Territories of the Roman civilization:
A fresco from Pompeii depicting the foundation of Rome. Sol riding in his chariot; Mars descending from the sky to Rhea Silvia lying in the grass; Mercury shows to Venus the she-wolf suckling the twins; in the lower corners of the picture: river-god Tiberinus and water-goddess Juturna. 35-45 CE
Territories of the Roman civilization:
According to legend, Rome was founded in 753 BC by Romulus and Remus, who were raised by a she-wolf
Etruscan painting; dancer and musicians, Tomb of the Leopards, in Tarquinia, Italy
This bust from the Capitoline Museums is traditionally identified as a portrait of Lucius Junius Brutus, Roman bronze sculpture, 4th to late 3rd centuries BC
Italy (as defined by today's borders) in 400 BC.
One of the most famous Roman sieges was that of the Celtiberian stronghold of Numantia in present north-central Spain by Scipio Aemilianus in 133 BC
Roman bronze bust of an unknown man, traditionally identified as Scipio Africanus the Elder from the Naples National Archaeological Museum (Inv. No. 5634), dated to mid 1st century BC Excavated from the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum by Karl Jakob Weber, 1750–65
Gaius Marius, a Roman general and politician who dramatically reformed the Roman military
Portrait bust formerly identified as Lucius Cornelius Sulla
Landing of the Romans in Kent, 55 BC: Caesar with 100 ships and two legions made an opposed landing, probably near Deal. After pressing a little way inland against fierce opposition and losing ships in a storm, he retired back across the English Channel to Gaul from what was a reconnaissance in force, only to return the following year for a more serious invasion.
The Battle of Actium, by Laureys a Castro, painted 1672, National Maritime Museum, London
The Augustus of Prima Porta, 1st century AD, depicting Augustus, the first Roman emperor
Extent of the Roman Empire under Augustus. The yellow legend represents the extent of the Republic in 31 BC, the shades of green represent gradually conquered territories under the reign of Augustus, and pink areas on the map represent client states; areas under Roman control shown here were subject to change even during Augustus' reign, especially in Germania.
Bust of Vespasian, founder of the Flavian dynasty
The Roman Empire reached its greatest extent under Trajan in AD 117
The Justice of Trajan (fragment) by Eugène Delacroix
Map showing the location of Hadrian's Wall and the Antonine Wall in Scotland and Northern England
The Pantheon, Rome, built during the reign of Hadrian, which still contains the largest unreinforced concrete dome in the world
The Severan Tondo, c. 199, Severus, Julia Domna, Caracalla and Geta, whose face is erased
Bust of Caracalla from the Capitoline Museums, Rome
The Roman Empire suffered internal schisms, forming the Palmyrene Empire and the Gallic Empire
A Roman follis depicting the profile of Diocletian
The Aula Palatina of Trier, Germany (then part of the Roman province of Gallia Belgica), a Christian basilica built during the reign of Constantine I (r. 306–337 AD)
The Roman Forum, the political, economic, cultural, and religious center of the city during the Republic and later Empire
The Orator, c. 100 BC, an Etrusco-Roman bronze statue depicting Aule Metele (Latin: Aulus Metellus), an Etruscan man wearing a Roman toga while engaged in rhetoric; the statue features an inscription in the Etruscan language
Representation of a sitting of the Roman Senate: Cicero attacks Catilina, from a 19th-century fresco
Modern replica of lorica segmentata–type armor, worn in conjunction with the chainmail popular after the 1st century AD
Roman tower (reconstruction) at Limes – Taunus / Germany
Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus, c. 122 BC; the altar shows two Roman infantrymen equipped with long scuta and a cavalryman with his horse. All are shown wearing chain mail armour.
A Roman naval bireme depicted in a relief from the Temple of Fortuna Primigenia in Praeneste (Palastrina), which was built c. 120 BC; exhibited in the Pius-Clementine Museum (Museo Pio-Clementino) in the Vatican Museums.
Workers at a cloth-processing shop, in a painting from the fullonica of Veranius Hypsaeus in Pompeii
View of Trajan's Market, built by Apollodorus of Damascus
A gold glass portrait of a family from Roman Egypt. The Greek inscription on the medallion may indicate either the name of the artist or the pater familias who is absent in the portrait.
The seven hills of Rome
Punishment of Ixion: in the center is Mercury holding the caduceus and on the right Juno sits on her throne. Behind her Iris stands and gestures. On the left is Vulcan (blond figure) standing behind the wheel, manning it, with Ixion already tied to it. Nephele sits at Mercury's feet; a Roman fresco from the eastern wall of the triclinium in the House of the Vettii, Pompeii, Fourth Style (60–79 AD).
Frescoes from the Villa of the Mysteries in Pompeii, Italy, Roman artwork dated to the mid-1st century BC
Woman playing a kithara, from the Villa Boscoreale, 40–30 BC
A boy holding a platter of fruits and what may be a bucket of crabs, in a kitchen with fish and squid, on the June panel from a mosaic depicting the months (3rd century)
Mosaic of "Big Game" hunters, Sicily, 4th century AD
Gladiator combat was strictly a spectator sport. This mosaic shows combatants and referee, from the villa at Nennig, Germany, c. 2nd–3rd century AD.
The "bikini girls" mosaic, showing women playing sports, from the Villa Romana del Casale, Roman province of Sicilia (Sicily), 4th century AD
Pont du Gard in France is a Roman aqueduct built in c. 19 BC. It is a World Heritage Site.
The Appian Way (Via Appia), a road connecting the city of Rome to the southern parts of Italy, remains usable even today
A vomitorium at the Roman amphitheatre in Trier
Rome and Carthage possession changes during the Punic Wars
Carthaginian possessions
Roman possessions

He began the Christianization of the Empire and of Europe—a process concluded by the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages.

Ploughing on a French ducal manor in March from the manuscript, Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, c.1410

Manorialism

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Ploughing on a French ducal manor in March from the manuscript, Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, c.1410
The great hall at Penshurst Place, Kent, built in the mid 14th century. The hall was of central importance to every manor, where the lord and his family ate, received guests, and conferred with dependents
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Generic map of a medieval manor. The mustard-colored areas are part of the demesne, the hatched areas part of the glebe. William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1923

Manorialism, also known as the manor system or manorial system, was the method of land ownership (or "tenure") in parts of Europe, notably France and later England, during the Middle Ages.

Vandalic goldfoil jewellery from the 3rd or 4th century

Vandals

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Now southern Poland.

Now southern Poland.

Vandalic goldfoil jewellery from the 3rd or 4th century
A 16th century perception of the Vandals, illustrated in the manuscript "Théâtre de tous les peuples et nations de la terre avec leurs habits et ornemens divers, tant anciens que modernes, diligemment depeints au naturel" which means "Theater of all the peoples and nations of the earth with their various clothes and ornaments, both ancient and modern, diligently depicted in nature". Painted by Lucas de Heere in the second half of the 16th century and preserved in the Ghent University Library.
Neck ring with plug clasp from the Vandalic Treasure of Osztrópataka displayed at the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, Austria.
Germanic and Proto-Slavic tribes of Central Europe around 3rd century BC.
Tribes of Central Europe in the mid-1st century AD. The Vandals/Lugii are depicted in green, in the area of modern Poland.
The Roman empire under Hadrian (ruled 117–38), showing the location of the Vandilii East Germanic tribes, then inhabiting the upper Vistula region (Poland).
Reconstruction of an Iron Age warrior's garments representing a Vandalic man, with his hair in a "Suebian knot" (160 AD), Archaeological Museum of Kraków, Poland.
Migrations of the Vandals from Scandinavia through Dacia, Gaul, Iberia, and into North Africa. Grey: Roman Empire.
The Vandal Kingdom at its greatest extent in the 470s
Coin of Bonifacius Comes Africae (422–431 CE), who was defeated by the Vandals. Legends: DOMINUS NOSTRIS / CARTAGINE.
The Sack of Rome, Karl Briullov, 1833–1836
Barbarian kingdoms and tribes after the end of the Western Roman Empire in 476
A denarius of the reign of Hilderic. Legends: D[OMINUS] N[OSTRIS] HILDIRIX REX / KART[A]G[INE] FELIX.
Belisarius may be this bearded figure on the right of Emperor Justinian I in the mosaic in the Church of San Vitale, Ravenna, which celebrates the reconquest of Italy by the Byzantine army under the skillful leadership of Belisarius
Vandal cavalryman, c. AD 500, from a mosaic pavement at Bordj Djedid near Carthage
The Vandals' traditional reputation: a coloured steel engraving of the Sack of Rome (455) by Heinrich Leutemann (1824–1904), c. 1860–80

Some medieval authors equated two classical ethnonyms, "Vandals" and Veneti, and applied both to West Slavs, leading to the term Wends, which has been used for various Slavic-speaking groups and is still used for Lusatians.

First Bulgarian Empire in 850

First Bulgarian Empire

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Medieval Bulgar-Slavic and later Bulgarian state that existed in Southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD. It was founded in 680–681 after part of the Bulgars, led by Asparuh, moved south to the northeastern Balkans.

Medieval Bulgar-Slavic and later Bulgarian state that existed in Southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD. It was founded in 680–681 after part of the Bulgars, led by Asparuh, moved south to the northeastern Balkans.

First Bulgarian Empire in 850
First Bulgarian Empire in 850
Slavic tribes and states in Early Middle Ages
The Bulgar colonies after the fall of Old Great Bulgaria in the 7th century.
Zones of control by Slavic tribes and Bulgars in the late 7th century
Part of the Pliska fortress.
Territorial expansion during the reign of Krum
Bulgaria under Presian
Bulgarian Empire during the reign of Simeon I
Emperor Simeon I: The Morning Star of Slavonic Literature, painting by Alfons Mucha
Bulgaria under the rule of Emperor Samuel
Samuel's Fortress in Ohrid
Above: The Byzantines defeat Samuel at Kleidion; below: the death of Samuel, Manasses Chronicle
Khan Omurtag was the first Bulgarian ruler known to have claimed divine origin, Madrid Skylitzes
The symbol ıYı is associated with the Dulo clan and the First Empire
A replica of a Bulgarian sabre found near the town of Varbitsa
A battle scene of the Byzantine–Bulgarian war of 894–896, Madrid Skylitzes
A pendant of the Preslav treasure
Slavic mythology: Sadko (1876) by Ilya Repin
The Pliska rosette dated from the pagan period has seven fingers representing the Classical planets
Bulgarian soldiers kill Christians during the persecutions, Menologion of Basil II
Baptism of Boris I and his court, painting by Nikolai Pavlovich
A medieval icon of Saint Clement of Ohrid, a high-ranking official of the Bulgarian Church, scholar, writer and enlightener of the Bulgarians and the Slavs
Expansion of Bogomilism in medieval Europe
Culture of the First Bulgarian Empire
The ruins of Pliska, the first capital of Bulgaria
The Madara Rider
Early Christian reliefs
Ceramic icon of Saint Theodore, Preslav ceramics, c. 900.
The Old Bulgarian alphabet
A page with the Alphabet Prayer by Constantine of Preslav

It became the foremost cultural and spiritual centre of south Slavic Europe throughout most of the Middle Ages.

The Balkan states
 Political communities that are included in the Balkans 
 Political communities that are often included in the Balkans

Balkans

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Geographic area in southeastern Europe with various geographical and historical definitions.

Geographic area in southeastern Europe with various geographical and historical definitions.

The Balkan states
 Political communities that are included in the Balkans 
 Political communities that are often included in the Balkans
Western Balkan countries – Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia. Croatia (yellow) joined the EU in 2013.
Panorama of the Balkan Mountains (Stara Planina). Its highest peak is Botev at a height of 2,376 m.
Sutjeska National Park contains Perućica, which is the largest primeval forests in the Balkans, and one of the last remaining in Europe.
View toward Rila, the highest mountain of the Balkans and Southeast Europe (2,925 m).
Lake Skadar is the largest lake in the Balkans and Southern Europe.
The Jireček Line
Pula Arena, the only remaining Roman amphitheatre to have four side towers and with all three Roman architectural orders entirely preserved.
Remnants of the Felix Romuliana Imperial Palace, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Apollonia ruins near Fier, Albania.
The Balkans in 850 AD
Modern political history of the Balkans from 1796 onwards.
Hagia Sophia, built in sixth century Constantinople (now Istanbul, Turkey) as an Eastern Orthodox cathedral, later a mosque, then a museum, and now both a mosque and a museum
Tsarevets, a medieval stronghold in the former capital of the Bulgarian Empire – Veliko Tarnovo.
The 13th-century church of St. John at Kaneo and the Ohrid Lake in North Macedonia. The lake and town were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980.
State entities on the former territory of Yugoslavia, 2008
View from Santorini in Greece. Tourism is an important part of the Greek economy.
Dubrovnik in Croatia, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1979.
View towards Sveti Stefan in Montenegro. Tourism makes up a significant part of the Montenegrin economy.
View towards Piran in Slovenia. Tourism is a rapidly growing sector of the Slovenian economy.
Golden Sands, a popular tourist destination on the Bulgarian coast.
Belgrade is a major industrial city and the capital of Serbia.
The Stari Most in Mostar, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2005.
Map showing religious denominations
Approximate distribution of religions in Albania
Ethnic map of the Balkans (1880)
Transhumance ways of the Romance-speaking Vlach shepherds in the past

From classical antiquity through the Middle Ages, the Balkan Mountains were called by the local Thracian name Haemus.

The Parthenon is one of the most recognizable symbols of the classical era, exemplifying ancient Greek culture.

Classical antiquity

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Period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 6th century AD centred on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome known as the Greco-Roman world.

Period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 6th century AD centred on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome known as the Greco-Roman world.

The Parthenon is one of the most recognizable symbols of the classical era, exemplifying ancient Greek culture.
Map of Phoenician (in yellow) and Greek colonies (in red) around 8th to 6th century BC
Etruscan civilization in north of Italy, 800 BC.
Delian League ("Athenian Empire"), right before the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC
The extent of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in 218 BC (dark red), 133 BC (light red), 44 BC (orange), 14 AD (yellow), after 14 AD (green), and maximum extension under Trajan 117 (light green)
The extent of the Roman Empire under Trajan, AD 117
The Western and Eastern Roman Empires by 476
The Byzantine Empire in 650 after the Arabs conquered the provinces of Syria and Egypt. At the same time early Slavs settled in the Balkans.
Plato and Aristotle walking and disputing. Detail from Raphael's The School of Athens (1509–1511)

decline of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century, while the Eastern Roman Empire persisted throughout the Middle Ages, in a state called the Roman Empire by its citizens, and labeled the Byzantine Empire by later historians.

Visigoths

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Early Germanic people who, along with the Ostrogoths, constituted the two major political entities of the Goths within the Roman Empire in late antiquity, or what is known as the Migration Period.

Early Germanic people who, along with the Ostrogoths, constituted the two major political entities of the Goths within the Roman Empire in late antiquity, or what is known as the Migration Period.

Detail of the votive crown of Reccesuinth from the Treasure of Guarrazar (Toledo, Spain), hanging in Madrid. The hanging letters spell [R]ECCESVINTHVS REX OFFERET [King R. offers this].
Europe in 305 AD
Gutthiuda
Migrations of the main column of the Visigoths
An illustration of Alaric entering Athens in 395
Europe at the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD
Greatest extent of the Visigothic kingdom of Toulouse in light and dark orange, c. 500. From 585 to 711 Visigothic Kingdom of Toledo in dark orange, green and white (Hispania)
Visigothic Hispania and its regional divisions in 700, before the Muslim conquest
Capital from the Visigothic church of San Pedro de la Nave, province of Zamora
Visigothic church – San Pedro de la Nave in Zamora, Spain
The Pietroasele Treasure discovered in Romania, attributed to the Visigoths
Visigothic belt buckle. Copper alloy with garnets, glass and inclusion of lapis lazuli. The Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York)

Eventually the Gothic language died as a result of contact with other European people during the Middle Ages.