A report on Middle Ages

The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
A late Roman sculpture depicting the Tetrarchs, now in Venice, Italy
Barbarian kingdoms and tribes after the end of the Western Roman Empire
A coin of the Ostrogothic leader Theoderic the Great, struck in Milan, Italy, c. AD 491–501
A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna (Italy), bodyguards, and courtiers.
Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria
An 11th-century illustration of Gregory the Great dictating to a secretary
Map showing growth of Frankish power from 481 to 814
Charlemagne's palace chapel at Aachen, completed in 805
10th-century Ottonian ivory plaque depicting Christ receiving a church from Otto I
A page from the Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript created in the British Isles in the late 8th or early 9th century
Medieval French manuscript illustration of the three classes of medieval society: those who prayed (the clergy) those who fought (the knights), and those who worked (the peasantry). The relationship between these classes was governed by feudalism and manorialism. (Li Livres dou Sante, 13th century)
13th-century illustration of a Jew (in pointed Jewish hat) and the Christian Petrus Alphonsi debating
Europe and the Mediterranean Sea in 1190
The Bayeux Tapestry (detail) showing William the Conqueror (centre), his half-brothers Robert, Count of Mortain (right) and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux in the Duchy of Normandy (left)
Krak des Chevaliers was built during the Crusades for the Knights Hospitallers.
A medieval scholar making precise measurements in a 14th-century manuscript illustration
Portrait of Cardinal Hugh of Saint-Cher by Tommaso da Modena, 1352, the first known depiction of spectacles
The Romanesque Church of Maria Laach, Germany
The Gothic interior of Laon Cathedral, France
Francis of Assisi, depicted by Bonaventura Berlinghieri in 1235, founded the Franciscan Order.
Sénanque Abbey, Gordes, France
Execution of some of the ringleaders of the jacquerie, from a 14th-century manuscript of the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis
Map of Europe in 1360
Joan of Arc in a 15th-century depiction
Guy of Boulogne crowning Pope Gregory XI in a 15th-century miniature from Froissart's Chroniques
Clerics studying astronomy and geometry, French, early 15th century
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
February scene from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Medieval illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th-century copy of L'Image du monde
The early Muslim conquests
Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late 15th centuries, similar to the post-classical period of global history.

- Middle Ages
The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.

236 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The Age of the Caliphs

Al-Andalus

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The Muslim-ruled area of the Iberian Peninsula.

The Muslim-ruled area of the Iberian Peninsula.

The Age of the Caliphs
The province of al-Andalus in 750
Interior of the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba formerly the Great Mosque of Córdoba. The original mosque (742), since much enlarged, was built on the site of the Visigothic Christian 'Saint Vincent Basilica' (600).
Statue of Abd al Rahman in Almuñécar
Mosaic covered mihrab inside the Cordoba mosque
The Caliphate of Cordoba in 910
The taifas (green) in 1031 AD
Map showing the extent of the Almoravid empire
Expansion of the Almohad state in the 12th century
The Giralda of Seville originally built by the Almohads is a prime example of Andalusi architecture.
A silk textile fragment from the last Muslim dynasty of Al-Andalus, the Nasrid Dynasty (1232–1492), with the epigraphic inscription "glory to our lord the Sultan".
Manuel Gómez-Moreno González's 19th-century depiction of Muhammad XII's family in the Alhambra moments after the fall of Granada.
The Court of the Lions as shown from the Alhambra, the palace of Nasrid Granada
Male clothing of al-Andalus in the 15th century, during the Emirate of Granada
A Christian and a Muslim playing chess in 13th-century al-Andalus
Image of a Jewish cantor reading the Passover story in al-Andalus, from a 14th-century Spanish Haggadah
Linguistic map of southwestern Europe
A section of the hypostyle hall in the Mosque-Cathedral of Cordoba, begun in 785
The Pyxis of al-Mughira, a carved ivory casket made at Madinat al-Zahra, dated to 968
The Alhambra, begun by the first Nasrid emir Ibn al-Ahmar in the 13th century
The cultivation of sugarcane had reached the south of the Iberian Peninsula by the 16th century CE due to Arab conquest and administration of the region.
Diffusion of bananas from India to the Iberian peninsula during Islamic rule.
Averroes, founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, was influential in the rise of secular thought in Western Europe. Detail from Triunfo de Santo Tomás by Andrea Bonaiuto, 14th century
Jewish Street Sign in Toledo, Spain

Al-Andalus was a key centre of Jewish life during the early Middle Ages, producing important scholars and one of the most stable and wealthy Jewish communities.

Fresco of Saint Columbanus in Brugnato Cathedral

Hiberno-Scottish mission

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Series of missions and expeditions initiated by various Irish clerics and cleric-scholars who, for the most part, are not known to have acted in concert.

Series of missions and expeditions initiated by various Irish clerics and cleric-scholars who, for the most part, are not known to have acted in concert.

Fresco of Saint Columbanus in Brugnato Cathedral
Schottenportal at the Scottish Monastery, Regensburg

There was no overall coordinated mission, but there were nevertheless sporadic missions initiated by Gaelic monks from Ireland and the western coast of Scotland, which contributed to the spread of Christianity and established monasteries in Britain and continental Europe during the Middle Ages.

Kingdom of the Burgundians after the settlement in Savoy from 443

Kingdom of Burgundy

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Kingdom of the Burgundians after the settlement in Savoy from 443
Burgundy as part of the Frankish Empire between 534 and 843
The Kingdoms of Upper and Lower Burgundy between 879 and 933
Kingdom of Arles (after 1033)
The holdings of the House of Valois-Burgundy during the reign of Charles the Bold in the late 15th century.

Kingdom of Burgundy was a name given to various states located in Western Europe during the Middle Ages.

Aachen

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Aachen (Aachen dialect: Oche ; French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle; Aquae Granni or Aquisgranum; Aken) is, with around 249,000 inhabitants, the 13th-largest city in North Rhine-Westphalia, and the 28th-largest city of Germany.

Aachen (Aachen dialect: Oche ; French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle; Aquae Granni or Aquisgranum; Aken) is, with around 249,000 inhabitants, the 13th-largest city in North Rhine-Westphalia, and the 28th-largest city of Germany.

Aachen districts and quarters
Construction of Aix-la-Chapelle, by Jean Fouquet
Presentation of the four "Great Relics" during the Aachen pilgrimage, after a 17th-century painting
The siege of Aachen by the Spanish Army of Flanders under Ambrogio Spinola in 1614
View of Aachen in 1690
The modern Elisabethhalle pool
View of the Old Synagogue in Aachen after its destruction during Kristallnacht, November 1938
The tripoint, where the borders of Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands meet at the Vaalserberg
Layered sandstone and claystone formation from the Devonian period below St. Adalbert Church in Aachen
Age distribution of Aachen's population next to Germany's (2014)
Results of the 2020 city council election.
Aachen Cathedral
Cross of Lothair, Aachen Cathedral Treasury
Aachen Rathaus seen from the south
Ford Research Center, Aachen
StreetScooter Work as DHL delivery van (2016)
Aachen is also famous for its carnival (Karneval, Fasching), in which families dress in colourful costumes
The main building of RWTH Aachen University
Typical Aachen street with early 20th-century Gründerzeit houses
Another example of Aachen early 20th-century Gründerzeit houses
New Tivoli, home ground of Alemannia Aachen
Bi-articulated bus of the city's transit authority ASEAG, at the university hospital bus stop
Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel, wearing the Charlemagne Prize awarded to her in 2008
Grashaus
Elisenbrunnen in Aachen
Aachen Theatre
Neues Kurhaus
Carolus Thermen, thermal baths named after Charlemagne
A statue commemorating David Hansemann

During the Middle Ages, Aachen remained a city of regional importance, due to its proximity to Flanders; it achieved a modest position in the trade in woollen cloths, favoured by imperial privilege.

Generic map of a medieval manor, showing strip farming. The mustard-colored areas are part of the demesne, the hatched areas part of the glebe. William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1923

Open-field system

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Generic map of a medieval manor, showing strip farming. The mustard-colored areas are part of the demesne, the hatched areas part of the glebe. William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1923
The method of ploughing the fields created a distinctive ridge and furrow pattern in open-field agriculture. The outlines of the medieval strips of cultivation, called selions, are still clearly visible in these now enclosed fields.
A four-ox-team plough, circa 1330. The ploughman is using a mouldboard plough to cut through the heavy soils. A team could plough about one acre (0.4 ha) per day.
Fiddleford Manor in Dorset, England, a manor house built about 1370. The part of the house in the background was added in the 16th century.
Strip field at Forrabury, Cornwall

The open-field system was the prevalent agricultural system in much of Europe during the Middle Ages and lasted into the 20th century in Russia, Iran, and Turkey.

Romanticized depiction from 1887 showing two Roman women offering a sacrifice to the goddess Vesta

Paganism

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Term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for people in the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism or ethnic religions other than Judaism.

Term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for people in the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism or ethnic religions other than Judaism.

Romanticized depiction from 1887 showing two Roman women offering a sacrifice to the goddess Vesta
Reconstruction of the Parthenon, on the Acropolis of Athens, Greece
Some megaliths are believed to have religious significance.
Children standing with The Lady of Cornwall in a neopagan ceremony in England
Neopagan handfasting ceremony at Avebury (Beltane 2005)
The hammer Mjölnir is one of the primary symbols of Germanic neopaganism.
The Tursaansydän symbol, part of the Finnish neopaganism.

During and after the Middle Ages, the term paganism was applied to any non-Christian religion, and the term presumed a belief in false god(s).

Page from the Vita Sancti Martini by Sulpicius Severus

Hagiography

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Biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader, as well as, by extension, an adulatory and idealized biography of a founder, saint, monk, nun or icon in any of the world's religions.

Biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader, as well as, by extension, an adulatory and idealized biography of a founder, saint, monk, nun or icon in any of the world's religions.

Page from the Vita Sancti Martini by Sulpicius Severus
Calendar entries for January 1 and 2 of the Martyrology of Oengus.
Visual hagiography of St Paraskeva (Patriarchate of Peć, 1719-20).
Example of Greek Orthodox visual hagiography. This is one of the best known surviving Byzantine mosaics in Hagia Sophia – Christ Pantocrator flanked by the Virgin Mary and John the Baptist made in the 12th century.

Hagiographic works, especially those of the Middle Ages, can incorporate a record of institutional and local history, and evidence of popular cults, customs, and traditions.

The Roman poet Catullus was virtually unknown during the medieval period, in contrast to his modern popularity.

Classics

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Study of classical antiquity.

Study of classical antiquity.

The Roman poet Catullus was virtually unknown during the medieval period, in contrast to his modern popularity.
The eighteenth-century classicist Friedrich August Wolf was the author of Prolegomena to Homer, one of the first great works of classical philology.
Schliemann and Dörpfeld's excavation at Mycenae was one of the earliest excavations in the field of classical archaeology.
Map showing the regional dialects of Greek during the Classical period
So influential was Socrates to classical philosophy that earlier philosophers are today known as pre-Socratics.
The Praeneste fibula is believed to bear the oldest known Latin inscription. The inscription means "Manius made me for Numerius".
Schliemann and Dörpfeld's excavation at Mycenae was one of the earliest excavations in the field of classical archaeology.

In the Middle Ages, classics and education were tightly intertwined; according to Jan Ziolkowski, there is no era in history in which the link was tighter.

Chancery (medieval office)

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A chancery or chancellery (cancellaria) is a medieval writing office, responsible for the production of official documents.

Carolingian minuscule alphabet

Carolingian minuscule

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Carolingian minuscule alphabet
Example from 10th-century manuscript, Vulgate Luke 1:5–8.
Page of text (folio 160v) from a Carolingian Gospel Book (British Library, Add MS 11848), written in Carolingian minuscule. Text is Vulgate Luke 23:15–26.
A page of the Freising manuscripts, showing 10th-century Slovene text written in Carolingian minuscule. Bavarian State Library, Munich.

Carolingian minuscule or Caroline minuscule is a script which developed as a calligraphic standard in the medieval European period so that the Latin alphabet of Jerome's Vulgate Bible could be easily recognized by the literate class from one region to another.