A report on Middle Kingdom of Egypt

A painted relief depicting pharaoh Mentuhotep II, from his mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahari
An Osiride statue of the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom, Mentuhotep II
The head of a statue of Senusret I.
A guardian statue which reflects the facial features of the reigning king, probably Amenemhat II or Senwosret II, and which functioned as a divine guardian for the imiut. Made of cedar wood and plaster c. undefined 1919–1885 BC
Statue head of Senusret III
A rare etched carnelian bead excavated in Egypt, and thought to have been imported from the Indus Valley Civilization through Mesopotamia, in an example of Egypt-Mesopotamia relations. Abydos tomb 197, Late Middle Kingdom. Now in Petrie Museum ref. UC30334, London.
A kneeling statue of Sobekhotep V, one of the pharaohs from the declining years of the Middle Kingdom.
Clay model of a Middle Kingdom house. Musée du Louvre.
Seated Statue of Amenemhat III, around 19th century BC. The State Hermitage Museum
Head and Torso of a Noblewoman, around 1844–1837 BC. 59.1. Brooklyn Museum

Period in the history of ancient Egypt following a period of political division known as the First Intermediate Period.

- Middle Kingdom of Egypt

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The pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of ancient Egypt civilization.

Ancient Egypt

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Civilization in ancient Northeast Africa, situated in the Egyptian Nile Valley in the country Egypt.

Civilization in ancient Northeast Africa, situated in the Egyptian Nile Valley in the country Egypt.

The pyramids of Giza are among the most recognizable symbols of ancient Egypt civilization.
Map of ancient Egypt, showing major cities and sites of the Dynastic period (c. 3150 BC to 30 BC)
A typical Naqada II jar decorated with gazelles (Predynastic Period)
Early tomb painting from Nekhen, c. 3500 BC, Naqada, possibly Gerzeh, culture
The Narmer Palette depicts the unification of the Two Lands.
Khafre enthroned
Amenemhat III, the last great ruler of the Middle Kingdom
The Egyptian Empire c. 1450 BC
Four colossal statues of Ramesses II flank the entrance of his temple Abu Simbel
Statues of two pharaohs of Egypt's Twenty-Fifth Dynasty and several other Kushite kings. From left to right: Tantamani, Taharqa (rear), Senkamanisken, again Tantamani (rear), Aspelta, Anlamani, again Senkamanisken. Kerma Museum.
Assyrian siege of an Egyptian fortified city, a scene from the Assyrian conquest of Egypt, probably referring to the capture of Memphis in 667 BC. Sculpted in 645–635 BC, under Ashurbanipal. British Museum.
Portrait of Ptolemy VI Philometor wearing the double crown of Egypt
The Fayum mummy portraits epitomize the meeting of Egyptian and Roman cultures.
The pharaoh was usually depicted wearing symbols of royalty and power.
Painted limestone relief of a noble member of Ancient Egyptian society during the New Kingdom
Punishment in ancient Egypt
The Seated Scribe from Saqqara, Fifth dynasty of Egypt; scribes were elite and well educated. They assessed taxes, kept records, and were responsible for administration.
A tomb relief depicts workers plowing the fields, harvesting the crops, and threshing the grain under the direction of an overseer, painting in the tomb of Nakht.
Measuring and recording the harvest is shown in a wall painting in the tomb of Menna, at Thebes (Eighteenth Dynasty).
Sennedjem plows his fields with a pair of oxen, used as beasts of burden and a source of food.
Hatshepsut's trading expedition to the Land of Punt
Hieroglyphs on stela in Louvre, c. 1321 BC
The Rosetta Stone (c. 196 BC) enabled linguists to begin the process of deciphering ancient Egyptian scripts.
Ostrakon: hunting a lion with spear and dog
Lower-class occupations
Egyptians celebrated feasts and festivals accompanied by music and dance.
Ruins of Deir el-Medina. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
The Bust of Nefertiti, by the sculptor Thutmose, is one of the most famous masterpieces of ancient Egyptian art
The Book of the Dead was a guide to the deceased's journey in the afterlife.
The Ka statue provided a physical place for the Ka to manifest.
Anubis was the ancient Egyptian god associated with mummification and burial rituals; here, he attends to a mummy.
Pharaohs' tombs were provided with vast quantities of wealth, such as the golden mask from the mummy of Tutankhamun.
A chariot
Glassmaking was a highly developed art.
Ancient Egyptian medical instruments depicted in a Ptolemaic period inscription on the temple at Kom Ombo
Edwin Smith surgical papyrus (c. 16th century BC), written in hieratic, describes anatomy and medical treatments.
Seagoing ship from Hateshepsut's Deir el-Bahari temple relief of a Punt Expedition
Astronomical chart in Senemut's tomb, 18th dynasty
Model of a household porch and garden, c. 1981–1975 BC
The Temple of Dendur, completed by 10 BC, made of aeolian sandstone, temple proper: height: 6.4 m, width: 6.4 m; length: 12.5 m, in the Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
The well preserved Temple of Isis from Philae is an example of Egyptian architecture and architectural sculpture
Illustration of various types of capitals, drawn by the Egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius
Egyptian tomb models as funerary goods. Egyptian Museum in Cairo
Kneeling portrait statue of Amenemhat holding a stele with an inscription; c. 1500 BC; limestone; Egyptian Museum of Berlin (Germany)
Fresco which depicts Nebamun hunting birds; 1350 BC; paint on plaster; 98 × 83 cm; British Museum (London)
Portrait head of pharaoh Hatshepsut or Thutmose III; 1480–1425 BC; most probably granite; height: 16.5 cm; Egyptian Museum of Berlin
Falcon box with wrapped contents; 332–30 BC; painted and gilded wood, linen, resin and feathers; 58.5 × 24.9 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Frontispiece of Description de l'Égypte, published in 38 volumes between 1809 and 1829.
Tourists at the pyramid complex of Khafre near the Great Sphinx of Giza

The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Fragment of a statue of Amenemhat III 12th Dynasty c. 1800 BC State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich

Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt

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Fragment of a statue of Amenemhat III 12th Dynasty c. 1800 BC State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich
A guardian statue which reflects the facial features of the reigning king, probably Amenemhat II or Senwosret II, and which functioned as a divine guardian for the imiut. Made of cedar wood and plaster c. undefined 1919–1885 BC
Head of Senusret III with youthful features, 12th Dynasty, c. 1870 BC, State Museum of Egyptian Art, Munich
Sobekneferu was the last ruler of the 12th Dynasty
Stele of Abkau dates to the 12th Dynasty

The Twelfth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty XII) is considered to be the apex of the Middle Kingdom by Egyptologists.

Pillars of the Great Hypostyle Hall, in The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia

Thebes, Egypt

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Ancient Egyptian city located along the Nile about 800 km south of the Mediterranean.

Ancient Egyptian city located along the Nile about 800 km south of the Mediterranean.

Pillars of the Great Hypostyle Hall, in The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt, and Nubia
Population of Thebes 2000-900 BC
The Theban Necropolis
Serekh of Intef I inscribed posthumously for him by Mentuhotep II
Depiction of Asiatic (left) and Egyptian people (right). The Asiatic leader is labeled as "Ruler of foreign lands", Ibsha.
Statues of Memnon at Thebes during the flood, after David Roberts, c. 1845
Overhead illustration of the Karnak temple
The Ramesseum at Thebes, by John Frederick Lewis, c. 1845 (Yale Center for British Art, New Haven)
Polychromed column with bass-reliefs at the temple of Medinet Habu, dedicated to Rameses III
A column of Taharqa at the precinct of Amun-Re at Karnak Temple restored to full height
Relief in Hathor temple, Deir el-Medina (built during the Ptolemaic Dynasty)
The main entrance to Karnak flanked by ram-headed sphinxes
Obelisk, Ramesside colossi and great pylon of Luxor Temple with subtle orange glow
Sunshine illuminates Hatshepsut's mortuary temple in Deir al-Bahri
The entrance to KV19, tomb of Mentuherkhepeshef in the Valley of the Kings

Thebes was the main city of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome (Sceptre nome) and was the capital of Egypt for long periods during the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom eras.

Funerary stele of Intef II, on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt

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Well-attested group of rulers.

Well-attested group of rulers.

Funerary stele of Intef II, on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Abydos King List, Royal cartouches 57 through 61
11th Dynasty model of Egyptian soldiers from the tomb of Mesehti.
11th Dynasty model of Nubian archers from a tomb in Asyut.

Its earlier members before Pharaoh Mentuhotep II are grouped with the four preceding dynasties to form the First Intermediate Period, whereas the later members are considered part of the Middle Kingdom.

Mentuhotep II on a relief from his mortuary temple in Deir el-Bahari

Mentuhotep II

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Ra"), was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh, the sixth ruler of the Eleventh Dynasty.

Ra"), was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh, the sixth ruler of the Eleventh Dynasty.

Mentuhotep II on a relief from his mortuary temple in Deir el-Bahari
Silsileh rock relief depicting a giant king Mentuhotep II, on the right Intef III and the treasurer Kheti and, on the left, queen Iah.
Sarcophagus of Kawit, photograph by E. Naville, 1907.
Painted sandstone seated statue of Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II, Egyptian Museum, Cairo.
Cylinder seal of Mentuhotep II, Musée du Louvre.
Mentuhotep's third titulary from his temple of Montu at Tod.
I Mentuhotep's mortuary temple, 1) Bab el-Hosan cache, 2) Lower pillared halls, 3) Upper hall, 4) core building, maybe a pyramid and between 3) and 4) is the ambulatory, 5) Hypostyle Hall, 6) Sanctuary.
Cross-section of Mentuhotep II mortuary temple by E. Naville
Painted sandstone statue of Mentuhotep II wearing the Deshret crown, discovered by H. Winlock.
Seated statues of Mentuhotep II next to the causeway
The ruins of the ambulatory
Reconstruction of Mentuhotep II's mortuary temple by Édouard Naville. The presence of a pyramid is debated.
Corridor leading to Mentuhotep II's tomb
Head statue of Mentuhotep II originally in Thebes, now on display in the Museo Gregoriano Egiziano, Vatican.
Mentuhotep II receives offering, Musée du Louvre.
Cylinder seals of Mentuhotep II, Musée du Louvre.
Mentuhotep II's cartouche on the Abydos king list.
Aerial view of Mentuhotep II's mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahari.
Shade-bearer of Neferu, Mentuhotep II's royal wife, in the typical regional artistic style of the 11th Dynasty.
Model of granary from Mentuhotep II's tomb

He is credited with reuniting Egypt, thus ending the turbulent First Intermediate Period and becoming the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom.

Granite statue of Pharaoh Imyremeshaw in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo

Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt

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Granite statue of Pharaoh Imyremeshaw in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo
Statue of the royal sealer and high steward Gebu, 13th dynasty, c. 1700 BC from the temple of Amun in Karnak.

The Thirteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XIII) is often combined with Dynasties XI, XII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom.

The political situation in the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt (c. 1650 — c. 1550 BC).

Second Intermediate Period of Egypt

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The political situation in the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt (c. 1650 — c. 1550 BC).
Thebes (Luxor Temple pictured) was the capital of many of the Dynasty XVI pharaohs.

The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom.

Nubia

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Region along the Nile river encompassing the area between the first cataract of the Nile (just south of Aswan in southern Egypt) and the confluence of the Blue and White Niles (in Khartoum in central Sudan), or more strictly, Al Dabbah.

Region along the Nile river encompassing the area between the first cataract of the Nile (just south of Aswan in southern Egypt) and the confluence of the Blue and White Niles (in Khartoum in central Sudan), or more strictly, Al Dabbah.

"A-Group" style, Nubian pottery, Musee du Louvre
Qustul incense burner, 3200-3000 BC
Kerma style pottery (2500-1500 BC)
11th Dynasty model of Nubian archers in the Egyptian army, from a tomb in Asyut (c. 2130–1991 BC).
Western Deffufa
Daggers of bone and copper, 1750-1450 BCE, Kerma, British Museum EA55442
Mirror. Kerma Period, 1700-1550 BC.
Nubian Prince Heqanefer bringing tribute for King Tutankhamun, 18th dynasty, Tomb of Huy. Circa 1342 – c. 1325 BC
The Turin Papyrus Map, dating to about 1160 BC
Pyramids of Kushite rulers at Nuri
Pharaoh Taharqa of Ancient Egypt's 25th Dynasty. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford UK
Kushite heartland, and Kushite Empire of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt, circa 700 BC.
Taharqa's kiosk and column, Karnak temple
Aerial view at Nubian pyramids, Meroe
Apedemak Temple at Naqa
Kušiya soldier of the Achaemenid army, circa 480 BC. Xerxes I tomb relief.
Marble portrait of a Nubian ca. 120–100 BC
Meroitic prince smiting his enemies (early first century AD)
Wall painting from Faras, first half of 11th c CE, National Museum in Warsaw
Nubian terracotta female figurine from the Neolithic period ca. 3500–3100 BC Brooklyn Museum
Nubian king with bow, Buhen Fortress, 1650 BC, Univ. of Chicago Museum
Nubian Tribute Presented to the King, Tomb of Huy MET DT221112
Nubians bringing tribute for King Tut, Tomb of Huy
Temple of Amun, Jebel Barkal
Entrance to Great Enclosure, Musawwarat es-Sufra
Column and elephant – part of temple complex in Musawwarat es-Sufra
Pyramid of Amanishakheto
Jewelry of Kandake Amanishakheto
Copy of relief from Naqa depicting Amanitore (second from left), Natakamani (second from right) and two princes approaching a three-headed Apedemak.
The "Archer King", an unknown king of Meroe, 3rd century BC. National Museum of Sudan.
Bishop Petros, Christian Nubia
The Relief of Gebel Sheikh Suleiman probably shows the victory of an early Pharaoh, possibly Djer, over A-Group Nubians circa 3000 BC.
Now gone Christian Nubian wall painting in the Temple of Kalabsha

After a period of withdrawal, the Middle Kingdom of Egypt conquered Lower Nubia from 2000 to 1700 BC.

Relief of Amenemhat I from his mortuary complex at El-Lisht

Amenemhat I

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Relief of Amenemhat I from his mortuary complex at El-Lisht
Serekh or Horus name of Amenemhat I, detail of a limestone wall-block from Koptos
The ruined pyramid of Amenemhet I at Lisht
The double dated stela CG 20516
Cartouche of the birth name, or nomen, of Amenemhat I, detail of a wall-block from Koptos

Amenemhat I (Ancient Egyptian: Ỉmn-m-hꜣt meaning 'Amun is at the forefront'), also known as Amenemhet I, was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the first king of the Twelfth Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom.

During the Old Kingdom of Egypt (circa 2700 BC – circa 2200 BC), Egypt consisted of the Nile River region south to Abu (also known as Elephantine), as well as Sinai and the oases in the western desert. with Egyptian control/rule over Nubia reaching to the area south of the third cataract.

Old Kingdom of Egypt

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Period spanning c. 2700–2200 BC. It is also known as the "Age of the Pyramids" or the "Age of the Pyramid Builders", as it encompasses the reigns of the great pyramid-builders of the Fourth Dynasty, such as King Sneferu, who perfected the art of pyramid-building, and the kings Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure, who constructed the pyramids at Giza.

Period spanning c. 2700–2200 BC. It is also known as the "Age of the Pyramids" or the "Age of the Pyramid Builders", as it encompasses the reigns of the great pyramid-builders of the Fourth Dynasty, such as King Sneferu, who perfected the art of pyramid-building, and the kings Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure, who constructed the pyramids at Giza.

During the Old Kingdom of Egypt (circa 2700 BC – circa 2200 BC), Egypt consisted of the Nile River region south to Abu (also known as Elephantine), as well as Sinai and the oases in the western desert. with Egyptian control/rule over Nubia reaching to the area south of the third cataract.
The Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara.
Temple of Djoser at Saqqara
Head of a King, c. 2650–2600 BC, Brooklyn Museum. The earliest representations of Egyptian Kings are on a small scale. From the Third Dynasty, statues were made showing the ruler life-size; this head wearing the crown of Upper Egypt even surpasses human scale.
The Great Sphinx of Giza in front of the Great Pyramid of Giza
Khufu, the builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza
False Door from the Tomb of Metjetji. ca. 2353–2323 BC, Dynasty 5–6, Old Kingdom. Tomb of Metjetji at Saqqara.
Statue of Menkaure with Hathor and Anput from the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Demonstrates a group statue of graywacke with Old Kingdom features and proportions.

Egypt attained its first sustained peak of civilization during the Old Kingdom, the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods (followed by the Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom), which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley.