Middle Kingdom of Egypt

Middle KingdomMiddle Kingdom periodMiddleEgyptian Middle KingdomMiddle Kingdom EgyptianEgyptMiddle Kingdom EgyptAncient EgyptMiddle Kingdom's Twelfth DynastyMiddle Kingdom.
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt following a period of political division known as the First Intermediate Period.wikipedia
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Ancient Egypt

EgyptEgyptianAncient Egyptian
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt following a period of political division known as the First Intermediate Period.
The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Mentuhotep II

Montuhotep IINebhepetre Mentuhotep IIMortuary Temple of Mentuhotep II
The Middle Kingdom lasted from around 2050 BC to around 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the reign of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty.
Consequently, he is considered the first pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom.

Eleventh Dynasty of Egypt

11th DynastyEleventh Dynasty11th
The Middle Kingdom lasted from around 2050 BC to around 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the reign of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty.
Its earlier members before Pharaoh Mentuhotep II are grouped with the four preceding dynasties to form the First Intermediate Period, whereas the later members are considered part of the Middle Kingdom.

Ancient Egyptian religion

Egyptianancient Egyptianreligion
During the Middle Kingdom period, Osiris became the most important deity in popular religion.
Over the course of the Middle Kingdom, however, he was displaced in that role by Amun, who may have arisen elsewhere.

Hyksos

Heka-chasutarrival of the HyksosGreater Hyksos
The Middle Kingdom was followed by the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt, another period of division that involved foreign invasions of the country by the Hyksos of West Asia.
This expression begins to appear as early as the late Old Kingdom of Egypt to refer to various Nubian chieftains and in the Middle Kingdom to refer to the Semitic-speaking chieftains of Syria and Canaan.

Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt

12th DynastyTwelfth DynastyTwelfth
The Middle Kingdom lasted from around 2050 BC to around 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the reign of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty. The leader of this expedition was his vizier Amenemhat, who is widely assumed to be the future pharaoh Amenemhet I, the first king of the Twelfth Dynasty.
The Twelfth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (Dynasty XII) is often combined with the Eleventh, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Dynasties under the group title Middle Kingdom.

First Intermediate Period of Egypt

First Intermediate PeriodFirstFirst Intermediate
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt following a period of political division known as the First Intermediate Period. Mentuhotep II commanded petty campaigns south as far as the Second Cataract in Nubia, which had gained its independence during the First Intermediate Period.
This event marked the beginning of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

Amenemhat I

Amenemhet I
The leader of this expedition was his vizier Amenemhat, who is widely assumed to be the future pharaoh Amenemhet I, the first king of the Twelfth Dynasty.
Amenemhat I (Middle Egyptian: jmn-m-ḥꜣt; /jaˈmaːnumaˌħuːʀiʔ/) also Amenemhet I and the hellenized form Ammenemes, was the first ruler of the Twelfth Dynasty, the dynasty considered to be the golden-age of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.

Mentuhotep III

Sankhkare Mentuhotep III
He died after a reign of 51 years and passed the throne to his son, Mentuhotep III.
Sankhkare Mentuhotep III (also Montuhotep III) of the Eleventh dynasty was Pharaoh of Egypt during the Middle Kingdom.

Lisht

el-LishtLicht
The location of this capital is unknown, but is presumably near the city's necropolis, the present-day el-Lisht.
It is the site of Middle Kingdom royal and elite burials, including two pyramids built by Amenemhat I and Senusret I.

Ugarit

Ras ShamraKings of UgaritUgaritic
To the west, he consolidated his power over the Oases, and extended commercial contacts into Syrio-Palestine as far as Ugarit.
Evidence of the earliest Ugaritic contact with Egypt (and the first exact dating of Ugaritic civilization) comes from a carnelian bead identified with the Middle Kingdom pharaoh Senusret I, 1971–1926 BCE.

Senusret III

Senwosret IIISesostris IIIKhakaure Senusret III
His son Senusret III succeeded him.
He ruled from 1878 BC to 1839 BC during a time of great power and prosperity, and was the fifth king of the Twelfth Dynasty of the Middle Kingdom.

Nubia

NubianChristian Nubiaancient Nubians
Mentuhotep II commanded petty campaigns south as far as the Second Cataract in Nubia, which had gained its independence during the First Intermediate Period.
During the Egyptian Middle Kingdom (c.

Semna (Nubia)

SemnaSemna fortressSemna,
After his victories, Senusret built a series of massive forts throughout the country to establish the formal boundary between Egyptian conquests and unconquered Nubia at Semna.
Semna was a fortified area established in the reign of Senusret I (1965–1920 BC) on the west bank of the Nile at the southern end of a series of Middle Kingdom fortresses founded during the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt (1985–1795 BCE) in the Second-Cataract area of Lower Nubia.

Khnumhotep I

Khnumhotep I, an official under Amenemhet I, claims to have participated in a flotilla of twenty ships sent to pacify Upper Egypt.
Khnumhotep I (ẖnmw-ḥtp, "Khnum is pleased") was an ancient Egyptian Great Chief of the Oryx nome (the 16th nome of Upper Egypt) during the reign of Pharaoh Amenemhat I of the 12th Dynasty, Middle Kingdom (early 20th century BCE).

Amenemhat IV

Amenemhet IVMaakherure Amenemhat IV
After a reign of 45 years, Amenemhet III was succeeded by Amenemhet IV, whose nine-year reign is poorly attested.
1990–1800 BC) during the late Middle Kingdom period (c.

Lower Nubia

Lowernorthern Nubia
Under his rule, Egyptian armies pushed south into Nubia as far as the Second Cataract, building a border fort at Buhen and incorporating all of Lower Nubia as an Egyptian colony.
During the Middle Kingdom Lower Nubia was occupied by Egypt, when the Egyptians withdrew during the First Intermediate Period Lower Nubia seems to have become part of the Upper Nubian Kingdom of Kerma.

Amenemhat III

Amenemhet IIIAmenemhět IIINimaatre Amenemhat III
His son Amenemhet III began reigning after Senusret's 19th regnal year, which has been widely considered Senusret's highest attested date.
His reign is regarded as the golden age of the Middle Kingdom.

Medjay

MedjaiNubian mercenaries
The personnel of these forts were charged to send frequent reports to the capital on the movements and activities of the local Medjay natives, some of which survive, revealing how tightly the Egyptians intended to control the southern border.
During the Middle Kingdom of Egypt, ancient Egyptians were appreciative of their skill in combat, and therefore employed them as gauchos, infantry soldiers and explorers to spy on foreigners at the borders.

Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt

13th DynastyThirteenth Dynasty13th Dynasty of Egypt
Some scholars also include the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt wholly into this period as well, in which case the Middle Kingdom would finish around 1650 BC, while others only include it until Merneferre Ay around 1700 BC, last king of this dynasty to be attested in both Upper and Lower Egypt.
The Thirteenth Dynasty of ancient Egypt (notated Dynasty XIII) is often combined with Dynasties XI, XII and XIV under the group title Middle Kingdom.

Neferhotep I

NeferhotepKhasekhemre Neferhotep Itext
The strongest king of this period, Neferhotep I, ruled for eleven years and maintained effective control of Upper Egypt, Nubia, and the Delta, with the possible exceptions of Xois and Avaris.
Khasekhemre Neferhotep I was an Egyptian pharaoh of the mid Thirteenth Dynasty ruling in the second half of the 18th century BC during a time referred to as the late Middle Kingdom or early Second Intermediate Period, depending on the scholar.

Heracleopolis Magna

Herakleopolis MagnaHerakleopolisHeracleopolis
To the north, Lower Egypt was ruled by the rival Tenth Dynasty from Herakleopolis.
Between the latter part of the First Intermediate Period and the early Middle Kingdom, the city became the religious center of the cult of Heryshaf, and the Temple of Heryshaf was constructed.

Second Intermediate Period of Egypt

Second Intermediate PeriodHyksos periodsecond period of disunity
The Middle Kingdom was followed by the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt, another period of division that involved foreign invasions of the country by the Hyksos of West Asia.
The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt fell into disarray for a second time, between the end of the Middle Kingdom and the start of the New Kingdom.

Faiyum Oasis

Fayum DepressionFayyum OasisFaiyum
Senusret instead appears to have focused on domestic issues, particularly the irrigation of the Faiyum.
This region has the earliest evidence for farming in Egypt, and was a center of royal pyramid and tomb-building in the Twelfth dynasty of the Middle Kingdom, and again during the rule of the Ptolemaic dynasty.

Merneferre Ay

AyMerneferre Ai
Some scholars also include the Thirteenth Dynasty of Egypt wholly into this period as well, in which case the Middle Kingdom would finish around 1650 BC, while others only include it until Merneferre Ay around 1700 BC, last king of this dynasty to be attested in both Upper and Lower Egypt.
For this reason, some scholars consider Merneferre Ay to be the last pharaoh of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt.