Middle kingdoms of India

Classical IndiaClassical periodmiddle kingdomsLate Classical periodIndiaancient Indiamedieval IndiaIndianIndian kingdomsclassical
The Middle kingdoms of India were the political entities in India from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE.wikipedia
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Economic history of India

economyIndia's dominant economic powerIndia's economy
From 1 CE until 1000 CE, India's economy is estimated to have been the largest in the world, having between one-third and one-quarter of the world's wealth.
The Maurya Empire was followed by classical and early medieval kingdoms, including the Cholas, Guptas, Western Gangas, Harsha, Palas, Rashtrakutas and Hoysalas.

History of India

ancient IndiaIndiaIndian history
The invasion of India by Scythian tribes from Central Asia, often referred to as the "Indo-Scythian invasion", played a significant part in the history of India as well as nearby countries.
During the Classical period, various parts of India were ruled by numerous dynasties for the next 1,500 years, among which the Gupta Empire stands out.

South Asia

SouthSouth AsianSouthern Asia
The Indo-Greek Kingdom covered various parts of the Northwestern South Asia during the last two centuries BCE, and was ruled by more than 30 Hellenistic kings, often in conflict with each other.
This region has also been labelled as "India" (in its classical and pre-modern sense), "Greater India", or as South Asia.

Rai dynasty

Rai KingdomRai SahasiRai Sahiras
The Rai dynasty of Sindh were patrons of Buddhism even though they also established a huge temple of Shiva in Sukkur close to their capital, Aror.
524–632 CE) was a power during the Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Sindh, in modern Pakistan.


IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
The Ror dynasty was a power from the Indian subcontinent that ruled modern-day Sindh and northwest India from 450 BC.
In south India, the Middle kingdoms exported Dravidian-languages scripts and religious cultures to the kingdoms of southeast Asia.


Kamarupa kingdomPragjyotishaKamrup
According to Kalhana's Rajatarangini, he defeated the Tibetans and Yashovarman of Kanyakubja, and subsequently conquered eastern kingdoms of Magadha, Kamarupa, Gauda, and Kaḷinga.
Kamarupa (also called Pragjyotisha or Pragjyotisha-Kamarupa), an early state during the Classical period on the Indian subcontinent was (along with Davaka) the first historical kingdom of Assam.


KanaujKanyakubjaKannauj Empire
According to Kalhana's Rajatarangini, he defeated the Tibetans and Yashovarman of Kanyakubja, and subsequently conquered eastern kingdoms of Magadha, Kamarupa, Gauda, and Kaḷinga.
During Classical India, it served as the center of imperial Indian dynasties.

Delhi Sultanate

Sultanate of DelhiSultan of DelhiDelhi
The "Middle" period lasted for about 1500 years and ended in the 13th century, with the rise of the Delhi Sultanate, founded in 1206, and the end of the Later Cholas (Rajendra Chola III, who died in 1279 CE).
The Indian population had largely been stagnant at 75 million during the Middle Kingdoms era from 1 AD to 1000 AD.

Ajanta Caves

AjantaAjanta caveAjantha
The rock-cut Buddhist viharas and chaityas of Ajanta Caves (a UNESCO World Heritage Site), built under the patronage of the Vakataka rulers.
The second phase of constructions and decorations at Ajanta corresponds to the very apogee of Classical India, or India's golden age.

Indian art

This period is called the Golden Age of India and was marked by extensive achievements in science, technology, engineering, art, dialectic, literature, logic, mathematics, astronomy, religion and philosophy that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu culture.
The political history of the middle kingdoms of India saw India divided into many states, and since much of the grandest building was commissioned by rulers and their court, this helped the development of regional differences.

Sena dynasty

SenaSena EmpireSenas
The Palas were followed by the Sena dynasty who brought Bengal under one ruler during the 12th century.
The Sena Empire (সেন সাম্রাজ্য, Shen Shamrajjo) was a Hindu dynasty during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled from Bengal through the 11th and 12th centuries.


People's Republic of BangladeshBangladeshiBangla Desh
Ruled by three dynasties from their capitals in present-day Guwahati, North Guwahati and Tezpur, it at its height covered the entire Brahmaputra Valley, North Bengal, Bhutan and parts of Bangladesh, and at times portions of West Bengal and Bihar.
The Pala Empire, the Chandra dynasty, and the Sena dynasty were the last pre-Islamic Bengali middle kingdoms.

Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty

It was one of the three main Rajput dynasties of that era, the others being Pratiharas and Paramaras.
The Gurjara-Pratihara dynasty was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, that ruled much of Northern India from the mid-8th to the 11th century.

Karkota Empire

Karkoṭa EmpireKarkota dynastyKarkota
The Karkota Empire was established around 625 CE.

Chalukya dynasty

ChalukyaChalukyasBadami Chalukyas
In the Deccan, the Chalukyas arose forming a formidable nation marking the migration of the centers of cultural and military power long held in the Indo-Gangetic Plain to the new nations forming in the southern regions of India.
The Chalukya dynasty was a Classical Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries.

Andhra Pradesh

AndhraAPAndhra Pradesh State
Khārabēḷa led many successful campaigns against the states of Magadha, Anga, the Satavahanas and the South Indian regions ruled by the Pandyan dynasty (modern Andhra Pradesh) and expanded Kaḷinga as far as the Ganges and the Kaveri.

Vakataka dynasty

VakatakaVakatakasVakataka Empire
The Vishnukundina Empire was an Indian dynasty that ruled over the Deccan, Odisha and parts of South India during the 5th and 6th centuries carving land out from the Vakataka Empire.

Pala dynasty (Kamarupa)

Pala DynastyPalaKamarupa-Palas
The first of the three Kamarupa dynasties, the Varmans were followed by the Mlechchha and then the Pala dynasties.

Gupta Empire

GuptaGupta periodGuptas
This period encompasses two eras: Classical India, from the Maurya Empire up until the end of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century CE, and early Medieval India from the 6th century onwards.
These invasions, although only spanning a few decades, had long term effects on India, and in a sense brought an end to Classical Indian civilisation.

Varman dynasty

The Varman Dynasty (not to be confused with the Varman dynasty of Kamarupa) ruled over eastern Bengal and were contemporaries of the Senas.


The Kāmarūpa, also called Pragjyotisha, was one of the historical kingdoms of Assam alongside Davaka, that existed from 350 to 1140 CE.

Mlechchha dynasty

MlechchhaMleccha dynastyMlechha dynasty
The first of the three Kamarupa dynasties, the Varmans were followed by the Mlechchha and then the Pala dynasties.

History of Bengal

ancient BengalBengalBangla, Bengali: বাংলা/বঙ্গ
It was the largest Bengali empire that was known to ancient and classical India.

Pallava dynasty

PallavaPallavasPallava Kingdom
In some texts the Pahlavas are synonymous with the Pallava dynasty of South India.

History of Bihar

Bihar SubahBihar
Pala Empire was the last empire of middle kingdoms whose capital was once in Pataliputra (modern Patna) under Devapala's rule.