Migraine

migrainesmigraine headachemigraine headachesaura phasestatus migrainosusanti-migraineantimigraineantimigraine drugsbasilar migrainechronic migraine
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.wikipedia
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Nausea

nauseousvomitingfeeling of sickness
Associated symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light, sound, or smell.
Some common causes of nausea are motion sickness, dizziness, migraine, fainting, low blood sugar, gastroenteritis (stomach infection) or food poisoning.

Migraine treatment

treatment
Initial recommended treatment is with simple pain medication such as ibuprofen and paracetamol (acetaminophen) for the headache, medication for the nausea, and the avoidance of triggers.
Because of the complexity of migraine, no preventive treatment modality is effective for all migraine sufferers.

Aura (symptom)

auraaurasmigraine with aura
Up to one-third of people have an aura: typically a short period of visual disturbance that signals that the headache will soon occur.
An aura is a perceptual disturbance experienced by some with migraines or seizures.

Ibuprofen

MotrinChildren's Motrinibruprofen
Initial recommended treatment is with simple pain medication such as ibuprofen and paracetamol (acetaminophen) for the headache, medication for the nausea, and the avoidance of triggers.
This includes painful menstrual periods, migraines, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Photophobia

photophobicsensitivity to lightlight sensitivity
Associated symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light, sound, or smell. The pain is frequently accompanied by nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light, sensitivity to sound, sensitivity to smells, fatigue and irritability.
Common causes of photophobia include migraine headaches, TMJ, cataracts, Sjogren's Syndrome, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI), or severe ophthalmologic diseases such as uveitis or corneal abrasion.

Ergotamine

ergotamine tartrateergot alkaloids
Specific medications such as triptans or ergotamines may be used in those for whom simple pain medications are not effective.
It is used medicinally for treatment of acute migraine attacks (sometimes in combination with caffeine).

Paracetamol

acetaminophenparacetamol (acetaminophen)acetaminophen (paracetamol)
Initial recommended treatment is with simple pain medication such as ibuprofen and paracetamol (acetaminophen) for the headache, medication for the nausea, and the avoidance of triggers.
A joint statement of the German, Austrian, and Swiss headache societies and the German Society of Neurology recommends the use of paracetamol in combination with caffeine as one of several first-line therapies for treatment of tension or migraine headache.

Metoprolol

metoprolol succinate
A number of medications are useful to prevent attacks including metoprolol, valproate, and topiramate.
It is also used to prevent further heart problems after myocardial infarction and to prevent headaches in those with migraines.

Topiramate

Topiramate (Topamax)
A number of medications are useful to prevent attacks including metoprolol, valproate, and topiramate.
It is most frequently prescribed for, the prevention of migraines.

Scintillating scotoma

fortification illusionsvisual migraine
Vision disturbances often consist of a scintillating scotoma (an area of partial alteration in the field of vision which flickers and may interfere with a person's ability to read or drive).
Scintillating scotoma, also called visual migraine, is a common visual aura preceding migraine and was first described by 19th-century physician Hubert Airy (1838–1903).

Analgesic

analgesiaanalgesicspainkillers
Initial recommended treatment is with simple pain medication such as ibuprofen and paracetamol (acetaminophen) for the headache, medication for the nausea, and the avoidance of triggers.
It is used in Europe for moderate to strong pain and migraine and its muscle-relaxant properties.

Acephalgic migraine

migraine aura without headachepersistent visual aura without headachesilent migraine
This is known as an acephalgic migraine or silent migraine; however, it is difficult to assess the frequency of such cases because people who do not experience symptoms severe enough to seek treatment may not realize that anything unusual is happening to them and pass it off without reporting any problems.
It is a relatively uncommon variant of migraine in which the patient may experience aura, nausea, photophobia, hemiparesis, and other migraine symptoms, but does not experience headache.

Prodrome

prodromalprodromal symptomsprodromal stage
The prodrome, which occurs hours or days before the headache
A prodrome can be the early precursor to an episode of a chronic neurological disorder such as a migraine headache or an epileptic seizure, where prodrome symptoms may include euphoria or other changes in mood, insomnia, abdominal sensations, disorientation, aphasia, or photosensitivity.

Hyperacusis

hyperacusiaauditory oversensitivityhypersensitive hearing
Associated symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light, sound, or smell.
Migraine

Osmophobia

smell
Associated symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light, sound, or smell. The pain is frequently accompanied by nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light, sensitivity to sound, sensitivity to smells, fatigue and irritability.
The phobia generally occurs in chronic migraine sufferers who may have odor triggered migraines.

Caffeine

caffeinatedcaffeine pillscaffeine withdrawal
Caffeine may be added to the above.
Caffeine can also be absorbed rectally, evidenced by suppositories of ergotamine tartrate and caffeine (for the relief of migraine) and chlorobutanol and caffeine (for the treatment of hyperemesis).

Pallor

pale skinpalepale appearance
Other symptoms may include blurred vision, nasal stuffiness, diarrhea, frequent urination, pallor, or sweating.
migraine attack or headache

Hemianopsia

hemianopiablind in the left eyehemianopic
Some people lose part of their field of vision known as hemianopsia while others experience blurring.
Temporary hemianopsia can occur in the aura phase of migraine.

CADASIL

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathyCadasil syndrome
Another genetic disorder associated with migraine is CADASIL syndrome or cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy.
The most common clinical manifestations are migraine headaches and transient ischemic attacks or strokes, which usually occur between 40 and 50 years of age, although MRI is able to detect signs of the disease years prior to clinical manifestation of disease.

Vomiting

emeticvomitemesis
Associated symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light, sound, or smell.
Migraine

Postdrome

The postdrome, the effects experienced following the end of a migraine attack
A common usage of the term is in relation to the effects experienced following the end of a migraine attack.

Phonophobia

fear of loud noisesloud noisesnoise
The pain is frequently accompanied by nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light, sensitivity to sound, sensitivity to smells, fatigue and irritability.
Sonophobia can refer to the hypersensitivity of a patient to sound and can be part of the diagnosis of a migraine.

Familial hemiplegic migraine

One of these is known as familial hemiplegic migraine, a type of migraine with aura, which is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion.
See the equivalent section in the main migraine article.

Cerebral cortex

cortexcorticalsubcortical
One theory is related to increased excitability of the cerebral cortex and abnormal control of pain neurons in the trigeminal nucleus of the brainstem.
Another study has found that the somatosensory cortex is thicker in migraine sufferers, though it is not known if this is the result of migraine attacks or the cause of them.

Cortical spreading depression

spreading depression
Cortical spreading depression, or spreading depression according to Leão, is a burst of neuronal activity followed by a period of inactivity, which is seen in those with migraines with an aura.
CSD has also been implicated in migraine aura, where CSD is assumed to ascend in well-nourished tissue and is typically benign in most of the cases, although it may increase the probability in migraine patients to develop a stroke.