Migraine

migrainesmigraine headachemigraine headachesaura phasestatus migrainosusanti-migraineantimigraineantimigraine drugsbasilar migrainechronic migraine
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.wikipedia
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Migraine treatment

treatment
Initial recommended treatment is with simple pain medication such as ibuprofen and paracetamol (acetaminophen) for the headache, medication for the nausea, and the avoidance of triggers.
Because of the complexity of migraine, no preventive treatment modality is effective for all migraine sufferers.

Aura (symptom)

auraaurasmigraine with aura
Up to one-third of people have an aura: typically a short period of visual disturbance that signals that the headache will soon occur.
An aura is a perceptual disturbance experienced by some with migraines or seizures.

Nausea

nauseousvomitingfeeling of sickness
Associated symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light, sound, or smell.
Some common causes of nausea are motion sickness, dizziness, migraine, fainting, low blood sugar, gastroenteritis (stomach infection) or food poisoning.

Ibuprofen

MotrinChildren's Motrinibruprofen
Initial recommended treatment is with simple pain medication such as ibuprofen and paracetamol (acetaminophen) for the headache, medication for the nausea, and the avoidance of triggers.
This includes painful menstrual periods, migraines, and rheumatoid arthritis.

Photophobia

photophobicsensitivity to lightlight sensitivity
Associated symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light, sound, or smell.
Common causes of photophobia include migraine headaches, TMJ, cataracts, Sjogren's Syndrome, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (MTBI), or severe ophthalmologic diseases such as uveitis or corneal abrasion.

Ergotamine

ergotamine tartrateergot alkaloids
Specific medications such as triptans or ergotamines may be used in those for whom simple pain medications are not effective.
It is used medicinally for treatment of acute migraine attacks (sometimes in combination with caffeine).

Topiramate

Topiramate (Topamax)
A number of medications are useful to prevent attacks including metoprolol, valproate, and topiramate. Guidelines are fairly consistent in rating topiramate, divalproex/sodium valproate, propranolol, and metoprolol as having the highest level of evidence for first-line use.
It is most frequently prescribed for, the prevention of migraines.

Metoprolol

metoprolol succinate
A number of medications are useful to prevent attacks including metoprolol, valproate, and topiramate. Guidelines are fairly consistent in rating topiramate, divalproex/sodium valproate, propranolol, and metoprolol as having the highest level of evidence for first-line use.
It is also used to prevent further heart problems after myocardial infarction and to prevent headaches in those with migraines.

Paracetamol

acetaminophenparacetamol (acetaminophen)acetaminophen (paracetamol)
Initial recommended treatment is with simple pain medication such as ibuprofen and paracetamol (acetaminophen) for the headache, medication for the nausea, and the avoidance of triggers.
A joint statement of the German, Austrian, and Swiss headache societies and the German Society of Neurology recommends the use of paracetamol in combination with caffeine as one of several first-line therapies for treatment of tension or migraine headache.

Scintillating scotoma

fortification illusionsvisual migraine
Vision disturbances often consist of a scintillating scotoma (an area of partial alteration in the field of vision which flickers and may interfere with a person's ability to read or drive).
Scintillating scotoma, also called visual migraine, is a common visual aura preceding migraine and was first described by 19th-century physician Hubert Airy (1838–1903).

Acephalgic migraine

migraine aura without headachepersistent visual aura without headachesilent migraine
This is known as an acephalgic migraine or silent migraine; however, it is difficult to assess the frequency of such cases because people who do not experience symptoms severe enough to seek treatment may not realize that anything unusual is happening to them and pass it off without reporting any problems.
It is a relatively uncommon variant of migraine in which the patient may experience aura, nausea, photophobia, hemiparesis, and other migraine symptoms, but does not experience headache.

Prodrome

prodromalprodromal symptomsprodromal stage
The prodrome, which occurs hours or days before the headache
A prodrome can be the early precursor to an episode of a chronic neurological disorder such as a migraine headache or an epileptic seizure, where prodrome symptoms may include euphoria or other changes in mood, insomnia, abdominal sensations, disorientation, aphasia, or photosensitivity.

CADASIL

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathyCadasil syndrome
Another genetic disorder associated with migraine is CADASIL syndrome or cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy.
The most common clinical manifestations are migraine headaches and transient ischemic attacks or strokes, which usually occur between 40 and 50 years of age, although MRI is able to detect signs of the disease years prior to clinical manifestation of disease.

Pallor

pale skinpalepale appearance
Other symptoms may include blurred vision, nasal stuffiness, diarrhea, frequent urination, pallor, or sweating.
migraine attack or headache

Analgesic

analgesiaanalgesicspainkillers
Initial recommended treatment is with simple pain medication such as ibuprofen and paracetamol (acetaminophen) for the headache, medication for the nausea, and the avoidance of triggers.
It is used in Europe for moderate to strong pain and migraine and its muscle-relaxant properties.

ICHD classification and diagnosis of migraine

abdominal migraineInternational Headache Society (IHS) guidelinesmigraine with aura
Migraine with aura, or "classic migraine", usually involves migraine headaches accompanied by an aura. Less commonly, an aura can occur without a headache, or with a nonmigraine headache. Two other varieties are familial hemiplegic migraine and sporadic hemiplegic migraine, in which a person has migraines with aura and with accompanying motor weakness. If a close relative has had the same condition, it is called "familial", otherwise it is called "sporadic". Another variety is basilar-type migraine, where a headache and aura are accompanied by difficulty speaking, world spinning, ringing in ears, or a number of other brainstem-related symptoms, but not motor weakness. This type was initially believed to be due to spasms of the basilar artery, the artery that supplies the brainstem. Now that this mechanism is not believed to be primary, the symptomatic term migraine with brainstem aura (MBA) is preferred.
The first category within the ICHD is Migraine.

Cortical spreading depression

spreading depression
Cortical spreading depression, or spreading depression according to Leão, is a burst of neuronal activity followed by a period of inactivity, which is seen in those with migraines with an aura.
CSD has also been implicated in migraine aura, where CSD is assumed to ascend in well-nourished tissue and is typically benign in most of the cases, although it may increase the probability in migraine patients to develop a stroke.

Valproate

valproic acidsodium valproatedivalproex
A number of medications are useful to prevent attacks including metoprolol, valproate, and topiramate. Guidelines are fairly consistent in rating topiramate, divalproex/sodium valproate, propranolol, and metoprolol as having the highest level of evidence for first-line use.
Valproate (VPA), and its valproic acid, sodium valproate, and valproate semisodium forms, are medications primarily used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder and to prevent migraine headaches.

Hemianopsia

hemianopiablind in the left eyehemianopic
Some people lose part of their field of vision known as hemianopsia while others experience blurring.
Temporary hemianopsia can occur in the aura phase of migraine.

Retinal migraine

ocular migraine
Retinal migraine involves migraine headaches accompanied by visual disturbances or even temporary blindness in one eye.
Retinal migraine (also known as ophthalmic migraine, and ocular migraine) is a retinal disease often accompanied by migraine headache and typically affects only one eye.

Propranolol

propanolol(''S'')-propranololdexpropranolol
Guidelines are fairly consistent in rating topiramate, divalproex/sodium valproate, propranolol, and metoprolol as having the highest level of evidence for first-line use.
It is used to prevent migraine headaches, and to prevent further heart problems in those with angina or previous heart attacks.

Pregabalin

Lyrica
Recommendations regarding effectiveness varied however for gabapentin and pregabalin.
Some off-label uses of pregabalin include restless leg syndrome, prevention of migraines, anxiety disorders, and alcohol withdrawal.

Amitriptyline

amitriptyline hydrochlorideamitryptilineamitryptyline
Amitriptyline and venlafaxine are probably also effective.
Other uses include prevention of migraines, treatment of neuropathic pain such as fibromyalgia and postherpetic neuralgia, and less commonly insomnia.

Hyperacusis

hyperacusiaauditory oversensitivityhypersensitive hearing
Associated symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light, sound, or smell.
Migraine

Biofeedback

bio-feedbackbiofeedback (psychology)bio
Tentative evidence supports the use of stress reduction techniques such as cognitive behavioral therapy, biofeedback, and relaxation techniques.
Biofeedback has been found to be effective for the treatment of headaches and migraines.