Mikhail Bakunin

BakuninMichael BakuninBakuninistinvisibleInvisible dictatorshipMichail BakuninBakuninismanarchist philosopherBacuninBakhunin
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (30 May 1814 – 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist and founder of collectivist anarchism.wikipedia
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Collectivist anarchism

collectivist anarchistanarcho-collectivismcollectivism
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (30 May 1814 – 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist and founder of collectivist anarchism.
Notwithstanding the name, Mikhail Bakunin's collectivist anarchism is seen as a blend of individualism and collectivism.

Anarchism

anarchistanarchistsanarchistic
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (30 May 1814 – 1 July 1876) was a Russian revolutionary anarchist and founder of collectivist anarchism. He is considered among the most influential figures of anarchism and one of the principal founders of the social anarchist tradition.
Mikhail Bakunin took mutualism and extended it to collectivist anarchism.

Hague Congress (1872)

Hague Congress1872 Hague CongressHague Congress of 1872
The 1872 Hague Congress was dominated by a struggle between Marx and his followers, who argued for the use of the state to bring about socialism; and the Bakunin/anarchist faction, which argued instead for the replacement of the state by federations of self-governing workplaces and communes.
The Hague Congress is famous for the expulsion of the anarchist Mikhail Bakunin for clashing with Karl Marx and his followers over the role of politics in the IWMA.

Statism and Anarchy

From 1870 to 1876, Bakunin wrote some of his longer works, such as Statism and Anarchy and God and the State.
Statism and Anarchy (Государственность и анархия, Gosudarstvennost' i anarkhiia, literally "Statehood and Anarchy") was the last work by the Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin.

Karl Marx

MarxMarx, KarlMarxist
Eventually he arrived in Paris, where he met Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Karl Marx. The Russian ambassador in Bern ordered Bakunin to return to Russia, but instead he went to Brussels, where he met many leading Polish nationalists, such as Joachim Lelewel, co-member with Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels at Brussels.
Although intended to attract writers from both France and the German states, the Jahrbücher was dominated by the latter and the only non-German writer was the exiled Russian anarchist collectivist Mikhail Bakunin.

God and the State

From 1870 to 1876, Bakunin wrote some of his longer works, such as Statism and Anarchy and God and the State.
God and the State (called by its author The Historical Sophisms of the Doctrinaire School of Communism) is an unfinished manuscript by the Russian anarchist philosopher Mikhail Bakunin, published posthumously in 1882.

Alexander Herzen

Alexander HertzenHerzenHertzen
Bakunin escaped to Japan, then made his way to the United States and eventually London, where he worked with Alexander Herzen on the journal Kolokol (The Bell). During this period, he met slavophile Konstantin Aksakov, Piotr Chaadaev and the socialists Alexander Herzen and Nikolay Ogarev.
Herzen spent time in London organising with the International Workingmen's Association, becoming well acquainted with revolutionary circles including the likes of Bakunin and Marx.

Socialism

socialistsocialistssocialistic
During this period, he met slavophile Konstantin Aksakov, Piotr Chaadaev and the socialists Alexander Herzen and Nikolay Ogarev.
However, shortly after Mikhail Bakunin and his followers (called collectivists while in the International) joined in 1868, the First International became polarised into two camps headed by Marx and Bakunin respectively.

Peter and Paul Fortress

Petropavlovskaya fortressPetropavlovsk FortressSt. Peter and St. Paul Fortress
In 1849, Bakunin was apprehended in Dresden for his participation in the Czech rebellion of 1848 and turned over to Russia where he was imprisoned in the Peter-Paul Fortress in Saint Petersburg.
Other people incarcerated in the "Russian Bastille" include Shneur Zalman of Liadi, Tsarevich Alexei Petrovich, Artemy Volynsky, Tadeusz Kościuszko, Alexander Radishchev, the Decembrists, Grigory Danilevsky, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Maxim Gorky, Mikhail Bakunin, Nikolai Chernyshevsky, Leon Trotsky and Josip Broz Tito.

Social anarchism

social anarchistsocial anarchistssocial
He is considered among the most influential figures of anarchism and one of the principal founders of the social anarchist tradition.
Collectivist anarchism, also known as anarcho-collectivism and referred to as revolutionary socialism or a form of such, is a revolutionary form of anarchism, commonly associated with Mikhail Bakunin and James Guillaume.

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon

ProudhonPierre Joseph ProudhonThe System of Economic Contradictions, or The Philosophy of Poverty
Eventually he arrived in Paris, where he met Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Karl Marx.
According to Mikhail Bakunin, Proudhon was the first person to refer to himself as an "anarchist".

E. H. Carr

E.H. CarrEdward Hallett CarrEdward Carr
In Moscow, Bakunin soon became friends with a group of former university students and engaged in the systematic study of idealist philosophy, grouped around the poet Nikolay Stankevich, "the bold pioneer who opened to Russian thought the vast and fertile continent of German metaphysics" (E. H. Carr).
Beside studies on international relations, Carr's writings in the 1930s included biographies of Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1931), Karl Marx (1934), and Mikhail Bakunin (1937).

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling

SchellingFriedrich SchellingFriedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling
The philosophy of Immanuel Kant initially was central to their study, but they progressed to Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Johann Gottlieb Fichte and Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.
Among those in attendance at his lectures were Søren Kierkegaard (who said Schelling talked "quite insufferable nonsense" and complained that he did not end his lectures on time), Mikhail Bakunin (who called them "interesting but rather insignificant"), Jacob Burckhardt, Alexander von Humboldt (who never accepted Schelling's natural philosophy), and Friedrich Engels (who, as a partisan of Hegel, attended to "shield the great man's grave from abuse").

Richard Wagner

WagnerWagnerianWagnerian opera
Richard Wagner writes in his autobiography about Bakunin's visit:
Wagner was active among socialist German nationalists there, regularly receiving such guests as the conductor and radical editor August Röckel and the Russian anarchist Mikhail Bakunin.

Nikolai Stankevich

StankevichNikolay Stankevich
In Moscow, Bakunin soon became friends with a group of former university students and engaged in the systematic study of idealist philosophy, grouped around the poet Nikolay Stankevich, "the bold pioneer who opened to Russian thought the vast and fertile continent of German metaphysics" (E. H. Carr).
Stankevich is known to have considerably influenced some of the Russian and Muscovite intelligentsia in particular, including Vissarion Belinsky, Timofey Granovsky, Mikhail Bakunin, and Alexander Herzen.

Shlisselburg Fortress

Nöteborgfortress of Shlisselburgfortress in Shlisselburg
In 1854 he was transferred to the Shlisselburg fortress, until 1857, when he was exiled to Siberia.
Among its famous prisoners were Wilhelm Küchelbecker, Mikhail Bakunin and, for thirty-eight years, Walerian Łukasiński.

Ferdinand Flocon

Flocon
Bakunin obtained funding from some socialists in the Provisional Government, Ferdinand Flocon, Louis Blanc, Alexandre Auguste Ledru-Rollin and Alexandre Martin, for a project for a Slav federation liberating those under the rule of Prussia, Austria-Hungary and Ottoman Empire.
While he was editor La Réforme published articles from Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, Mikhail Bakunin, Constantin Pecqueur, Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx.

Joachim Lelewel

Lelewel
The Russian ambassador in Bern ordered Bakunin to return to Russia, but instead he went to Brussels, where he met many leading Polish nationalists, such as Joachim Lelewel, co-member with Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels at Brussels.
The anarchist Michail Bakunin was strongly influenced by him.

Catechism of a Revolutionary

Catechism of a RevolutionistRevolutionary Catechism
In his Catechism of a Revolutionary of 1866, he opposed religion and the state, advocating the "absolute rejection of every authority including that which sacrifices freedom for the convenience of the state."
It is debated how much input Mikhail Bakunin had or if it is solely the work of Nechayev.

Paris Commune

CommuneCommune of ParisParis Commune of 1871
In 1870, he was involved in an insurrection in Lyon, France, which foreshadowed the Paris Commune.

Giuseppe Fanelli

Giuseppi Fanelli
Giuseppe Fanelli met Bakunin at Ischia in 1866.
Giuseppe Fanelli (13 October 1827 – 5 January 1877) was a nineteenth-century Italian revolutionary anarchist, best known for his tour of Spain 1868, introducing the anarchist ideas of Mikhail Bakunin.

Walery Mroczkowski

Among his Polish associates was the former insurgent, Walery Mroczkowski, who became a friend and translator into French.
While in Florence he met Mikhail Bakunin and became an anarchist and a member of the latter's close circle.

Torzhok

Torzhoksky car-building factoryTorzhok City
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin was born to a Russian noble family in the Pryamukhino village situated between Torzhok and Kuvshinovo.

Kuvshinovsky District

KuvshinovskyBolshoye KuznechkovoKamensky
Bakunin grew up in Pryamukhino, a family estate in Tver Governorate, where he moved to study philosophy and began to read the French Encyclopédistes, leading to enthusiasm for the philosophy of Fichte.
In the estate, Mikhail Bakunin was born.

Carlo Cafiero

In 1874, Bakunin retired with his young wife Antonia Kwiatkowska and three children to Minusio (near Locarno in Switzerland), in a villa called La Baronata that the leader of the Italian anarchists Carlo Cafiero had bought for him by selling his own estates in his native town Barletta (Apulia).
Carlo Cafiero (September 1, 1846 – July 17, 1892) was an Italian anarchist, champion of Mikhail Bakunin during the second half of the 19th century and one of the main proponents of insurrectionary anarchism and anarcho-communism during the First International.