Military dictatorship in Brazil

military dictatorshipBrazilian military governmentBrazilBrazilian military dictatorshipmilitary regimemilitary governmentdictatorshipBrazilian military regimemilitary ruleBrazilian dictatorship
The Brazilian military government, also known in Brazil as the Fifth Brazilian Republic, was the authoritarian military dictatorship that ruled Brazil from 1 April 1964 to 15 March 1985.wikipedia
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Brazil

BRABrasilBrazilian
The Brazilian military government, also known in Brazil as the Fifth Brazilian Republic, was the authoritarian military dictatorship that ruled Brazil from 1 April 1964 to 15 March 1985.
An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed.

Brazilian Army

ArmyNational GuardBrazil
It was planned and executed by the most forefront commanders of the Brazilian Army and received the support of almost all high-ranking members of the military, along with conservative elements in society, like the Catholic Church and anti-communists civil movements among the Brazilian middle and upper classes.
Aligned with the Western Bloc, during the time of military rule in Brazil from 1964 to 1985, it also had active participation in the Cold War, in Latin America and Southern Portuguese Africa, as well as taking part in UN peacekeeping missions worldwide since the late 1950s.

Brazilian Miracle

Brazilian economic miracleeconomic miracleMilagre Econômico'' (the Economic Miracle)
The dictatorship reached the height of its popularity in the 1970s with the so-called "Brazilian Miracle", even as the regime censored all media, and tortured and exiled dissidents.
The Brazilian Miracle (milagre econômico brasileiro) was a period of exceptional economic growth in Brazil during the rule of the Brazilian military government.

Catholic Church in Brazil

Roman Catholicism in BrazilBrazilRoman Catholic
It was planned and executed by the most forefront commanders of the Brazilian Army and received the support of almost all high-ranking members of the military, along with conservative elements in society, like the Catholic Church and anti-communists civil movements among the Brazilian middle and upper classes.
Despite the support of the higher clergy for the military, the progressive wing managed to make the Church practically the only legitimate focus of resistance and defense of basic human rights during military rule, as well as a main advocate for social rights and human dignity in the Constitutional Assembly of 1987-1988.

Getúlio Vargas

Getulio VargasVargasPresident Vargas
The military revolt was fomented by Magalhães Pinto, Adhemar de Barros, and Carlos Lacerda (who had already participated in the conspiracy to depose Getúlio Vargas in 1945), then governors of the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, and Guanabara, respectively.
His policies shaped the Brazilian economic debate for decades, from the governments of Juscelino Kubitschek and leftist João Goulart to the right-wing military dictatorship of 1964 to 1985.

1985 Brazilian presidential election

19851985 presidential electionelected
In 1985, another election was held, this time to elect (indirectly) a new president, being contested between civilian candidates for the first time since the 1960s, which was won by the opposition.
Presidential elections were held in Brazil on 15 January 1985, the last to be held indirectly through an electoral college, and the last to be held under the military regime.

Military dictatorship

juntamilitary regimemilitary junta
The Brazilian military government, also known in Brazil as the Fifth Brazilian Republic, was the authoritarian military dictatorship that ruled Brazil from 1 April 1964 to 15 March 1985.

Amnesty law

immunityretroactive immunity1978 amnesty decree
João Figueiredo became President in March 1979; in the same year he passed the Amnesty Law for political crimes committed for and against the regime.
In 1979, Brazil's military dictatorship—which suppressed young political activists and trade unionists—passed an amnesty law.

Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco

Castelo BrancoHumberto Castelo BrancoCastello Branco
On April 11, 1964 the Congress elected the Army Chief of Staff, Marshal Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco as President for the remainder of Goulart's term.
He served as the first President of the Brazilian military dictatorship after the 1964 military coup d'etat.

Artur da Costa e Silva

Costa e SilvaArthur da Costa e SilvaPresident Costa e Silva
This gave him the latitude to repress the populist left but also provided the subsequent governments of Artur da Costa e Silva (1967–69) and Emílio Garrastazu Médici (1969–74) with a "legal" basis for their hard-line authoritarian rule.
Artur da Costa e Silva (October 3, 1899 – December 17, 1969) was a Brazilian Army General and the second President of the Brazilian military government that came to power after the 1964 coup d'état.

Emílio Garrastazu Médici

Emílio MédiciEmílio Garrastazú MédiciEmilio Medici
This gave him the latitude to repress the populist left but also provided the subsequent governments of Artur da Costa e Silva (1967–69) and Emílio Garrastazu Médici (1969–74) with a "legal" basis for their hard-line authoritarian rule.
His authoritarian rule marked the apex of the Brazilian military government.

Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro, BrazilRioNorth Zone
On April 1, 1964, after a night of conspiracy, rebel troops made their way to Rio de Janeiro, considered a legalist bastion.
After the 1964 coup d'état that installed a military dictatorship, the city-state was the only state left in Brazil to oppose the military.

Roberto Marinho

Roberto Pisani MarinhoMarinho familyRoberto
Influential politicians, such as Carlos Lacerda and even Kubitschek, media moguls (Roberto Marinho, Octávio Frias, Júlio de Mesquita Filho), the Church, landowners, businessmen, and the middle class called for a coup d'état by the Armed Forces to remove the government.
He criticized his friend Helder Câmara, who was archbishop of the "miserably poor" Olinda and Recife diocese from 1964 to 1985, during the worst of the military dictatorship.

Caetano Veloso

O mais doce bárbaro - Caetano Velosoartist of the same nameBeleza Pura
However, some of the major popular musicians Gilberto Gil and Caetano Veloso, for instance were arrested, imprisoned, and exiled.
Veloso first became known for his participation in the Brazilian musical movement Tropicalismo, which encompassed theatre, poetry and music in the 1960s, at the beginning of the Brazilian military dictatorship.

Ernesto Geisel

GeiselPresident Geisel
In 1973 electoral college was created and in January 1974 General Ernesto Geisel was elected to be the next President.
Ernesto Beckmann Geisel (, ; August 3, 1907 – September 12, 1996) was a Brazilian Army officer and politician, who was President of Brazil from 1974 to 1979, during the Brazilian military government.

Institutional Act Number Five

AI-5Fifth Institutional ActInstitutional Act 5
On December 13, 1968 he signed the Fifth Institutional Act that gave President dictatorial powers, dissolved Congress and state legislatures, suspended the constitution, and imposed censorship.
The Ato Institucional Número Cinco – AI-5 (Institutional Act Number Five) was the fifth of seventeen major decrees issued by the military dictatorship in the years following the 1964 coup d'état in Brazil.

1964 Brazilian coup d'état

1964 coup d'état1964 coupcoup d'état
It began with the 1964 coup d'état led by the Armed Forces against the administration of President João Goulart—who, having been vice-president, had assumed the office of president upon the resignation of the democratically elected president Jânio Quadros—and ended when José Sarney took office on 15 March 1985 as President. The US Ambassador Lincoln Gordon later admitted that the embassy had given money to anti-Goulart candidates in the 1962 municipal elections, and had encouraged the plotters; many extra United States military and intelligence personnel were operating in four United States Navy oil tankers and the aircraft carrier USS Forrestal, in an operation code-named Operation Brother Sam.
The coup brought to Brazil a military regime politically aligned to the interests of the United States government.

Gilberto Gil

Aquele AbraçoDrãoExpresso 2222
However, some of the major popular musicians Gilberto Gil and Caetano Veloso, for instance were arrested, imprisoned, and exiled.
The Brazilian military regime that took power in 1964 saw both Gil and Veloso as a threat, and the two were held for nine months in 1969 before they were told to leave the country.

Carlos Marighella

Carlos Marighela
The government responded by adopting more brutal measures of counter-insurgency, leading to the assassination of Carlos Marighela, a guerrilla leader, two months after Elbrick's kidnapping.
Carlos Marighella (5 December 1911 – 4 November 1969) was a Brazilian politician, writer and guerrilla fighter of Marxist-Leninist orientation, accused of engaging in "terrorist acts" against the Brazilian Military Dictatorship.

8th October Revolutionary Movement

Revolutionary Movement 8th OctoberMR-8MR8
Urban guerrillas from Ação Libertadora Nacional and Revolutionary Movement 8th October were suppressed, and military operations undertaken to finish the Araguaia Guerrilla War.
During the military dictatorship in Brazil, MR8 was formed by Brazilian Communist Party members who disagreed with the party's decision not to take part in armed resistance against the military government, the so-called Dissidência da Guanabara (DI-GB).

USS Forrestal (CV-59)

USS ''ForrestalUSS ForrestalForrestal
The US Ambassador Lincoln Gordon later admitted that the embassy had given money to anti-Goulart candidates in the 1962 municipal elections, and had encouraged the plotters; many extra United States military and intelligence personnel were operating in four United States Navy oil tankers and the aircraft carrier USS Forrestal, in an operation code-named Operation Brother Sam.
The coup was successful and led to a 20-year-long military dictatorship in Brazil.

João Goulart

GoulartJoao GoulartGoulart government
It began with the 1964 coup d'état led by the Armed Forces against the administration of President João Goulart—who, having been vice-president, had assumed the office of president upon the resignation of the democratically elected president Jânio Quadros—and ended when José Sarney took office on 15 March 1985 as President.
* History of Brazil (1964–1985)

Araguaia Guerrilla War

Araguaia guerrillaa conflictagainst guerrillas
Urban guerrillas from Ação Libertadora Nacional and Revolutionary Movement 8th October were suppressed, and military operations undertaken to finish the Araguaia Guerrilla War.
It was founded by militants of the Communist Party of Brazil (PC do B), the then Maoist counterpart to the Brazilian Communist Party (PCB), which aimed at establishing a rural stronghold from whence to wage a "people's war" against the Brazilian military government, which had been in power since the 1964 coup d'état.

Chico Buarque

Chico Buarque de HollandaChico Buarque de HolandaBudapeste
Chico Buarque left the country, in self-proclaimed exile.
Buarque, along with several Tropicalist and MPB musicians, was threatened by the Brazilian military government and eventually left Brazil for Italy in 1969.

National Truth Commission

Brazilian National Truth CommissionTruth Commission
The National Truth Commission was created in 2011 attempting to help the nation face its past and honor those who fought for democracy, and to compensate the family members of those killed or disappeared.
In Brazil, the National Truth Commission (Comissão Nacional da Verdade) investigated human rights violations of the period of 1946–1988 - in particular by the authoritarian military dictatorship that ruled Brazil from April 1, 1964 to March 15, 1985.