Mille Lacs Indians

Chief Hole in the Day

The Mille Lacs Indians (Ojibwe: Misi-zaaga'iganiwininiwag), also known as the Mille Lacs and Snake River Band of Chippewa, are a Band of Indians formed from the unification of the Mille Lacs Band of Mississippi Chippewa (Ojibwe) with the Mille Lacs Band of Mdewakanton Sioux (Dakota).

- Mille Lacs Indians

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The Mdewakanton or Mdewakantonwan (also spelled Mdewákhaŋthuŋwaŋ and currently pronounced Bdewákhaŋthuŋwaŋ) are one of the sub-tribes of the Isanti (Santee) Dakota (Sioux).

1843 Nicollet Map locating the Mdewakanton
Mdewakanton Wakpekute Code talkers Congressional Medal
Mdewakanton Wakpekute Code talkers Congressional Medal

Some Mdewakanton in Minnesota live among Ojibwe people on the Mille Lacs Reservation as Mille Lacs Band of Mdewakanton Dakota, forming one of the historical bands that were amalgamated to become the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe.

Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe

Federally recognized American Indian tribe located in east-central Minnesota.

The State of Minnesota erected a monument to the Mille Lacs band at Fort Ridgely.
The monument to the Mille Lacs band was dedicated in 1914 at the Fort Ridgely site as it was frequented by the public. The Fort Ripley site was abandoned and unused so the monument was placed where it would be seen. It is the same size as the monument the State put up for troops of the 5th Minnesota that died at Fort Ridgely

The historical Mille Lacs Band of Mdewakanton Dakota was part of the historical Mille Lacs Indians.

White Earth Indian Reservation

Home tothe White Earth Band, located in northwestern Minnesota.

The location of the White Earth Indian Reservation in northwestern Minnesota
Flag of the White Earth Nation
Family and goods in a wagon on the White Earth Reservation, 1934
"One Called From A Distance" (Midwewinind) of the White Earth Band, wearing a beaded sash and vest, 1894

The chiefs Wabanquot (White Cloud), a Gull Lake Mississippi Chippewa, and Fine Day, of the Removable Mille Lacs Indians, were among the first to move with their followers to White Earth in 1868.

Mississippi River Band of Chippewa Indians

Mississippi River Band of Chippewa Indians (Gichi-ziibiwininiwag) or simply the Mississippi Chippewa, are a historical Ojibwa Band inhabiting the headwaters of the Mississippi River and its tributaries in present-day Minnesota.

Prairie du Chien Line, 1825 Minnesota
Reservations of the Mississippi Chippewa in Minnesota

When Chief Máza-mani (Iron-Walker) (Mille Lacs Indians) learned of the plans of Chief Bagone-giizhig (Hole-in-the-Day) (Gull Lake Band) to attack Fort Ripley, Máza-mani raised a party of 200 men to aid the Americans.


Anishinaabe people in what is currently southern Canada, the northern Midwestern United States, and Northern Plains.

Five Ojibwe chiefs in the 19th century.
An Ojibwe named Boy Chief, by the noted American painter George Catlin, who made portraits at Fort Snelling in 1835. In 1845 he traveled to Paris with eleven Ojibwe, who had their portraits painted and danced for King Louis Philippe.
A Chippeway Widow, 1838
Plains Ojibwe Chief Sha-có-pay (The Six). In addition to the northern and eastern woodlands, Ojibwe people also lived on the prairies of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, North Dakota, western Minnesota and Montana.
Plains Ojibwe performing a snowshoe dance. By George Catlin
Wild rice harvesting - 1934
Vintage photo entitled, "Paul Buffalo and wife parching wild rice at their camp" - 1934
Pictorial notation of an Ojibwe music board
Frame of Ojibwe sweatlodge
"Spider web" charm, hung on infant's cradle (shown alongside a "Mask used in game" and "Ghost leg), to frighten children", Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin (1929).
Details of Ojibwe Wigwam at Grand Portage by Eastman Johnson, c. 1906
Vintage stereoscopic photo entitled "Chippewa lodges, Beaver Bay, by Childs, B. F."
Pictographs on Mazinaw Rock, Bon Echo Provincial Park, Ontario
A-na-cam-e-gish-ca (Aanakamigishkaang/"[Traces of] Foot Prints [upon the Ground]"), Ojibwe chief, from History of the Indian Tribes of North America
Bust of Aysh-ke-bah-ke-ko-zhay (Eshkibagikoonzhe or "Flat Mouth"), a Leech Lake Ojibwe chief
Chief Beautifying Bird (Nenaa'angebi), by Benjamin Armstrong, 1891
Bust of Beshekee, war chief, modeled 1855, carved 1856
Caa-tou-see, an Ojibwe, from History of the Indian Tribes of North America
Hanging Cloud, a female Ojibwe warrior
Jack-O-Pa (Zhaagobe/"Six"), a St. Croix Ojibwe chief, from History of the Indian Tribes of North America
Kay be sen day way We Win, by Eastman Johnson, 1857
Kei-a-gis-gis, a Plains Ojibwe woman, painted by George Catlin
Leech Lake Ojibwe delegation to Washington, 1899
Chippewa baby teething on "Indians at Work" magazine while strapped to a cradleboard at a rice lake in 1940.
Ne-bah-quah-om, Ojibwe chief
"One Called From A Distance" (Midwewinind) of the White Earth Band, 1894.
Pee-Che-Kir, Ojibwe chief, painted by Thomas Loraine McKenney, 1843
Ojibwe chief Rocky Boy
Ojibwe woman and child, from History of the Indian Tribes of North America
Tshusick, an Ojibwe woman, from History of the Indian Tribes of North America
Chief medicine man Axel Pasey and family at Grand Portage Minnesota.
Historic 1849 petition of Ojibwe chiefs
Wells American Indian picture writing
Wildfire, English name Edmonia Lewis

Mille Lacs Indians

Mille Lacs Indian Reservation

Popular name for the land-base for the Mille Lacs Band of Ojibwe in Central Minnesota, about 100 miles north of Minneapolis-St. Paul.

Location of Mille Lacs Lake Indian Reservation

It was initially established in 1855 under the Treaty of Washington for the Mille Lacs Indians and other Mississippi Chippewa (Ojibwe) Bands of Indians, but was later ceded back to the U.S. Government under later treaties.

Lake Superior Chippewa

Considered part of northern Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota in the United States.

Mille Lacs Indians (historical)

Nelson Act of 1889

United States federal law intended to relocate all the Anishinaabe people in Minnesota to the White Earth Indian Reservation in the western part of the state, and expropriate the vacated reservations for sale to European settlers.

Constitution of the United States

Mille Lac Band of Mississippi Chippewa

Sandy Lake Band of Mississippi Chippewa

In Aitkin County, Minnesota.

When plans were being negotiated by the United States in 1887 to consolidate all the Ojibwe bands scattered about Minnesota, including the Sandy Lake Band, to the White Earth Indian Reservation, the commission for these plans, after an unsuccessful meeting with the Mille Lacs Indians and on their way to meet with the Fond du Lac Band, stopped to meet with the Sandy Lake Band, but again without success in negotiations, as they learned later the Sandy Lake Band had purposely avoided the meeting.

Jingle dress

First Nations and Native American women's pow wow regalia and dance.

Teenaged jingle dress competitor, with fan
A contemporary jingle dress
Girls in contemporary jingle dress competition

Origin of the jingle dress is attributed to three different Ojibwa communities: the Mille Lacs, Red Lake Band of Chippewa and the Whitefish Bay Ojibwe.