Miller syndrome

Genée-Wiedemann syndromeGenee–WiedemannMiller
Miller syndrome, also known as MFS, Miller-Fisher syndrome, Genée–Wiedemann syndrome, Wildervanck–Smith syndrome or postaxial acrofacial dystosis, is an extremely rare genetic condition that manifests as craniofacial, limb and eye deformities.wikipedia
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Treacher Collins syndrome

Treacher-Collins SyndromeTreacher Collinsfacial deformity
The differential diagnosis includes Treacher Collins syndrome, Nager acrofacial dysostosis (preaxial cranial dysostosis).
Examples of these diseases are Nager syndrome and Miller syndrome.

Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase

DHODHdihydroorotate oxidaseDihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH)
It is caused by a mutation in the DHODH gene.
Mutations in this gene have been shown to cause Miller syndrome, also known as Genee-Wiedemann syndrome, Wildervanck-Smith syndrome or post axial acrofacial dystosis (POADS).

Nager acrofacial dysostosis

Nager syndromeAcrofacial dysostosis, Nager typeNager's Syndrome
The differential diagnosis includes Treacher Collins syndrome, Nager acrofacial dysostosis (preaxial cranial dysostosis).
Nager syndrome is shares many characteristics with five other craniofacial syndromes: Miller, Treacher Collins, Pierre Robin, Genee–Wiedemann and Franceschetti–Zwahlen–Klein.

Pathogenesis

pathogeneticpathogenicmicrobial pathogenesis
The incidence of the condition is not known, and nothing is known of its pathogenesis.

Micrognathism

micrognathiaagnathiaSmall jaw size
The syndrome consists of severe micrognathia, cleft lip and/or palate, hypoplasia or aplasia of the postaxial elements of the limbs, coloboma of the eyelids and supernumerary nipples.

Cleft lip and cleft palate

cleft palatecleft lipcleft lip and palate
The syndrome consists of severe micrognathia, cleft lip and/or palate, hypoplasia or aplasia of the postaxial elements of the limbs, coloboma of the eyelids and supernumerary nipples.

Palate

palatalroof of the mouthpalatine
The syndrome consists of severe micrognathia, cleft lip and/or palate, hypoplasia or aplasia of the postaxial elements of the limbs, coloboma of the eyelids and supernumerary nipples.

Coloboma

colobomasColoboma, ocularcolobomata
The syndrome consists of severe micrognathia, cleft lip and/or palate, hypoplasia or aplasia of the postaxial elements of the limbs, coloboma of the eyelids and supernumerary nipples.

Eyelid

eyelidspalpebralpalpebra
The syndrome consists of severe micrognathia, cleft lip and/or palate, hypoplasia or aplasia of the postaxial elements of the limbs, coloboma of the eyelids and supernumerary nipples.

Supernumerary nipple

supernumerary nipplesthird nippleextra nipple
The syndrome consists of severe micrognathia, cleft lip and/or palate, hypoplasia or aplasia of the postaxial elements of the limbs, coloboma of the eyelids and supernumerary nipples.

Ear

earshuman earauricula
Additional features of the syndrome include downward-slanting palpebral fissures, malar hypoplasia, malformed ears, and a broad nasal ridge.

Vertebra

vertebraeneural spineneural arch
Other features include supernumerary vertebrae and other vertebral segmentation and rib defects, heart defects (patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect and ostium primum atrial septal defect), lung disease from chronic infection, single umbilical artery, absence of the hemidiaphragm, hypoplasia of the femora, ossification defects of the ischium and pubis, bilobed tongue, lung hypoplasia, and renal reflux.

Rib

costalcostaerib cage
Other features include supernumerary vertebrae and other vertebral segmentation and rib defects, heart defects (patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect and ostium primum atrial septal defect), lung disease from chronic infection, single umbilical artery, absence of the hemidiaphragm, hypoplasia of the femora, ossification defects of the ischium and pubis, bilobed tongue, lung hypoplasia, and renal reflux.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
Other features include supernumerary vertebrae and other vertebral segmentation and rib defects, heart defects (patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect and ostium primum atrial septal defect), lung disease from chronic infection, single umbilical artery, absence of the hemidiaphragm, hypoplasia of the femora, ossification defects of the ischium and pubis, bilobed tongue, lung hypoplasia, and renal reflux.

Patent ductus arteriosus

ductus arteriosusductus arteriosus, patentAdult patent ductus arteriosus
Other features include supernumerary vertebrae and other vertebral segmentation and rib defects, heart defects (patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect and ostium primum atrial septal defect), lung disease from chronic infection, single umbilical artery, absence of the hemidiaphragm, hypoplasia of the femora, ossification defects of the ischium and pubis, bilobed tongue, lung hypoplasia, and renal reflux.

Ventricular septal defect

hole in the heartVSDventricular
Other features include supernumerary vertebrae and other vertebral segmentation and rib defects, heart defects (patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect and ostium primum atrial septal defect), lung disease from chronic infection, single umbilical artery, absence of the hemidiaphragm, hypoplasia of the femora, ossification defects of the ischium and pubis, bilobed tongue, lung hypoplasia, and renal reflux.

Ostium primum atrial septal defect

ostium primum defectprimum defect
Other features include supernumerary vertebrae and other vertebral segmentation and rib defects, heart defects (patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect and ostium primum atrial septal defect), lung disease from chronic infection, single umbilical artery, absence of the hemidiaphragm, hypoplasia of the femora, ossification defects of the ischium and pubis, bilobed tongue, lung hypoplasia, and renal reflux.

Lung

lungspulmonaryright lung
Other features include supernumerary vertebrae and other vertebral segmentation and rib defects, heart defects (patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect and ostium primum atrial septal defect), lung disease from chronic infection, single umbilical artery, absence of the hemidiaphragm, hypoplasia of the femora, ossification defects of the ischium and pubis, bilobed tongue, lung hypoplasia, and renal reflux.

Infection

infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfections
Other features include supernumerary vertebrae and other vertebral segmentation and rib defects, heart defects (patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect and ostium primum atrial septal defect), lung disease from chronic infection, single umbilical artery, absence of the hemidiaphragm, hypoplasia of the femora, ossification defects of the ischium and pubis, bilobed tongue, lung hypoplasia, and renal reflux.

Artery

arteriesarterialarterial system
Other features include supernumerary vertebrae and other vertebral segmentation and rib defects, heart defects (patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect and ostium primum atrial septal defect), lung disease from chronic infection, single umbilical artery, absence of the hemidiaphragm, hypoplasia of the femora, ossification defects of the ischium and pubis, bilobed tongue, lung hypoplasia, and renal reflux.

Thoracic diaphragm

diaphragmdiaphragmatichemidiaphragm
Other features include supernumerary vertebrae and other vertebral segmentation and rib defects, heart defects (patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect and ostium primum atrial septal defect), lung disease from chronic infection, single umbilical artery, absence of the hemidiaphragm, hypoplasia of the femora, ossification defects of the ischium and pubis, bilobed tongue, lung hypoplasia, and renal reflux.

Femur

femorathigh bonefemoral
Other features include supernumerary vertebrae and other vertebral segmentation and rib defects, heart defects (patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect and ostium primum atrial septal defect), lung disease from chronic infection, single umbilical artery, absence of the hemidiaphragm, hypoplasia of the femora, ossification defects of the ischium and pubis, bilobed tongue, lung hypoplasia, and renal reflux.

Ischium

ischiainferior ramus of the ischiumischial
Other features include supernumerary vertebrae and other vertebral segmentation and rib defects, heart defects (patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect and ostium primum atrial septal defect), lung disease from chronic infection, single umbilical artery, absence of the hemidiaphragm, hypoplasia of the femora, ossification defects of the ischium and pubis, bilobed tongue, lung hypoplasia, and renal reflux.

Pubis (bone)

pubispubic bonepubic
Other features include supernumerary vertebrae and other vertebral segmentation and rib defects, heart defects (patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect and ostium primum atrial septal defect), lung disease from chronic infection, single umbilical artery, absence of the hemidiaphragm, hypoplasia of the femora, ossification defects of the ischium and pubis, bilobed tongue, lung hypoplasia, and renal reflux.

Tongue

Glossusforamen cecumblade
Other features include supernumerary vertebrae and other vertebral segmentation and rib defects, heart defects (patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect and ostium primum atrial septal defect), lung disease from chronic infection, single umbilical artery, absence of the hemidiaphragm, hypoplasia of the femora, ossification defects of the ischium and pubis, bilobed tongue, lung hypoplasia, and renal reflux.