Mindanao

southern PhilippinesRegion Xisland of MindanaoMindanao IslandminMindanao areaMindanao islands groupMindanao islands regionMindanao nationalismMindanao Region
Mindanao or still commonly known as Southern Philippines, is the second largest island in the Philippines.wikipedia
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Philippines

🇵🇭FilipinoPhilippine
Mindanao or still commonly known as Southern Philippines, is the second largest island in the Philippines.
Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao.

Davao City

DavaoDavao City, PhilippinesDavao City, Davao del Sur
According to the 2015 Philippine Population Census, Davao City is the most populous city on the island, with a population of 1,632,991 residents, followed by Zamboanga City (pop.
', officially the ' (Dakbayan sa Dabaw), is a highly urbanized city in the island of Mindanao,.

General Santos

General Santos CityBuayanGeneral Santos, South Cotabato
675,950), General Santos City (pop.
Located on the island of Mindanao, it is the southernmost and 15th-most populous city in the Philippines.

Zamboanga City

ZamboangaCity of ZamboangaZamboanga City, Philippines
According to the 2015 Philippine Population Census, Davao City is the most populous city on the island, with a population of 1,632,991 residents, followed by Zamboanga City (pop.
Zamboanga City was one of the main strongholds in Mindanao, supporting colonizing efforts in the south of the island and making way for Christian settlements.

Davao Region

DavaoRegion XIXI
Mindanao is divided into six regions: the Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, the Caraga region, the Davao region, SOCCSKSARGEN, and the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM).
Davao Region, formerly called Southern Mindanao (Habagatang Mindanao), is an administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region XI. It is situated at the southeastern portion of Mindanao, comprising five provinces: Compostela Valley, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental and Davao Occidental, the newly created province.

Caraga

XIIICaraga region13
Mindanao is divided into six regions: the Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, the Caraga region, the Davao region, SOCCSKSARGEN, and the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM).
Caraga, officially known as the Caraga Administrative Region or simply Caraga Region and designated as Region XIII, is an administrative region in the Philippines occupying the northeastern section of the island of Mindanao.

Soccsksargen

Region XIIXIISOCCSKSARGEN Region
Mindanao is divided into six regions: the Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, the Caraga region, the Davao region, SOCCSKSARGEN, and the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM).
Socsksargen (officially styled as SOCSKSARGEN ) (pronounced ), formerly known simply as Cotabato or Kota Bato, is an administrative region of the Philippines, located in south-central Mindanao.

Subanon people

SubanonSubanenSubanons
Native ethnic groups in Mindanao include the Lumads (namely the Subanons of the Zamboanga Peninsula; the Bukidnon, the Ata Manobos, the Mamanwas, the Matigsalugs, the Agusan Manobos, the Talaandigs, the Kamigins, and the Higaonons of Northern Mindanao and the region of Caraga; the T'boli s, the Tirurays, the B'laans, the Sarangani, and the Cotabato Manobos of the region of SOCCSKSARGEN; and the Obo, the Mandayas, the Giangans, the Tagabawa s, the Kalagan s, the Sangirese, and the Mansaka of the Davao region ) and the Moro s (namely the Maguindanaos, the Maranaos, the Tausugs, the Yakans, the Iranuns, and the Sama, mainly concentrated within the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).
Subanon (also spelled Subanen or Subanun) is a tribe indigenous to the Zamboanga peninsula area, particularly living in the mountainous areas of Zamboanga del Sur and Misamis Occidental, Mindanao Island, Philippines.

Moro people

MoroMorosMoro Muslims
Native ethnic groups in Mindanao include the Lumads (namely the Subanons of the Zamboanga Peninsula; the Bukidnon, the Ata Manobos, the Mamanwas, the Matigsalugs, the Agusan Manobos, the Talaandigs, the Kamigins, and the Higaonons of Northern Mindanao and the region of Caraga; the T'boli s, the Tirurays, the B'laans, the Sarangani, and the Cotabato Manobos of the region of SOCCSKSARGEN; and the Obo, the Mandayas, the Giangans, the Tagabawa s, the Kalagan s, the Sangirese, and the Mansaka of the Davao region ) and the Moro s (namely the Maguindanaos, the Maranaos, the Tausugs, the Yakans, the Iranuns, and the Sama, mainly concentrated within the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).
Today, the Bangsamoro people mostly live in southwest Mindanao, Sulu and Basilan.

Zamboanga Peninsula

ZamboangaIXRegion IX
Mindanao is divided into six regions: the Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, the Caraga region, the Davao region, SOCCSKSARGEN, and the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM).
The region is located on the eponymous Zamboanga Peninsula of the island of Mindanao, that lies between the Moro Gulf (part of the Celebes Sea) and the Sulu Sea.

Sangirese people

SangireseSangirSangirese,
Native ethnic groups in Mindanao include the Lumads (namely the Subanons of the Zamboanga Peninsula; the Bukidnon, the Ata Manobos, the Mamanwas, the Matigsalugs, the Agusan Manobos, the Talaandigs, the Kamigins, and the Higaonons of Northern Mindanao and the region of Caraga; the T'boli s, the Tirurays, the B'laans, the Sarangani, and the Cotabato Manobos of the region of SOCCSKSARGEN; and the Obo, the Mandayas, the Giangans, the Tagabawa s, the Kalagan s, the Sangirese, and the Mansaka of the Davao region ) and the Moro s (namely the Maguindanaos, the Maranaos, the Tausugs, the Yakans, the Iranuns, and the Sama, mainly concentrated within the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).
Sangirese or Sangihe people are one of the native people to the Sangir Islands in the northern chain of islands in Sulawesi and the southern part of Mindanao.

Tboli people

TboliT'boliT’boli
Native ethnic groups in Mindanao include the Lumads (namely the Subanons of the Zamboanga Peninsula; the Bukidnon, the Ata Manobos, the Mamanwas, the Matigsalugs, the Agusan Manobos, the Talaandigs, the Kamigins, and the Higaonons of Northern Mindanao and the region of Caraga; the T'boli s, the Tirurays, the B'laans, the Sarangani, and the Cotabato Manobos of the region of SOCCSKSARGEN; and the Obo, the Mandayas, the Giangans, the Tagabawa s, the Kalagan s, the Sangirese, and the Mansaka of the Davao region ) and the Moro s (namely the Maguindanaos, the Maranaos, the Tausugs, the Yakans, the Iranuns, and the Sama, mainly concentrated within the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).
The Tboli people are one of the indigenous peoples of South Cotabato in Southern Mindanao.

Lumad

ManoboBukidnonBagobo
Native ethnic groups in Mindanao include the Lumads (namely the Subanons of the Zamboanga Peninsula; the Bukidnon, the Ata Manobos, the Mamanwas, the Matigsalugs, the Agusan Manobos, the Talaandigs, the Kamigins, and the Higaonons of Northern Mindanao and the region of Caraga; the T'boli s, the Tirurays, the B'laans, the Sarangani, and the Cotabato Manobos of the region of SOCCSKSARGEN; and the Obo, the Mandayas, the Giangans, the Tagabawa s, the Kalagan s, the Sangirese, and the Mansaka of the Davao region ) and the Moro s (namely the Maguindanaos, the Maranaos, the Tausugs, the Yakans, the Iranuns, and the Sama, mainly concentrated within the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).
It is the self-ascription and collective identity of the indigenous peoples of Mindanao.

Tausūg people

TausugSulukTausūg
Native ethnic groups in Mindanao include the Lumads (namely the Subanons of the Zamboanga Peninsula; the Bukidnon, the Ata Manobos, the Mamanwas, the Matigsalugs, the Agusan Manobos, the Talaandigs, the Kamigins, and the Higaonons of Northern Mindanao and the region of Caraga; the T'boli s, the Tirurays, the B'laans, the Sarangani, and the Cotabato Manobos of the region of SOCCSKSARGEN; and the Obo, the Mandayas, the Giangans, the Tagabawa s, the Kalagan s, the Sangirese, and the Mansaka of the Davao region ) and the Moro s (namely the Maguindanaos, the Maranaos, the Tausugs, the Yakans, the Iranuns, and the Sama, mainly concentrated within the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).
Most of the Tausugs have converted into the religion of Islam whose members are now more known as the Moro group, who constitute the third largest ethnic group of Mindanao, Sulu and Palawan.

Maranao people

MaranaoMaranaosBagbagel
Native ethnic groups in Mindanao include the Lumads (namely the Subanons of the Zamboanga Peninsula; the Bukidnon, the Ata Manobos, the Mamanwas, the Matigsalugs, the Agusan Manobos, the Talaandigs, the Kamigins, and the Higaonons of Northern Mindanao and the region of Caraga; the T'boli s, the Tirurays, the B'laans, the Sarangani, and the Cotabato Manobos of the region of SOCCSKSARGEN; and the Obo, the Mandayas, the Giangans, the Tagabawa s, the Kalagan s, the Sangirese, and the Mansaka of the Davao region ) and the Moro s (namely the Maguindanaos, the Maranaos, the Tausugs, the Yakans, the Iranuns, and the Sama, mainly concentrated within the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).
The Maranao people ( Maranao : ['mәranaw]; Filipino: Maranaw (based on Papanoka Mera) ), also spelled Meranao, Maranaw (based on Marapatik) and Mëranaw, is the term used by the Philippine government to refer to the southern tribe who are the "people of the lake" (Ranao in the Iranaon language), a predominantly-Muslim region of the Philippine island of Mindanao.

Sama-Bajau

BajauSamalSama
Native ethnic groups in Mindanao include the Lumads (namely the Subanons of the Zamboanga Peninsula; the Bukidnon, the Ata Manobos, the Mamanwas, the Matigsalugs, the Agusan Manobos, the Talaandigs, the Kamigins, and the Higaonons of Northern Mindanao and the region of Caraga; the T'boli s, the Tirurays, the B'laans, the Sarangani, and the Cotabato Manobos of the region of SOCCSKSARGEN; and the Obo, the Mandayas, the Giangans, the Tagabawa s, the Kalagan s, the Sangirese, and the Mansaka of the Davao region ) and the Moro s (namely the Maguindanaos, the Maranaos, the Tausugs, the Yakans, the Iranuns, and the Sama, mainly concentrated within the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).
The Sama-Bajau are traditionally from the many islands of the Sulu Archipelago in the Philippines, coastal areas of Mindanao, northern and eastern Borneo, the Celebes, and throughout eastern Indonesian islands.

Iranun people

IranunIllanunIranuns
Native ethnic groups in Mindanao include the Lumads (namely the Subanons of the Zamboanga Peninsula; the Bukidnon, the Ata Manobos, the Mamanwas, the Matigsalugs, the Agusan Manobos, the Talaandigs, the Kamigins, and the Higaonons of Northern Mindanao and the region of Caraga; the T'boli s, the Tirurays, the B'laans, the Sarangani, and the Cotabato Manobos of the region of SOCCSKSARGEN; and the Obo, the Mandayas, the Giangans, the Tagabawa s, the Kalagan s, the Sangirese, and the Mansaka of the Davao region ) and the Moro s (namely the Maguindanaos, the Maranaos, the Tausugs, the Yakans, the Iranuns, and the Sama, mainly concentrated within the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).
The Iranun are a Moro ethnic group native to Mindanao, Philippines, and the west coast of Sabah (in which they are found in 25 villages around the Kota Belud and Lahad Datu districts; also in Kudat and Likas, Kota Kinabalu).

Visayas

VisayanVisayan IslandsVisayan Island
Joining them are the equally indigenous Butuanons and the Surigaonons of the Caraga region as well as the Zamboangueños of the eponymous peninsula, along with descendants of settlers from the Visayas and Luzon (chiefly from the former), among them the Cebuanos and the Hiligaynons.
The Visayas, or the Visayan Islands (Visayan: Kabisay-an, ; Kabisayaan ), is one of the three principal geographical divisions of the Philippines, along with Luzon and Mindanao.

Northern Mindanao

Region XX10
Mindanao is divided into six regions: the Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, the Caraga region, the Davao region, SOCCSKSARGEN, and the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM).
Northern Mindanao (Amihanang Mindanao; Maranao: Pangotaraan Mindanao) is an administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region X. It comprises five provinces: Camiguin, Misamis Oriental, Lanao del Norte, Bukidnon and Misamis Occidental and two cities classified as highly urbanized, all occupying the north-central part of Mindanao island, and the island-province of Camiguin.

History of the Philippines (900–1521)

early Philippine historypre-colonialpre-Hispanic
In the classic epoch of Philippine history (900 AD onwards), the people of Mindanao were heavily exposed to Hindu and Buddhist influence and beliefs from Indonesia and Malaysia.
Another example is many parts of the modern day Mindanao is theorized to be part of the Majapahit empire with its capital being located in East Java in the modern day Indonesia.

Zamboanga del Norte

del NortePanganuranprovince of Zamboanga del Norte
The evidence of old stone tools in Zamboanga del Norte may indicate a late Neolithic presence.
Zamboanga del Norte (Cebuano: Amihanang Zamboanga; Subanon: Utara Sembwangan) is a province in the Philippines situated within the Zamboanga Peninsula region in Mindanao.

Cebuano people

CebuanoCebuanosCebuana
Joining them are the equally indigenous Butuanons and the Surigaonons of the Caraga region as well as the Zamboangueños of the eponymous peninsula, along with descendants of settlers from the Visayas and Luzon (chiefly from the former), among them the Cebuanos and the Hiligaynons.
They originated in the province of Cebu in the region of Central Visayas, but then later spread out to other places in the Philippines, such as Siquijor, Bohol, Negros Oriental, southwestern Leyte, western Samar, Masbate, and large parts of Mindanao.

Surigaonon people

SurigaononSurigaononsSurigao
Joining them are the equally indigenous Butuanons and the Surigaonons of the Caraga region as well as the Zamboangueños of the eponymous peninsula, along with descendants of settlers from the Visayas and Luzon (chiefly from the former), among them the Cebuanos and the Hiligaynons.
Surigaonons populate the eastern coastal plain of Mindanao, particularly the provinces of Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur and Dinagat Islands.

Butuan

Butuan City Butuan CityAmbangan Archeological Site in Libertad
342,618), Butuan City (pop. The Rajahnate of Butuan, a fully Hindu kingdom mentioned in Chinese records as a tributary state in the 10th century AD, was concentrated along the northeastern coast of the island around Butuan.
It is located at the northeastern part of the Agusan Valley, Mindanao, sprawling across the Agusan River.

Rajahnate of Butuan

ButuanButuanonsDewata
The Rajahnate of Butuan, a fully Hindu kingdom mentioned in Chinese records as a tributary state in the 10th century AD, was concentrated along the northeastern coast of the island around Butuan.
The Rajahnate of Butuan (also called as Kingdom of Butuan; Butuanon: Gingharian hong Butuan, Gingharian sa Butuan, Chinese: 蒲端國, Púduānguó in Chinese records) was an Indic polity centered on present Mindanao island in the modern city of Butuan in what is now the southern Philippines.