A report on Mindanao

A 1926 photograph of Bagobo (Manobo) warriors
An old Spanish map of Mindanao island.
Approximate historical extent of the Muslim sultanates of Sulu, Maguindanao and Lanao in the 19th century
Christian Filipinos, who served under the Spanish Army, searching for Moro rebels during the Spanish–Moro conflict, c. 1887. The insurgency in Mindanao can be traced to the early 16th century.
Two Spanish missionaries baptizing a Moro convert to Roman Catholicism, circa 1890.
Lanao sultans making an open letter to Duterte urging for the quick resolution of the Marawi crisis
Cagayan de Oro skyline in 2018
Mountains in the province of Bukidnon
Mt. Apo, the highest peak in the Philippines
Mindanao coast
Rio Grande de Mindanao
"I-indak sa kadalanan" or the Street dancing competition, part of Kadayawan Festival celebration in Davao City.
Davao City's Chinatown

Second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon and seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the island is part of an island group of the same name that also includes its adjacent islands, notably the Sulu Archipelago.

- Mindanao
A 1926 photograph of Bagobo (Manobo) warriors

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Philippines

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Archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

Archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

Philip II of Spain
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the oldest known writing found in the Philippines
Manila (1847)
Filipino Ilustrados in Spain formed the Propaganda Movement. Photographed in 1890.
General Douglas MacArthur coming ashore during the Battle of Leyte on October 20, 1944
The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century.
Topography of the Philippines
Mayon is an active stratovolcano, located in the south of the island of Luzon
The Philippine Eagle is endemic to the forests of the country.
A male Celestial monarch seen in Bislig.
Köppen climate classification of the Philippines
Malacañan Palace is the official residence of the president of the Philippines.
President Rodrigo Duterte and U.S. President Donald Trump discuss matters during a bilateral meeting in November 2017.
BRP Jose Rizal (FF-150) is the lead ship of her class of guided missile frigates of the Philippine Navy
Administrative map of the Philippines
Dominant ethnic groups by province
A map that shows all ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines.
The historical Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte. Declared as a National Cultural Treasure by the Philippine government in 1973 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the collective group of Baroque Churches of the Philippines in 1993.
St. Luke's Medical Center in Taguig.
Founded in 1611, the University of Santo Tomas is the oldest extant university in Asia.
Real GPD per capita development of the Philippines
A proportional representation of Philippines exports, 2019
Filipinos planting rice. Agriculture employs 23% of the Filipino workforce.
Headquarters of the International Rice Research Institute in Los Baños, Laguna.
Limestone cliffs of El Nido, Palawan.
An LRT Line 2 train at Santolan station.
Ambuklao Dam in Bokod, Benguet.
A participant of the Ati-Atihan Festival.
A statue in Iriga City commemorating the mano po gesture
Colonial houses in Vigan.
Cariñosa, a Hispanic era dance for traditional Filipino courtship.
José Rizal is a pioneer of Philippine Revolution through his literary works.
Philippines men's national basketball team celebrating the 2015 Southeast Asian Games championship.

It is situated in the western Pacific Ocean and consists of around 7,641 islands that are broadly categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao.

Provinces based on income classification.

Provinces of the Philippines

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In the Philippines, provinces are one of its primary political and administrative divisions.

In the Philippines, provinces are one of its primary political and administrative divisions.

Provinces based on income classification.
Map of the Philippines showing the proposed provinces
1880
1899
1907
1918
1935
1942–1945
1986
1992–present

style="border-left-width:medium;" | Mindanao

Davao City

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1st class highly urbanized city in the Davao Region, Philippines.

1st class highly urbanized city in the Davao Region, Philippines.

Aerial view of Davao, 1935
Davao City Hall was established in 1926 as the Municipal Hall when it was still a town.
Japan-town, Davao City (circa 1930s)
Old seal of the city, NHCP version
Mouth of the Davao River in Talomo District
Mount Apo is the tallest mountain in the Philippines.
Davao City from the air
Davao City aerial view at night
A Matigsalug woman
The city's San Pedro Cathedral
The Peak, Gaisano Mall
Davao City's Chinatown is said to be the Philippines' biggest in terms of land area.
"I-indak sa kadalanan" or the Street dancing competition, part of Kadayawan Festival celebration.
Ginanggang, grilled saba bananas with margarine and brushed with sugar, originated in Davao.
Land of Promise, located atop a hill at The Gap Farming Resort
City Hall
Quezon Boulevard
The Port of Davao is the busiest port in Mindanao.
Francisco Bangoy International Airport's air traffic control tower is considered the most advanced ATC in the Philippines.
The stadium and track-and-field area of Davao City Sports Complex.
Sabong or cockfight in Davao City.
University of the Philippines Mindanao
Mindanao Media Hub
Davao City skyline

It is the third-most populous city in the Philippines after Quezon City and Manila, and the most populous in Mindanao.

Cagayan de Oro

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1st class highly urbanized city in the region of Northern Mindanao, Philippines.

1st class highly urbanized city in the region of Northern Mindanao, Philippines.

The American forces attacking Makahambus, circa 1900s.
Aerial view of Cagayan de Misamis, circa pre-1943
Aftermath of Tropical Storm Sendong (Washi)
NASA—satellite image captured of Macajalar Bay and the metropolis area.
Cagayan de Oro skyline 2021
International hotel chain Tune Hotels along CM Recto Avenue
City Hall
The seal of Cagayan de Oro when it attained its cityhood in 1950 and was replaced in 1976. Further replacements occurred in 1990 and 2000. In 2014, the 1990 seal was used again contrary to recommendations of local historians to readopt the 1950 seal which was recognized as the seal of the city by NHCP. The non-registration of the 1990 seal to NHCP left its legality open to question.
During the Higalaay (Kagay-an Festival) 2014
Sayre Highway in upland Barangay Puerto connecting the city to the province of Bukidnon
Port of Cagayan de Oro, one of the busiest ports in Mindanao
Laguindingan Airport
Miss Universe 2015 Pia Wurtzbach
North Concourse, Limketkai Mall
CM Recto Flyover
Whitewater rafting or kayaking adventures in the Cagayan de Oro River
A Tribute monument to the slain members of the press
CM Recto Avenue with Centrio Mall at the background
Photo taken from Uptown CDO
New Dawn Hotel Plus Building
Cagayan de Oro City as seen from Upper Puerto
Lourdes College Inc.

Cagayan de Oro is located along the north central coast of Mindanao island facing Macajalar Bay and is bordered by the municipalities of Opol to the west, Tagoloan to the east, and the provinces of Bukidnon and Lanao del Norte to the south of the city.

Nuestra Senora del Rosario Parish in Magallanes

Caraga

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Nuestra Senora del Rosario Parish in Magallanes
Downtown Butuan City
SM City Butuan, the first SM Mall in the region
Mount Mayapay in Agusan del Norte
A Manobo girl performing a dance during the Kahimunan Festival in Butuan in 2019.
Democrito O. Plaza Memorial Hospital in Prosperidad. Opened in 2017.
Mayor Democrito D. Plaza II Avenue in Butuan City (Known as Butuan Bypass Road)

Caraga, officially the Caraga Administrative Region (or simply known as Caraga Region) and designated as Region XIII, is an administrative region in the Philippines occupying the northeastern section of Mindanao.

Davao Region

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Administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region XI.

Administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region XI.

A view of Davao City as seen in July 2018

It is situated at the southeastern portion of Mindanao and comprises five provinces: Davao de Oro, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental and Davao Occidental.

Zamboanga Peninsula

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Administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region IX.

Administrative region in the Philippines, designated as Region IX.

The region was previously known as Western Mindanao before the signing of Executive Order No. 36 of 2001.

Bangsamoro

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Autonomous region located in the southern Philippines.

Autonomous region located in the southern Philippines.

A view of Cotabato City as seen in February 2018
Approximate historical extent of the Muslim sultanates of Sulu, Maguindanao and Lanao
Voters look for their names at a precinct in Marawi during the January 21 BOL plebiscite.
President Rodrigo Duterte sounds the agong during the inauguration of Bangsamoro. He is joined by Chief Minister Murad Ebrahim.
Wa'lī Kalifa Usman Nando (left) and Chief Minister Murad Ebrahim (right)
The Bangsamoro Parliament convening at the Shariff Kabunsuan Cultural Complex in Cotabato City.
Marawi
Ginakit boat of the Maguindanao people
Bacolod-Kalawi, Lanao del Sur
Grand Mosque of Cotabato
Daru Jambangan (Palace of Flowers) in Maimbung, Sulu before it was destroyed by a typhoon in 1932.
Jolo, Sulu
Inaul, a Maguindanaon woven cloth.
Bongao, Tawi-Tawi
A Moro brass lantaka or swivel gun.
19th century illustration of a lanong, the main warships used by the Iranun and Banguingui people
Tausūg horsemen in Sulu, taken on December 30, 1899.
Sarimanok statue of the Maranao
Yards of Yakan people's cloths
Asik, a Maguindanaon dance performed in Manila.
thumb|A Sama-Bajau lepa houseboat ({{circa|1905}})
Pis siyabit (headscarf) of the Tausūgs
Palapa, a culturally important spicy condiment of the Maranao people
Tausūg dancers in traditional attire.
A kutiyapi of the Maguindanao people
A malong bearing okir designs.
Moro blades made from Basilan "basih" (iron)
Pastil, a traditional Maguindanaon food.
Lami-Lamihan Festival
A Maranao kulintang ensemble with okir carvings

For the most part of Philippines' history, the region and most of Mindanao have been a separate territory, which enabled it to develop its own culture and identity.

Lumad

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The Lumad are a group of Austronesian indigenous people in the southern Philippines.

The Lumad are a group of Austronesian indigenous people in the southern Philippines.

The Bagobo people in their traditional attire (c. 1913).
A Bagobo chief (matanum)
The colorful Kaamulan Festival celebrated annually in Malaybalay City
A 1926 photograph of Bagobo (Manobo) warriors in full war regalia
A hat from the Mandaya people made up of palm, bamboo, feathers, cotton, fiber, and beads, housed at the Honolulu Museum of Art.
A Bagobo (Manobo) woman of the Matigsalug people from Davao
Datu Manib, a bagani of the Bagobo, with family, followers, and two missionaries (c. 1900)
A group of Mansaka tribeswomen in their formal attire.
The Subanon people of Misamis Occidental living in the mountains of Mount Malindang.
A Tboli dance performed during colorful street dancing competition on the Tnalak Festival in Koronadal, South Cotabato.
Norma Capuyan, vice chair of Apo Sandawa Lumadnong Panaghiusa sa Cotabato (ASLPC) speaking out in a press conference to defend the ancestral domains of the Lumad.

The Bukidnon are one of the seven tribes in the Bukidnon plateau of Mindanao.

Zamboanga City

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City in the Zamboanga Peninsula region of the Philippines.

City in the Zamboanga Peninsula region of the Philippines.

Illustration of Zamboanga and Fort Pilar, detail from the Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Yslas Filipinas, 1734
Inauguration of the Municipality of Zamboanga with Datu Kalun (1901)
Aerial view of Zamboanga, 1930
President Manuel L. Quezon signing the City Charter of Zamboanga in a ceremony held at the Malacañang Palace in (1936)
Zamboanga-made Sardines in supermarket shelves
The administrative building of the Zamboanga City Special Economic Zone Authority
Pulverized Red Organ Pipe Corals gives that pinkish tint on Santa Cruz's Beach.
Old flag of Zamboanga
Plaza Rizal and the Zamboanga City Hall since 1907
The building where the Zamboanga City Council (Sangguniang Panglungsod ng Zamboanga) holds its sessions.
Zamboanga City Hall of Justice Building
The telecommunication towers as can be seen over the downtown.
Murga Station of the Zamboanga City Electric Cooperative (ZAMCELCO).
Zamboanga Peninsula Medical Center located at Putik, Zamboanga City
Ateneo de Zamboanga University facade
Hidilyn Diaz at her homecoming to Zamboanga City, days after her victory in the 2016 Summer Olympics

Zamboanga City was one of the main strongholds in Mindanao, supporting colonizing efforts in the south of the island and making way for Christian settlements.