A report on Mineralogy

Mineralogy applies principles of chemistry, geology, physics and materials science to the study of minerals
Page from Treatise on mineralogy by Friedrich Mohs (1825)
The Moon Mineralogy Mapper, a spectrometer that mapped the lunar surface
Calcite is a carbonate mineral (CaCO3) with a rhombohedral crystal structure.
Aragonite is an orthorhombic polymorph of calcite.
The perovskite crystal structure. The most abundant mineral in the Earth, bridgmanite, has this structure. Its chemical formula is (Mg,Fe)SiO3; the red spheres are oxygen, the blue spheres silicon and the green spheres magnesium or iron.
Portable Micro-X-ray fluorescence machine
Photomicrograph of olivine adcumulate from the Archaean komatiite of Agnew, Western Australia.
Hanksite, Na22K(SO4)9(CO3)2Cl, one of the few minerals that is considered a carbonate and a sulfate
A color chart of some raw forms of commercially valuable metals.
A small collection of mineral samples, with cases

Subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.

- Mineralogy
Mineralogy applies principles of chemistry, geology, physics and materials science to the study of minerals

33 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Crystals of serandite, natrolite, analcime, and aegirine from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, Canada

Mineral

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Crystals of serandite, natrolite, analcime, and aegirine from Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec, Canada
Schist is a metamorphic rock characterized by an abundance of platy minerals. In this example, the rock has prominent sillimanite porphyroblasts as large as 3 cm.
Hübnerite, the manganese-rich end-member of the wolframite series, with minor quartz in the background
When minerals react, the products will sometimes assume the shape of the reagent; the product mineral is termed a pseudomorph of (or after) the reagent. Illustrated here is a pseudomorph of kaolinite after orthoclase. Here, the pseudomorph preserved the Carlsbad twinning common in orthoclase.
Topaz has a characteristic orthorhombic elongated crystal shape.
Contact twins, as seen in spinel
Diamond is the hardest natural material, and has a Mohs hardness of 10.
Pyrite has a metallic lustre.
Perfect basal cleavage as seen in biotite (black), and good cleavage seen in the matrix (pink orthoclase).
Galena, PbS, is a mineral with a high specific gravity.
Carnotite (yellow) is a radioactive uranium-bearing mineral.
Aegirine, an iron-sodium clinopyroxene, is part of the inosilicate subclass.
Natrolite is a mineral series in the zeolite group; this sample has a very prominent acicular crystal habit.
Muscovite, a mineral species in the mica group, within the phyllosilicate subclass
Asbestiform tremolite, part of the amphibole group in the inosilicate subclass
An example of elbaite, a species of tourmaline, with distinctive colour banding.
Epidote often has a distinctive pistachio-green colour.
Black andradite, an end-member of the orthosilicate garnet group.
Native gold. Rare specimen of stout crystals growing off of a central stalk, size 3.7 x 1.1 x 0.4 cm, from Venezuela.
Red cinnabar (HgS), a mercury ore, on dolomite.
Sphalerite crystal partially encased in calcite from the Devonian Milwaukee Formation of Wisconsin
Pink cubic halite (NaCl; halide class) crystals on a nahcolite matrix (NaHCO3; a carbonate, and mineral form of sodium bicarbonate, used as baking soda).
Gypsum desert rose

In geology and mineralogy, a mineral or mineral species is, broadly speaking, a solid chemical compound with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure that occurs naturally in pure form.

The rock cycle shows the relationship between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

Geology

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Branch of natural science concerned with Earth and other astronomical objects, the features or rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.

Branch of natural science concerned with Earth and other astronomical objects, the features or rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.

The rock cycle shows the relationship between igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.
Native gold from Venezuela
Quartz from Tibet. Quartz makes up more than 10% of the Earth's crust by mass.
Oceanic-continental convergence resulting in subduction and volcanic arcs illustrates one effect of plate tectonics.
The major tectonic plates of the Earth
In this diagram based on seismic tomography, subducting slabs are in blue and continental margins and a few plate boundaries are in red. The blue blob in the cutaway section is the Farallon Plate, which is subducting beneath North America. The remnants of this plate on the surface of the Earth are the Juan de Fuca Plate and Explorer Plate, both in the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada and the Cocos Plate on the west coast of Mexico.
The Earth's layered structure. (1) inner core; (2) outer core; (3) lower mantle; (4) upper mantle; (5) lithosphere; (6) crust (part of the lithosphere)
Earth layered structure. Typical wave paths from earthquakes like these gave early seismologists insights into the layered structure of the Earth
Geological time in a diagram called a geological clock, showing the relative lengths of the eons and eras of the Earth's history
Cross-cutting relations can be used to determine the relative ages of rock strata and other geological structures. Explanations: A – folded rock strata cut by a thrust fault; B – large intrusion (cutting through A); C – erosional angular unconformity (cutting off A & B) on which rock strata were deposited; D – volcanic dyke (cutting through A, B & C); E – even younger rock strata (overlying C & D); F – normal fault (cutting through A, B, C & E).
The Permian through Jurassic stratigraphy of the Colorado Plateau area of southeastern Utah is an example of both original horizontality and the law of superposition. These strata make up much of the famous prominent rock formations in widely spaced protected areas such as Capitol Reef National Park and Canyonlands National Park. From top to bottom: Rounded tan domes of the Navajo Sandstone, layered red Kayenta Formation, cliff-forming, vertically jointed, red Wingate Sandstone, slope-forming, purplish Chinle Formation, layered, lighter-red Moenkopi Formation, and white, layered Cutler Formation sandstone. Picture from Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Utah.
The mineral zircon is often used in radiometric dating.
An originally horizontal sequence of sedimentary rocks (in shades of tan) are affected by igneous activity. Deep below the surface is a magma chamber and large associated igneous bodies. The magma chamber feeds the volcano, and sends offshoots of magma that will later crystallize into dikes and sills. Magma also advances upwards to form intrusive igneous bodies. The diagram illustrates both a cinder cone volcano, which releases ash, and a composite volcano, which releases both lava and ash.
An illustration of the three types of faults. 
A. Strike-slip faults occur when rock units slide past one another. 
B. Normal faults occur when rocks are undergoing horizontal extension. 
C. Reverse (or thrust) faults occur when rocks are undergoing horizontal shortening.
The San Andreas Fault in California
A diagram of folds, indicating an anticline and a syncline
Geological cross section of Kittatinny Mountain. This cross-section shows metamorphic rocks, overlain by younger sediments deposited after the metamorphic event. These rock units were later folded and faulted during the uplift of the mountain.
A standard Brunton Pocket Transit, commonly used by geologists for mapping and surveying
A typical USGS field mapping camp in the 1950s
Today, handheld computers with GPS and geographic information systems software are often used in geological field work (digital geological mapping).
A petrified log in Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, U.S.A.
Folded rock strata
A diagram of an orogenic wedge. The wedge grows through faulting in the interior and along the main basal fault, called the décollement. It builds its shape into a critical taper, in which the angles within the wedge remain the same as failures inside the material balance failures along the décollement. It is analogous to a bulldozer pushing a pile of dirt, where the bulldozer is the overriding plate.
Different colors show the different minerals composing the mount Ritagli di Lecca seen from Fondachelli-Fantina, Sicily
Surface of Mars as photographed by the Viking 2 lander December 9, 1977
Man panning for gold on the Mokelumne. Harper's Weekly: How We Got Gold in California. 1860
Mud log in process, a common way to study the lithology when drilling oil wells
A child drinks water from a well built as part of a hydrogeological humanitarian project in Kenya
Rockfall in the Grand Canyon
William Smith's geological map of England, Wales, and southern Scotland. Completed in 1815, it was the second national-scale geologic map, and by far the most accurate of its time.
Mikhail Lomonosov, Russian polymath, author of the first systematic treatise in scientific geology (1763)
James Hutton, Scottish geologist and father of modern geology
John Tuzo Wilson, Canadian geophysicist and father of plate tectonics
The volcanologist David A. Johnston 13 hours before his death at the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens

Advances in seismology, computer modeling, and mineralogy and crystallography at high temperatures and pressures give insights into the internal composition and structure of the Earth.

Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. The title at the top reads: "Volume I of the Natural History of Gaius Plinius Secundus".

Natural History (Pliny)

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Work by Pliny the Elder.

Work by Pliny the Elder.

Naturalis Historia, 1669 edition, title page. The title at the top reads: "Volume I of the Natural History of Gaius Plinius Secundus".
Copy of Naturalis Historia printed by Johannes Alvisius in 1499 in Venice, Italy
A cynocephalus, or dog-head, as described by Pliny in his Natural History. From the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493).
A sciapod, described by Pliny in his Natural History, from the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493)
The Natural History of Pliny in a mid-12th-century manuscript from the Abbaye de Saint Vincent, Le Mans, France
How Hipparchus found the distances to sun and moon
A collection of Roman amber from the Archeological Museum of Aquileia
Detail of a relief depicting a Gallo-Roman harvesting machine
Roman coins were struck, not cast, so these coin moulds were created for forgery.
Amethyst intaglio (1st century AD) depicting Nero as Apollo playing the lyre (Cabinet des Médailles)
Laocoön and his Sons
The striking landscape of Las Médulas, the most important gold mine in the Roman Empire, resulted from the Ruina Montium mining technique.
Historia naturalis translated into Italian by Cristoforo Landino, 1489 edition

These cover topics including astronomy, mathematics, geography, ethnography, anthropology, human physiology, zoology, botany, agriculture, horticulture, pharmacology, mining, mineralogy, sculpture, art, and precious stones.

Copper silicate mineral chrysocolla

Silicate mineral

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Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups.

Silicate minerals are rock-forming minerals made up of silicate groups.

Copper silicate mineral chrysocolla
Diatomaceous earth, a biogenic form of silica as viewed under a microscope. The imaged region measures approximately 1.13 by 0.69 mm.
Orthosilicate anion . The grey ball represents the silicon atom, and the red balls are the oxygen atoms.
Nesosilicate specimens at the Museum of Geology in South Dakota
Kyanite crystals (unknown scale)
Pyrosilicate anion.
Sorosilicate exhibit at Museum of Geology in South Dakota
Cyclosilicate specimens at the Museum of Geology, South Dakota
Pezzottaite
Bazzite.
Kaolinite
Silica family (SiO2 3D network), β-quartz.
The 3D aluminosilicate anion of synthetic zeolite ZSM-5.
Quartz
Lunar ferroan anorthosite (plagioclase feldspar) collected by Apollo 16 astronauts from the Lunar Highlands near Descartes Crater
6 units {{chem2|[Si6O18]}}, beryl (red: Si, blue: O)
3 units {{chem2|[Si3O9]}}, benitoite
4 units {{chem2|[Si4O12]}}, papagoite
9 units {{chem2|[Si9O27]}}, eudialyte
6 units, double ring {{chem2|[Si6O15]}}, milarite
Inosilicate, pyroxene family, with 2-periodic single chain {{chem2|(Si2O6)}}, diopside
Inosilicate, clinoamphibole, with 2-periodic double chains {{chem2|(Si4O11)}}, tremolite
Inosilicate, unbranched 3-periodic single chain of wollastonite
Inosilicate with 5-periodic single chain, rhodonite
Inosilicate with cyclic branched 8-periodic chain, pellyite
Phyllosilicate, mica group, muscovite (red: Si, blue: O)
Phyllosilicate, single net of tetrahedra with 4-membered rings, apophyllite-(KF)-apophyllite-(KOH) series
Phyllosilicate, single tetrahedral nets of 6-membered rings, pyrosmalite-(Fe)-pyrosmalite-(Mn) series
Phyllosilicate, single tetrahedral nets of 6-membered rings, zeophyllite
Phyllosilicate, double nets with 4- and 6-membered rings, carletonite

In mineralogy, silica (silicon dioxide) SiO2 is usually considered a silicate mineral.

Mohs hardness kit, containing one specimen of each mineral on the ten-point hardness scale

Mohs scale of mineral hardness

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Qualitative ordinal scale, from 1 to 10, characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.

Qualitative ordinal scale, from 1 to 10, characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.

Mohs hardness kit, containing one specimen of each mineral on the ten-point hardness scale

The scale was introduced in 1822 by the German geologist and mineralogist Friedrich Mohs, in his Treatise on Mineralogy; it is one of several definitions of hardness in materials science, some of which are more quantitative.

Obsidian

Fracture (mineralogy)

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Obsidian
Limonite
Native copper
Chrysotile
Magnetite

In the field of mineralogy, fracture is the texture and shape of a rock's surface formed when a mineral is fractured.

Tenacity (mineralogy)

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In mineralogy, tenacity is a mineral's behavior when deformed or broken.

Georgius Agricola (fictive 1927 portrait)

Georgius Agricola

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Georgius Agricola (fictive 1927 portrait)
Herodotus' Histories in Italian, translated by Count Matteo Maria Boiardo and published by the Aldine Press, Venice, (1533?)
A water mill used for raising ore
Fire-setting underground
De re metallica
Memorial slab for Agricola at Zeitz cathedral, installed in June 2014

Georgius Agricola (born Georg Pawer or Georg Bauer; 24 March 1494 – 21 November 1555) was a German Humanist scholar, mineralogist and metallurgist.

René Just Haüy

René Just Haüy

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René Just Haüy
Pearwood model of rock crystal rhomboid, made by René-Just Haüy, Teylers Museum
Integrant molecules form a pentagonal dodecahedron of pyrite, Traité de minéralogie (1801)
Haüy with a contact goniometer, ca. 1812
René Just Haüy, statue by Isidore Hippolyte Brion at the National Museum of Natural History in Paris
Haüyne crystals

René Just Haüy FRS MWS FRSE (28 February 1743 – 1 June 1822) was a French priest and mineralogist, commonly styled the Abbé Haüy after he was made an honorary canon of Notre Dame.

Pyrite sun (or dollar) in laminated shale matrix. Between tightly spaced layers of shale, the aggregate was forced to grow in a laterally compressed, radiating manner. Under normal conditions, pyrite would form cubes or pyritohedrons.

Crystal habit

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Pyrite sun (or dollar) in laminated shale matrix. Between tightly spaced layers of shale, the aggregate was forced to grow in a laterally compressed, radiating manner. Under normal conditions, pyrite would form cubes or pyritohedrons.
Goethite replacing pyrite cubes

In mineralogy, crystal habit is the characteristic external shape of an individual crystal or crystal group.