Mineralogy

mineralogistmineralogicalmineralogistsmineralmineralogicmineralologyMineralspreparations from mineral sourcesCommission of New Minerals and Mineral Namesmineral assemblages
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.wikipedia
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Mineral

mineralsmineral depositsaccessory mineral
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
In geology and mineralogy, the term "mineral" is usually reserved for mineral species: crystalline compounds with a fairly well-defined chemical composition and a specific crystal structure.

Georgius Agricola

Georg AgricolaAgricolaAgricola, Georgius
The German Renaissance specialist Georgius Agricola wrote works such as De re metallica (On Metals, 1556) and De Natura Fossilium (On the Nature of Rocks, 1546) which began the scientific approach to the subject.
Georgius Agricola (born Georg Pawer or Georg Bauer; 24 March 1494 – 21 November 1555) was a German Humanist scholar, mineralogist and metallurgist.

Natural History (Pliny)

Natural HistoryNaturalis HistoriaHistoria Naturalis
Books on the subject included the Naturalis Historia of Pliny the Elder, which not only described many different minerals but also explained many of their properties, and Kitab al Jawahir (Book of Precious Stones) by Persian scientist Al-Biruni.
These cover topics including astronomy, mathematics, geography, ethnography, anthropology, human physiology, zoology, botany, agriculture, horticulture, pharmacology, mining, mineralogy, sculpture, painting, and precious stones.

René Just Haüy

HaüyAbbé HaüyHaüy, René Just
René Just Haüy, the "father of modern crystallography", showed that crystals are periodic and established that the orientations of crystal faces can be expressed in terms of rational numbers, as later encoded in the Miller indices.
René Just Haüy FRS MWS FRSE (28 February 1743 – 3 June 1822) was a French priest and mineralogist, commonly styled the Abbé Haüy after he was made an honorary canon of Notre Dame.

Geology

geologicalgeologistgeologic
Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of the chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.
Advances in seismology, computer modeling, and mineralogy and crystallography at high temperatures and pressures give insights into the internal composition and structure of the Earth.

James Dwight Dana

DanaJames D. DanaJames Dana
James D. Dana published his first edition of A System of Mineralogy in 1837, and in a later edition introduced a chemical classification that is still the standard.
James Dwight Dana FRS FRSE (February 12, 1813 – April 14, 1895) was an American geologist, mineralogist, volcanologist, and zoologist.

Jöns Jacob Berzelius

Jöns Jakob BerzeliusBerzeliusJacob Berzelius
In 1814, Jöns Jacob Berzelius introduced a classification of minerals based on their chemistry rather than their crystal structure.
Berzelius's interest in mineralogy also fostered his analysis and preparation of new compounds of these and other elements.

Materials science

material sciencematerials engineeringmaterials scientist
To this end, in their focus on the connection between atomic-scale phenomena and macroscopic properties, the mineral sciences (as they are now commonly known) display perhaps more of an overlap with materials science than any other discipline.
The intellectual origins of materials science stem from the Enlightenment, when researchers began to use analytical thinking from chemistry, physics, and engineering to understand ancient, phenomenological observations in metallurgy and mineralogy.

Cleavage (crystal)

cleavagecleavagescleavage plane
These can be classified into density (often given as specific gravity); measures of mechanical cohesion (hardness, tenacity, cleavage, fracture, parting); macroscopic visual properties (luster, color, streak, luminescence, diaphaneity); magnetic and electric properties; radioactivity and solubility in hydrogen chloride.
Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite crystallographic structural planes.

Fracture (mineralogy)

fracturefracturesconchoidal
These can be classified into density (often given as specific gravity); measures of mechanical cohesion (hardness, tenacity, cleavage, fracture, parting); macroscopic visual properties (luster, color, streak, luminescence, diaphaneity); magnetic and electric properties; radioactivity and solubility in hydrogen chloride.
In the field of mineralogy, fracture is the texture and shape of a rock's surface formed when a mineral is fractured.

Tenacity (mineralogy)

tenacitybrittle
These can be classified into density (often given as specific gravity); measures of mechanical cohesion (hardness, tenacity, cleavage, fracture, parting); macroscopic visual properties (luster, color, streak, luminescence, diaphaneity); magnetic and electric properties; radioactivity and solubility in hydrogen chloride.
In mineralogy, tenacity is a mineral's behavior when deformed or broken.

Mohs scale of mineral hardness

Mohs hardnessMohs scalehardness
These can be classified into density (often given as specific gravity); measures of mechanical cohesion (hardness, tenacity, cleavage, fracture, parting); macroscopic visual properties (luster, color, streak, luminescence, diaphaneity); magnetic and electric properties; radioactivity and solubility in hydrogen chloride.
Created in 1812 by German geologist and mineralogist Friedrich Mohs, it is one of several definitions of hardness in materials science, some of which are more quantitative.

Crystal habit

habitMassivetabular
If the mineral is well crystallized, it will also have a distinctive crystal habit (for example, hexagonal, columnar, botryoidal) that reflects the crystal structure or internal arrangement of atoms.
In mineralogy, crystal habit is the characteristic external shape of an individual crystal or crystal group.

Sclerometer

Hardness can also be measured on an absolute scale using a sclerometer; compared to the absolute scale, the Mohs scale is nonlinear.
The Sclerometer, also known as the Turner-Sclerometer (from meaning "hard"), is an instrument used by metallurgists, material scientists and mineralogists to measure the scratch hardness of materials.

Jean-Baptiste L. Romé de l'Isle

Jean Baptiste Louis Romé de LisleJean-Baptiste Romé de L’IsleRome de l'Isle
This was later generalized and established experimentally by Jean-Baptiste L. Romé de l'Islee in 1783.
Subsequently he became distinguished for his researches on mineralogy and crystallography.

Pliny the Elder

PlinyPlin.Plinius
Books on the subject included the Naturalis Historia of Pliny the Elder, which not only described many different minerals but also explained many of their properties, and Kitab al Jawahir (Book of Precious Stones) by Persian scientist Al-Biruni.
It encompasses the fields of botany, zoology, astronomy, geology, and mineralogy, as well as the exploitation of those resources.

Inorganic chemistry

inorganicinorganic chemistinorganic compounds
More recently, driven by advances in experimental technique (such as neutron diffraction) and available computational power, the latter of which has enabled extremely accurate atomic-scale simulations of the behaviour of crystals, the science has branched out to consider more general problems in the fields of inorganic chemistry and solid-state physics.
Related fields are condensed matter physics, mineralogy, and materials science.

Crystallographic point group

crystal classcrystallographic point groupspoint group
Together, they make up a mathematical object called a crystallographic point group or crystal class.
There are several standard notations used by crystallographers, mineralogists, and physicists.

International Mineralogical Association

IMACommission on New Minerals and Mineral NamesCommission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification
In 1959, the International Mineralogical Association formed the Commission of New Minerals and Mineral Names to rationalize the nomenclature and regulate the introduction of new names.
The goal is to promote the science of mineralogy and to standardize the nomenclature of the 5000 plus known mineral species.

Crystallography

crystallographercrystallographiccrystallographically
The modern study of mineralogy was founded on the principles of crystallography (the origins of geometric crystallography, itself, can be traced back to the mineralogy practiced in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries) and to the microscopic study of rock sections with the invention of the microscope in the 17th century.

Silicate minerals

silicate mineralphyllosilicatephyllosilicates
It, however, retains a focus on the crystal structures commonly encountered in rock-forming minerals (such as the perovskites, clay minerals and framework silicates).
In mineralogy, silica (silicon dioxide) SiO 2 is usually considered a silicate mineral.

Mineral evolution

A new approach to mineralogy called mineral evolution explores the co-evolution of the geosphere and biosphere, including the role of minerals in the origin of life and processes as mineral-catalyzed organic synthesis and the selective adsorption of organic molecules on mineral surfaces.
Mineral evolution is a recent hypothesis that provides historical context to mineralogy.

Diagenesis

diageneticdiageneticallylithified
In the early stages, this transformation of sediment into sedimentary rock, (lithification) is accompanied simply by a reduction in porosity, while its component mineralogy remains unaltered.

Robert Hazen

Robert M. HazenDr. Robert HazenHazen, Robert
In a 2015 paper, Robert Hazen and others analyzed the number of minerals involving each element as a function of its abundance.
Robert Miller Hazen (born November 1, 1948) is an American mineralogist and astrobiologist.

Electron microprobe

electron probe microanalysisElemental MappingEPMA
Other techniques are X-ray fluorescence, electron microprobe analysis and optical emission spectrography.
Several new advances in CAMECA instruments in the last decades allowed them to expand their range of applications on metallurgy, electronics, geology, mineralogy, nuclear plants, trace elements, dentistry, etc.