Ming dynasty

MingMing ChinaMing EmpireChinaMing ChineseMing-dynastyMing dynastiesMing periodChineseMing-era
The Ming dynasty, officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.wikipedia
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Yuan dynasty

YuanYuan ChinaYuan Empire
The Ming dynasty, officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
It followed the Song dynasty and preceded the Ming dynasty.

Dynasties in Chinese history

dynastydynastiesChinese dynasties
The Ming dynasty, officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
For example, 1644 CE is frequently cited as the year in which the Qing dynasty succeeded the preceding Ming dynasty in possessing the Mandate of Heaven.

Qing dynasty

QingQing EmpireChina
Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng (who established the Shun dynasty, soon replaced by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty), numerous rump regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1662.
It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China.

Li Zicheng

Lei Tsi-singDashing KingLee Tsi-sing
Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng (who established the Shun dynasty, soon replaced by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty), numerous rump regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1662.
Li Zicheng (22 September 1606 – 1645), born Li Hongji, also known by the nickname, "Dashing King", was a Chinese rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty in 1644 and ruled over northern China briefly as the emperor of the short-lived Shun dynasty before his death a year later.

Jingnan campaign

Jingnan Rebellioncivil warhis own uprising
This failed when his teenage successor, the Jianwen Emperor, attempted to curtail his uncles' power, prompting the Jingnan Campaign, an uprising that placed the Prince of Yan upon the throne as the Yongle Emperor in 1402.
Jingnan campaign, or Jingnan rebellion, was a civil war in the early years of the Ming dynasty of China between the Jianwen Emperor and his uncle Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan.

Yongle Emperor

Zhu DiYongleYongle era
This failed when his teenage successor, the Jianwen Emperor, attempted to curtail his uncles' power, prompting the Jingnan Campaign, an uprising that placed the Prince of Yan upon the throne as the Yongle Emperor in 1402.
Zhu Di was the fourth son of the Hongwu Emperor, the founder of the Ming dynasty.

Southern Ming

Southern Ming dynastyMing loyalistsMing loyalist
Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng (who established the Shun dynasty, soon replaced by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty), numerous rump regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1662.
The Southern Ming, officially the Great Ming, was a series of loyalist rump states ruled by the Zhu clan in southern China following the Ming dynasty's collapse in 1644.

Ming treasure voyages

treasure voyagesvoyagesexpeditions
One, Zheng He, led seven enormous voyages of exploration into the Indian Ocean as far as Arabia and the eastern coasts of Africa.
The Ming treasure voyages were the seven maritime expeditions by Ming China's treasure fleet between 1405 and 1433.

Forbidden City

Palace Museumimperial palaceForbidden Palace
The Yongle Emperor established Yan as a secondary capital and renamed it Beijing, constructed the Forbidden City, and restored the Grand Canal and the primacy of the imperial examinations in official appointments.
It houses the Palace Museum, and was the former Chinese imperial palace from the Ming dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty (the years 1420 to 1912).

Beijing

Beijing, ChinaPekingPeking, China
Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng (who established the Shun dynasty, soon replaced by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty), numerous rump regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1662. The Yongle Emperor established Yan as a secondary capital and renamed it Beijing, constructed the Forbidden City, and restored the Grand Canal and the primacy of the imperial examinations in official appointments.
The name Beijing, which means "Northern Capital" (from the Chinese characters 北 for north and 京 for capital), was applied to the city in 1403 during the Ming dynasty to distinguish the city from Nanjing (the "Southern Capital").

Haijin

sea banhai jinmaritime prohibition
Haijin laws intended to protect the coasts from "Japanese" pirates instead turned many into smugglers and pirates themselves.
The Haijin or sea ban was a series of related isolationist Chinese policies restricting private maritime trading and coastal settlement during most of the Ming dynasty and some of the Qing.

Zheng He

Cheng HoAdmiral Zheng HeAdmiral Cheng Ho
One, Zheng He, led seven enormous voyages of exploration into the Indian Ocean as far as Arabia and the eastern coasts of Africa.
As a favorite of the Yongle Emperor, who Zheng assisted in the overthrow of the Jianwen Emperor, he rose to the top of the imperial hierarchy and served as commander of the southern capital Nanjing.

Mongol Empire

MongolMongolsMongolian Empire
The Ming dynasty, officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
but in 1368 the Han Chinese Ming dynasty took over the Mongol capital.

Portuguese Macau

MacauMacaoPortuguese administration
By the 16th century, however, the expansion of European trade – albeit restricted to islands near Guangzhou such as Macau – spread the Columbian Exchange of crops, plants, and animals into China, introducing chili peppers to Sichuan cuisine and highly productive maize and potatoes, which diminished famines and spurred population growth.
The use of Macau as a commercial port dates back to 1535 during the Ming dynasty, when local authorities established a custom house, collecting 20,000 taels in annual custom duties.

Wang Yangming

Wang ShourenWang Yang-mingBo'an
While traditional Confucians opposed such a prominent role for commerce and the newly rich it created, the heterodoxy introduced by Wang Yangming permitted a more accommodating attitude.
Wang Shouren (26 October 1472 – 9 January 1529), courtesy name Bo'an, was a Chinese calligrapher, military general, philosopher, politician, and writer during the Ming dynasty.

Manchu people

ManchuManchusManchurian
Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng (who established the Shun dynasty, soon replaced by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty), numerous rump regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1662.
The Mongol-led Yuan dynasty was replaced by the Ming dynasty in 1368.

China

People's Republic of ChinaChineseCHN
The Ming dynasty, officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
A peasant named Zhu Yuanzhang overthrew the Yuan in 1368 and founded the Ming dynasty as the Hongwu Emperor.

Tumu Crisis

Battle of Tumu FortressBattle of TumuTumu
The rise of new emperors and new factions diminished such extravagances; the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor during the 1449 Tumu Crisis ended them completely.
The Tumu Crisis, also called the Crisis of Tumu Fortress or Battle of Tumu, was a frontier conflict between the Oirat tribes of Mongols and the Chinese Ming dynasty which led to the capture of the Emperor Yingzong of Ming on September 1, 1449, and the defeat of an army of 500,000 men by a much smaller force.

Age of Discovery

Age of ExplorationAge of Discoveriesexplorer
By the 16th century, however, the expansion of European trade – albeit restricted to islands near Guangzhou such as Macau – spread the Columbian Exchange of crops, plants, and animals into China, introducing chili peppers to Sichuan cuisine and highly productive maize and potatoes, which diminished famines and spurred population growth.
Between 1405 and 1421, the Yongle Emperor of Ming China sponsored a series of long range tributary missions under the command of Zheng He (Cheng Ho).

Wokou

Japanese pirateswakōpiracy
Haijin laws intended to protect the coasts from "Japanese" pirates instead turned many into smugglers and pirates themselves.
Wokou activity in Korea declined after the Gihae Eastern Expedition of the Joseon in 1419, but continued in Ming China and peaked during the Jiajing wokou raids in the mid-1500s, but Chinese reprisals and strong clamp downs on pirates by Japanese authorities saw the wokou virtually disappear by the 1600s.

Nanjing

NankingNanjing, ChinaJinling
In 1356, Zhu's rebel force captured the city of Nanjing, which he would later establish as the capital of the Ming dynasty.
Nanjing served as the capital of Eastern Wu (229–280), one of the three major states in the Three Kingdoms period; the Eastern Jin and each of the Southern dynasties (Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang and Chen), which successively ruled southern China from 317–589; the Southern Tang (937–75), one of the Ten Kingdoms; the Ming dynasty when, for the first time, all of China was ruled from the city (1368–1421); and the Republic of China under the right wing Kuomintang (1927–37, 1946–49) prior to its flight to Taiwan by Chiang Kai-Shek during the Chinese Civil War.

Naval history of China

marinernavyrebellion of Gongsun Shu
1368–1398) attempted to create a society of self-sufficient rural communities ordered in a rigid, immobile system that would guarantee and support a permanent class of soldiers for his dynasty: the empire's standing army exceeded one million troops and the navy's dockyards in Nanjing were the largest in the world.
A significant naval battle was the Battle of Lake Poyang from August 30 to October 4 of the year 1363 AD, a battle which cemented the success of Zhu Yuanzhang in founding the Ming Dynasty.

Shun dynasty

ShunGreat ShunShun rebel army
Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng (who established the Shun dynasty, soon replaced by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty), numerous rump regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1662.
The capture of Beijing by the Shun forces in April 1644 marked the end of the Ming dynasty, but Li Zicheng failed to solidify his political and military control, and in late May 1644 he was defeated at the Battle of Shanhai Pass by the joint forces of Ming general Wu Sangui who shifted his alliance to the Qing dynasty after the fall of the Ming dynasty, with Manchu prince Dorgon.

Guangzhou

CantonGuangzhou, ChinaCanton, China
By the 16th century, however, the expansion of European trade – albeit restricted to islands near Guangzhou such as Macau – spread the Columbian Exchange of crops, plants, and animals into China, introducing chili peppers to Sichuan cuisine and highly productive maize and potatoes, which diminished famines and spurred population growth.
Shortly after the Hongwu Emperor's declaration of the Ming dynasty, he reversed his earlier support of foreign trade and imposed the first of a series of sea bans (haijin).

Zhang Juzheng

Zhang Juzheng's initially successful reforms proved devastating when a slowdown in agriculture produced by the Little Ice Age joined changes in Japanese and Spanish policy that quickly cut off the supply of silver now necessary for farmers to be able to pay their taxes.
Zhang Juzheng (1525–1582), courtesy name Shuda, pseudonym Taiyue, was a Chinese reformer and statesman who served as Grand Secretary in the late Ming dynasty during the reigns of the Longqing and Wanli emperors.