Minimal change disease

lipoid nephrosisMinimal change lesionminimal change nephropathyminimal-change diseasenephrosis, lipoid
Minimal change disease (also known as MCD, minimal change glomerulopathy, and nil disease, among others) is a disease affecting the kidneys which causes a nephrotic syndrome.wikipedia
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Nephrotic syndrome

a serious kidney disorderGlomerulosclerosisidiopathic nephrotic syndrome
Minimal change disease (also known as MCD, minimal change glomerulopathy, and nil disease, among others) is a disease affecting the kidneys which causes a nephrotic syndrome.
Causes include a number of kidney diseases such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, membranous nephropathy, and minimal change disease.

Proteinuria

protein in the urineproteinIsolated proteinuria
The clinical signs of minimal change disease are proteinuria (abnormal excretion of proteins, mainly albumin, into the urine), edema (swelling of soft tissues as a consequence of water retention), weight gain, and hypoalbuminaemia (low serum albumin).

Hypoalbuminemia

hypoalbuminaemiaLow albuminlow blood albumin levels
The clinical signs of minimal change disease are proteinuria (abnormal excretion of proteins, mainly albumin, into the urine), edema (swelling of soft tissues as a consequence of water retention), weight gain, and hypoalbuminaemia (low serum albumin).
After renal biopsy, these syndromes are commonly diagnosed as minimal change disease, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

Podocyte

podocytesfiltration slitsslit diaphragm
These are diffuse loss of visceral epithelial cells' foot processes (i.e., podocyte effacement), vacuolation, and growth of microvilli on the visceral epithelial cells, allowing for excess protein loss in the urine.
A Loss of the foot processes of the podocytes (i.e., podocyte effacement) is a hallmark of minimal change disease, which has therefore sometimes been called foot process disease.

Tacrolimus

FK506Prograftacrolimus binding protein 1a
Data in adults is less complete in comparison to children but relapses are also fairly frequent with 56-76% of patients relapsing and need further treatment with immunosuppressants, such as ciclosporin, tacrolimus, mycophenolate, and rituximab.
(for which it is applied to the skin in a medicated ointment), severe refractory uveitis after bone marrow transplants, exacerbations of minimal change disease, Kimura's disease, and the skin condition vitiligo.

Kidney disease

renal diseasenephropathykidney damage
Minimal change disease (also known as MCD, minimal change glomerulopathy, and nil disease, among others) is a disease affecting the kidneys which causes a nephrotic syndrome.

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
Nephrotic syndrome leads to the loss of significant amounts of protein in the urine, which causes the widespread oedema (soft tissue swelling) and impaired kidney function commonly experienced by those affected by the disease.

Edema

dropsyoedemaswelling
The clinical signs of minimal change disease are proteinuria (abnormal excretion of proteins, mainly albumin, into the urine), edema (swelling of soft tissues as a consequence of water retention), weight gain, and hypoalbuminaemia (low serum albumin). Nephrotic syndrome leads to the loss of significant amounts of protein in the urine, which causes the widespread oedema (soft tissue swelling) and impaired kidney function commonly experienced by those affected by the disease.

Incidence (epidemiology)

incidenceincidence ratenumber of new cases per year
It is most common in children and has a peak incidence at 2 to 6 years of age.

Medical sign

signsclinical signsign
The clinical signs of minimal change disease are proteinuria (abnormal excretion of proteins, mainly albumin, into the urine), edema (swelling of soft tissues as a consequence of water retention), weight gain, and hypoalbuminaemia (low serum albumin).

Albumin

albuminsalbuminousalbumin protein
The clinical signs of minimal change disease are proteinuria (abnormal excretion of proteins, mainly albumin, into the urine), edema (swelling of soft tissues as a consequence of water retention), weight gain, and hypoalbuminaemia (low serum albumin).

Periorbital puffiness

periorbital edemabaggy eyesbaggy-eyed
The swelling may be mild but patients can present with edema in the lower half of the body, periorbital edema, swelling in the scrotal/labial area and anasarca in more severe cases.

Anasarca

anascarabuild-up of fluidgeneralized body swelling (edema)
The swelling may be mild but patients can present with edema in the lower half of the body, periorbital edema, swelling in the scrotal/labial area and anasarca in more severe cases.

Acute kidney injury

acute renal failureacute kidney failureuremic poisoning
In older adults, patients may also present with acute kidney injury (20-25% of affected adults) and high blood pressure.

Thrombus

blood clotblood clotsclot
Due to the disease process, patients with minimal change disease are also at risk of blood clots and infections.

Optical microscope

light microscopeoptical microscopycompound microscope
For years, pathologists found no changes when viewing kidney biopsy specimens under light microscopy, hence the name "minimal change disease."

Mesangium

mesangialglomerular mesangiummesangial matrix
Sometimes, the mesangium may have expanded, but otherwise there is no injury to kidney tissue itself.

Immunofluorescence

immunofluorescentindirect immunofluorescenceimmunofluorescence microscopy
Under immunofluorescence, there are no immunoglobulins or complement deposits bound to kidney tissue.

Antibody

antibodiesimmunoglobulinimmunoglobulins
Under immunofluorescence, there are no immunoglobulins or complement deposits bound to kidney tissue.

Electron microscope

electron microscopyelectron microscopeselectron
With the advent of electron microscopy, the changes now known as the hallmarks of the disease were discovered.

Idiopathic disease

idiopathiccryptogenicunknown
The cause and pathogenesis of the pathology is unclear and it is currently considered idiopathic.

Complement system

complementcomplement cascadecomplement activation
However, it does not appear to involve complement or immune complex deposition.

Lymphokine

lymphokines
Rather, an altered T cell-mediated immunologic response with abnormal secretion of lymphokines by T cells is thought to modify the glomerular basement membrane, specifically the podocytes, increasing permeability.

T cell

T cellsT-cellT-cells
Rather, an altered T cell-mediated immunologic response with abnormal secretion of lymphokines by T cells is thought to modify the glomerular basement membrane, specifically the podocytes, increasing permeability.

Glomerular basement membrane

GBMbasement membraneglomerular basement membranes
Rather, an altered T cell-mediated immunologic response with abnormal secretion of lymphokines by T cells is thought to modify the glomerular basement membrane, specifically the podocytes, increasing permeability.