Mining

mineminescopper minemining industryminedunderground miningminerminersmineral extractionunderground
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.wikipedia
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Mine reclamation

reclamationreclaimedmining reclamation
Modern mining processes involve prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired materials, and final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed.
Mine reclamation is the process of restoring land that has been mined to a natural or economically usable state.

Quartz reef mining

gold quartzgold reefgold reefs
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
Mining the ore usually required mine shafts sunk to mine quartz from the reefs, sometimes deep underground.

Hematite

haematitehematitichaematite iron ore
At this site Paleolithic humans mined hematite to make the red pigment ochre.
It is mined as the main ore of iron.

Hydraulic mining

hydraulic minehydraulickinghydraulic gold mining
The water was used for a variety of purposes, including removing overburden and rock debris, called hydraulic mining, as well as washing comminuted, or crushed, ores and driving simple machinery.
Hydraulic mining is a form of mining that uses high-pressure jets of water to dislodge rock material or move sediment.

Hushing

hushhusheshushing and ground sluicing technique
The Romans used hydraulic mining methods on a large scale to prospect for the veins of ore, especially a now-obsolete form of mining known as hushing.
Hushing is an ancient and historic mining method using a flood or torrent of water to reveal mineral veins.

Chalk mining

chalkchalk minemined
Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, chalk, dimension stone, rock salt, potash, gravel, and clay.
Chalk mining is the extraction of chalk from underground and above ground deposits by mining.

Wadi Hammamat

across the desertHammamat
Quarries for turquoise and copper were also found at Wadi Hammamat, Tura, Aswan and various other Nubian sites on the Sinai Peninsula and at Timna.
It was a major mining region and trade route east from the Nile Valley in ancient times, and three thousand years of rock carvings and graffiti make it a major scientific and tourist site today.

Mine safety

safety codesWork safety
Work safety has long been a concern as well, and modern practices have significantly improved safety in mines.
Mine safety is a broad term referring to the practice of controlling and managing a wide range of hazards associated with the life cycle of mining- ] Abandoned mines may be dangerous to anyone who attempts to explore them without proper knowledge and safety training.

Mining industry of Egypt

Mining in Egypt
Mining in Egypt occurred in the earliest dynasties.
The total real value of minerals mined was about £E102 million (US$18.7 million) in 1986, up from £E60 million (US$11 million) in 1981.

Timna Valley

TimnaTimna ParkTimna Valley Park
Quarries for turquoise and copper were also found at Wadi Hammamat, Tura, Aswan and various other Nubian sites on the Sinai Peninsula and at Timna.
The area is rich in copper ore and has been mined since the 5th millennium BCE.

Overburden

spoilmine spoilsmine waste
When a full tank was opened, the flood of water sluiced away the overburden to expose the bedrock underneath and any gold veins.
In mining, overburden (also called waste or spoil) is the material that lies above an area that lends itself to economical exploitation, such as the rock, soil, and ecosystem that lies above a coal seam or ore body.

Dolaucothi Gold Mines

Dolaucothigold mineOgofau
At Dolaucothi they stoped out the veins and drove adits through bare rock to drain the stopes.
The Dolaucothi Gold Mines (Mwynfeydd Aur Dolaucothi), also known as the Ogofau Gold Mine, are ancient Roman surface and underground mines located in the valley of the River Cothi, near Pumsaint, Carmarthenshire, Wales.

Turquoise

turqoiseturquoise gemtourquoise
Quarries for turquoise and copper were also found at Wadi Hammamat, Tura, Aswan and various other Nubian sites on the Sinai Peninsula and at Timna. Turquoise dated at 700 AD was mined in pre-Columbian America; in the Cerillos Mining District in New Mexico, estimates are that "about 15,000 tons of rock had been removed from Mt. Chalchihuitl using stone tools before 1700."
Since at least the First Dynasty (3000 BCE) in ancient Egypt, and possibly before then, turquoise was used by the Egyptians and was mined by them in the Sinai Peninsula.

Open-pit mining

open-pitopen pitopen-pit mine
Initially, many metals were obtained through open-pit mining, and ore was primarily extracted from shallow depths, rather than through deep mine shafts.
This form of mining differs from extractive methods that require tunnelling into the earth, such as long wall mining.

Gunpowder

black powderpowderblack-powder
Black powder was first used in mining in Selmecbánya, Kingdom of Hungary (now Banská Štiavnica, Slovakia) in 1627.
Because of its incendiary properties and the amount of heat and gas volume that it generates, gunpowder has been widely used as a propellant in firearms, artillery, rockets, and fireworks, and as a blasting powder in quarrying, mining, and road building.

De re metallica

De re metallica libri XII
Much of the knowledge of medieval mining techniques comes from books such as Biringuccio’s De la pirotechnia and probably most importantly from Georg Agricola's De re metallica (1556).
De re metallica (Latin for On the Nature of Metals [Minerals]) is a book cataloguing the state of the art of mining, refining, and smelting metals, published a year posthumously in 1556 due to a delay in preparing woodcuts for the text.

New Mexico

NMState of New MexicoNew Mexican
Turquoise dated at 700 AD was mined in pre-Columbian America; in the Cerillos Mining District in New Mexico, estimates are that "about 15,000 tons of rock had been removed from Mt. Chalchihuitl using stone tools before 1700."
The economy of New Mexico is dependent on oil drilling, mineral extraction, dryland farming, cattle ranching, lumber milling, and retail trade.

Mining in the United States

miningU.S. Mining
Mining in the United States became prevalent in the 19th century, and the General Mining Act of 1872 was passed to encourage mining of federal lands.
Mining in the United States has been active since the beginning of colonial times, but became a major industry in the 19th century with a number of new mineral discoveries causing a series of mining rushes.

Georgius Agricola

Georg AgricolaAgricolaAgricola, Georgius
Much of the knowledge of medieval mining techniques comes from books such as Biringuccio’s De la pirotechnia and probably most importantly from Georg Agricola's De re metallica (1556).
Born in the small town of Glauchau, in the Electorate of Saxony of the Holy Roman Empire, he was broadly educated, but took a particular interest in the mining and refining of metals.

Sinai Peninsula

SinaiSinai DesertHistory of the Sinai Peninsula
Quarries for turquoise and copper were also found at Wadi Hammamat, Tura, Aswan and various other Nubian sites on the Sinai Peninsula and at Timna.
These may be the first historically attested mines.

General Mining Act of 1872

Mining Act of 1872General Mining Law of 1872mining claims
Mining in the United States became prevalent in the 19th century, and the General Mining Act of 1872 was passed to encourage mining of federal lands.
The General Mining Act of 1872 is a United States federal law that authorizes and governs prospecting and mining for economic minerals, such as gold, platinum, and silver, on federal public lands.

Rio Tinto (river)

Rio TintoTintoRío Tinto
These were used extensively in the copper mines at Rio Tinto in Spain, where one sequence comprised 16 such wheels arranged in pairs, and lifting water about 24 m. They were worked as treadmills with miners standing on the top slats.
The Rio Tinto area has been the source of approximately 5,000 years of ore mining, including copper, silver, gold, and other minerals, extracted as far as 20 kilometres from the river shores.

Peak minerals

Earth's mineral stockbecome ever more costly to extract in the near futureresources on Earth become increasingly scarce
Peak minerals and environmental impacts have also become a concern.

Ore

oresore depositmineral deposit
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the Earth, usually from an ore body, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
Ore is extracted from the earth through mining and refined, often via smelting, to extract the valuable element or elements.

Mining engineering

mining engineermineral explorationexploration
The first is discovery of the ore body, which is carried out through prospecting or exploration to find and then define the extent, location and value of the ore body.
With the process of Mineral extraction, some amount of waste and uneconomic material are generated which are the primary source of pollution in the vicinity of mines.