Minstrel

The Minstrels of Beverley. Woodcut of 16th-century English musicians. Left to right: pipe and tabor, fiddle, windcap instrument, lute, and shawm.

Entertainer, initially in medieval Europe.

- Minstrel
The Minstrels of Beverley. Woodcut of 16th-century English musicians. Left to right: pipe and tabor, fiddle, windcap instrument, lute, and shawm.

432 related topics

Relevance

Knowledge of French in the European Union and candidate countries

Trouvère

Northern French form of the langue d'oc (Occitan) word trobador, the precursor of the modern French word troubadour.

Northern French form of the langue d'oc (Occitan) word trobador, the precursor of the modern French word troubadour.

Knowledge of French in the European Union and candidate countries

Such people existed, but they were called jongleurs and minstrels—poor musicians, male and female, on the fringes of society.

The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.

Itinerant poet

Wandering minstrel, bard, musician, or other poet common in medieval Europe but extinct today.

Wandering minstrel, bard, musician, or other poet common in medieval Europe but extinct today.

The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.

Itinerant poets were from a lower class than jesters or jongleurs, as they did not have steady work, instead travelling to make a living.

The eight phases of The Song of Roland in one picture.

Chanson de geste

Medieval narrative, a type of epic poem that appears at the dawn of French literature.

Medieval narrative, a type of epic poem that appears at the dawn of French literature.

The eight phases of The Song of Roland in one picture.

Composed in verse, these narrative poems of moderate length (averaging 4000 lines ) were originally sung, or (later) recited, by minstrels or jongleurs.

Jester

Member of the household of a nobleman or a monarch employed to entertain guests during the medieval and Renaissance eras.

Member of the household of a nobleman or a monarch employed to entertain guests during the medieval and Renaissance eras.

John Dawson Watson - Friends in Council
Hinric Hasenberger, the Court Jester by David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl, 1652
"Family of Henry VIII with Will Sommers on the far right and probably Jane Foole on the far left
17th-century engraving of Will Sommers, Henry VIII's jester
Queen Henrietta Maria with Sir Jeffrey Hudson by Van Dyck
P. B. Abery (1877?-1948) & Wallace Jones
Portrait of the Ferrara Court Jester Gonella by Jean Fouquet 1445
Laughing jester, unknown Early Netherlandish artist (possibly Jacob Cornelisz van Oostsanen), circa 1500
Susuhunan jester participating in the "Garebeg Moeloed" procession (circa 1920s), Java, Indonesia
Stańczyk, by Jan Matejko.
Jester in Weingarten, Germany, in 2015
Masquerade by Golovin - Jester with hunch (1917, Bakhrushin museum)
Portrait of the Jester Balakirev (1699-1763)
The Court Jester of Tabbyland
Шут. Фрагмент миниатюры "Gaharié recevant le chapel" из "Романа о Ланселоте" (Français 112 (1), fol. 45), ок. 1470
Jester-doll made by Olina Ventsel (1938-2007)
Illustration p. 284 from "Queen of the Jesters" [Caption: Brought it down with a Crash upon the Head of Henri de Villefort.] Illustrator unknown; text by Max Pemberton.
Venne Woman and a jester
Man dressed as a jester, with a fool's cap, motley and white tights.
Statue of a jester depicted in the book Letters from England by Karel Čapek
Oil on panel, signed with monogram, bears inscribed label for the Dundee Fine Art Exhibition, 1877, attached opt the reverse, 23.7x15.5 cm.
Private collection, oil on canvas. Jacob Jordaens (1641-1645).
Jester Resting on a chair by William Merritt Chase, 1875, the work is one of several trial poses William Merritt Chase painted as preparation for his Keying Up- The Court Jester
The Court Jester by John Watson Nicol, 1895, oil on canvas, 41 x 57 cm. (16.1 x 22.4 in.)
Rahere, Bouffon de Henry I et de la Reine Matilda, début 1100.
Chase William Merrit
"Keying Up" – The Court Jester by William Merritt Chase 1875. (Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.)
Caricature of a court jester of Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, in the 16th century Recueil d'Arras, a collection of portraits copied by Jacques de Boucq
William Burges, English architect
Self Portrait in a Jester's Costume
The Jester Barbarossa by Francisco Goya
Royal Jester Stańczyk
Jester Knight Christoph by Hans Wertinger (1515, Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid)
Akram Mutlak Ménage À Trois Öl auf Leinwand
Bouffon
A jester with ass's ears

This modern term derives from the older form gestour, or jestour, originally from Anglo-Norman (French) meaning storyteller or minstrel.

The troubadour Perdigon playing his fiddle.

Troubadour

Composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350).

Composer and performer of Old Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100–1350).

The troubadour Perdigon playing his fiddle.
William IX of Aquitaine portrayed as a knight, who first composed poetry on returning from the Crusade of 1101
Trobadours, 14th century
Musicians in the time of the Cantigas de Santa Maria. These were in the court of the king, two vielle players and one citoler.
Late 16th-century Italian cursive on paper, recording a song of Perceval Doria
Castelloza
The Monge de Montaudon receiving a sparrow hawk as a prize for his performance in a contest

The medieval jongleur/joglar is really a minstrel.

A milestone along the Barton Bridge and Moses Gate turnpike road near Eccles, showing the spelling of "Altringham"

Rhoda Power

Pioneer English broadcaster and children's writer.

Pioneer English broadcaster and children's writer.

A milestone along the Barton Bridge and Moses Gate turnpike road near Eccles, showing the spelling of "Altringham"

The highly regarded set of stories that make up Redcap Runs Away (1952) are set in the Middle Ages and told by a runaway minstrel boy.

Cover art

EverQuest

3D fantasy-themed massively multiplayer online role-playing game originally developed by Verant Interactive and 989 Studios for Windows PCs.

3D fantasy-themed massively multiplayer online role-playing game originally developed by Verant Interactive and 989 Studios for Windows PCs.

Cover art
A Sand Giant engaging a group in the Oasis of Marr, a desert zone. The low-polygon character models and simple user interface suggest this screenshot was taken between 1999 and 2002.

These include Paladins, knights who possess the ability to take damage or heal with magic or laying on of hands; Shadowknights, dark warriors who use a combination of melee attacks and disease/poison abilities to damage foes as well as take damage for the party; the Bard, a minstrel who is able to use magical songs for a number of effects - including damaging enemies, strengthening allies, and improving the movement speed of themselves and others; Rangers, protectors of nature who learn healing and support magic in addition to being able to damage enemies in close combat or at a distance with bows and arrows; and Beastlords, primal fighters who are constantly joined by their animal wards which help them deal damage, and can assist their teammates with healing and support skills.

Flag of Kurdistan

Kurds

Iranian ethnic group native to the mountainous region of Kurdistan in Western Asia, which spans southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, and northern Syria.

Iranian ethnic group native to the mountainous region of Kurdistan in Western Asia, which spans southeastern Turkey, northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, and northern Syria.

Flag of Kurdistan
Kurdish-inhabited areas in the Middle East (1992)
Yazidi new year celebrations in Lalish, 18 April 2017
Faravahar (or Ferohar), one of the primary symbols of Zoroastrianism, believed to be the depiction of a Fravashi (guardian spirit)
Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb, or Saladin, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty in the Middle East
Kurdish Warriors by Frank Feller
Karim Khan, the Laki ruler of the Zand Dynasty
Impression of a Kurdish man by American artist Antonio Zeno Shindle circa 1893
Provisions of the Treaty of Sèvres for an independent Kurdistan (in 1920)
Kurdish-inhabited areas of the Middle East and the Soviet Union in 1986, according to the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
Two Kurds From Constantinople 1899
Kurdish boys in Diyarbakir
Leyla Zana
Iranian Kurds celebrating Newroz, 20 March 2018
Qazi Muhammad, the President of the Republic of Kurdistan
The President of Iraq, Jalal Talabani, meeting with U.S. officials in Baghdad, Iraq, on 26 April 2006
Kurdish girls in traditional Kurdish costume, Newroz picnic in Kirkuk
Pro-independence rally in Erbil in September 2017
Kurdish YPG and YPJ fighters in Syria
Tunar Rahmanoghly singing Kurdish song "Rinda Min". Khari Bulbul Music Festival
Protest in Berlin, Germany against Turkey's military offensive into north-eastern Syria on 10 October 2019
Hamdi Ulukaya, Kurdish-American billionaire, founder and CEO of Chobani
YPG's female fighters in Syria
The fox, a widely recurring character in Kurdish tales
Modern rug from Bijar
A Kurdish nobleman bearing a jambiya dagger
Kurdish woman with deq tattoo
Kurdish musicians, 1890
Bahman Ghobadi at the presentation of his film Nobody Knows About Persian Cats in San Sebastián, 2009
Eren Derdiyok, a Kurdish footballer, striker for the Swiss national football team
The Marwanid Dicle Bridge, Diyarbakir
The Citadel of Erbil
Mercier. Kurde (Asie) by Auguste Wahlen, 1843
Kurdish warriors by Amadeo Preziosi
Armenian, Turkish and Kurdish females in their traditional clothes, 1873
Zakho Kurds by Albert Kahn, 1910s
Kurdish Cavalry in the passes of the Caucasus mountains (The New York Times, January 24, 1915)
A Kurdish woman from Kirkuk, 1922
A Kurdish chief
A Kurdish woman from Piranshahr, Iran, Antoin Sevruguin
A Kurdish woman and a child from Bisaran, Eastern Kurdistan, 2017
A group of Kurdish men with traditional clothing, Hawraman
A Kurdish man wearing traditional clothes, Erbil
A Kurdish woman fighter from Rojava

Traditionally, there are three types of Kurdish classical performers: storytellers (çîrokbêj), minstrels (stranbêj), and bards (dengbêj).

A 14th century depiction of the 13th century German knight Hartmann von Aue, from the Codex Manesse.

Knight

Person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a head of state or representative for service to the monarch, the church or the country, especially in a military capacity.

Person granted an honorary title of knighthood by a head of state or representative for service to the monarch, the church or the country, especially in a military capacity.

A 14th century depiction of the 13th century German knight Hartmann von Aue, from the Codex Manesse.
A Norman knight slaying Harold Godwinson (Bayeux tapestry, c. 1070). The rank of knight developed in the 12th century from the mounted warriors of the 10th and 11th centuries.
The battle between the Turks and Christian knights during the Ottoman wars in Europe
David I of Scotland knighting a squire
The miles Christianus allegory (mid-13th century), showing a knight armed with virtues and facing the vices in mortal combat. The parts of his armour are identified with Christian virtues, thus correlating essential military equipment with the religious values of chivalry: 
The helmet is spes futuri gaudii (hope of future bliss), the shield (here the shield of the Trinity) is fides (faith), the armour is caritas (charity), the lance is perseverantia (perseverance), the sword is verbum Dei (the word of God), the banner is regni celestis desiderium (desire for the kingdom of heaven), the horse is bona voluntas (good will), the saddle is Christiana religio (Christian religion), the saddlecloth is humilitas (humility), the reins are discretio (discretion), the spurs are disciplina (discipline), the stirrups are propositum boni operis (proposition of good work), and the horse's four hooves are delectatio, consensus, bonum opus, consuetudo (delight, consent, good work, and exercise).
Tournament from the Codex Manesse, depicting the mêlée
Elements of a harness of the late style of Gothic plate armour that was a popular style in the mid 15th to early 16th century (depiction made in the 18th century)
Page from King René's Tournament Book (BnF Ms Fr 2695)
The Battle of Pavia in 1525. Landsknecht mercenaries with arquebus.
Fortified house – a family seat of a knight (Schloss Hart by the Harter Graben near Kindberg, Austria)
The Battle of Grunwald between Poland-Lithuania and the Teutonic Knights in 1410
Pippo Spano, the member of the Order of the Dragon
The English fighting the French knights at the Battle of Crécy in 1346
Miniature from Jean Froissart Chronicles depicting the Battle of Montiel (Castilian Civil War, in the Hundred Years' War)
A modern artistic rendition of a chevalière of the Late Middle Ages.
A battle of the Reconquista from the Cantigas de Santa Maria
100px
100px

The last day was filled with feasting, dancing and minstrel singing.

Dance with musicians, Tacuinum sanitatis casanatense (Lombardy, Italy, late 14th century)

Medieval dance

Understanding of dance in Europe in the Middle Ages are limited and fragmentary, being composed of some interesting depictions in paintings and illuminations, a few musical examples of what may be dances, and scattered allusions in literary texts.

Understanding of dance in Europe in the Middle Ages are limited and fragmentary, being composed of some interesting depictions in paintings and illuminations, a few musical examples of what may be dances, and scattered allusions in literary texts.

Dance with musicians, Tacuinum sanitatis casanatense (Lombardy, Italy, late 14th century)
From a manuscript of the Roman de la rose, c. 1430.
Lorenzetti 1338-40
Fresco at Ørslev church, Denmark
Fresco at Runkelstein Castle, South Tyrol, Italy
Stecak from Radimlja, Hercegovina showing linked figures
Heinrich von Stretlingen
Hiltbolt von Schwangau

If the story is true that troubadour Raimbaut de Vaqueiras (about 1150–1207) wrote the famous Provençal song Kalenda Maya to fit the tune of an estampie that he heard two jongleurs play, then the history of the estampie extends back to the 12th century.