Mirror

mirrorslooking glassreflectorhand mirrorlooking-glassmagic mirrorreflective glasscheval glassmagical mirrorreflectors
For other uses, see Mirror (disambiguation) or Looking Glass (disambiguation).wikipedia
940 Related Articles

Specular reflection

specularreflectionlaw of reflection
A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.
Specular reflection, also known as regular reflection, is the mirror-like reflection of waves, such as light, from a surface.

Plane mirror

Flat mirrorflat mirrorsflat fold mirror
The most familiar type of mirror is the plane mirror, which has a flat surface.
A plane mirror is a mirror with a flat (planar) reflective surface.

Reflection (physics)

reflectionreflectedreflective
A mirror is an object that reflects light in such a way that, for incident light in some range of wavelengths, the reflected light preserves many or most of the detailed physical characteristics of the original light, called specular reflection.
Mirrors exhibit specular reflection.

Curved mirror

concave mirrorconvex mirrorconcave
Curved mirrors are also used, to produce magnified or diminished images or focus light or simply distort the reflected image. Parabolic mirrors were also described by the physicist Ibn Sahl in the tenth century, and Ibn al-Haytham discussed concave and convex mirrors in both cylindrical and spherical geometries, carried out a number of experiments with mirrors, and solved the problem of finding the point on a convex mirror at which a ray coming from one point is reflected to another point.
A curved mirror is a mirror with a curved reflecting surface.

Mirror image

reflectionmirror imagesmirror-image
As an optical effect it results from reflection off of substances such as a mirror or water.

Bronze mirror

bronze mirrorsmirrordōkyō
In China, bronze mirrors were manufactured from around 2000 BC, some of the earliest bronze and copper examples being produced by the Qijia culture.
Bronze mirrors preceded the glass mirrors of today.

Parabolic reflector

parabolic mirrorparabolicparabolic dish
Parabolic mirrors were described and studied in classical antiquity by the mathematician Diocles in his work On Burning Mirrors. Parabolic mirrors were also described by the physicist Ibn Sahl in the tenth century, and Ibn al-Haytham discussed concave and convex mirrors in both cylindrical and spherical geometries, carried out a number of experiments with mirrors, and solved the problem of finding the point on a convex mirror at which a ray coming from one point is reflected to another point.
A parabolic (or paraboloid or paraboloidal) reflector (or dish or mirror) is a reflective surface used to collect or project energy such as light, sound, or radio waves.

Speculum metal

speculumMetalmetal mirror
Mirrors made of other metal mixtures (alloys) such as copper and tin speculum metal may have also been produced in China and India.
It was used historically to make different kinds of mirrors from personal grooming aids to optical devices until it was replaced by more modern materials such as metal-coated glass mirrors.

Saint-Gobain

Saint GobainCompagnie de Saint-GobainManufacture royale de glaces de miroirs
The Saint-Gobain factory, founded by royal initiative in France, was an important manufacturer, and Bohemian and German glass, often rather cheaper, was also important.
Originally a mirror manufacturer, it now also produces a variety of construction and high-performance materials.

Telescope

telescopestelescopicspyglass
Mirrors are also used in scientific apparatus such as telescopes and lasers, cameras, and industrial machinery. Telescopes and other precision instruments use front silvered or first surface mirrors, where the reflecting surface is placed on the front (or first) surface of the glass (this eliminates reflection from glass surface ordinary back mirrors have).

Dielectric mirror

dielectric coatingBragg mirrordielectric reflective coatings
The first dielectric mirror was created in 1937 by Auwarter using evaporated rhodium, while the first metallic mirror to be enhanced with a dielectric coating of silicon dioxide was created by Hass the same year.
A dielectric mirror, also known as a Bragg mirror, is a type of mirror composed of multiple thin layers of dielectric material, typically deposited on a substrate of glass or some other optical material.

Ibn al-Haytham

AlhazenAlhacenAl-Haytham
Parabolic mirrors were also described by the physicist Ibn Sahl in the tenth century, and Ibn al-Haytham discussed concave and convex mirrors in both cylindrical and spherical geometries, carried out a number of experiments with mirrors, and solved the problem of finding the point on a convex mirror at which a ray coming from one point is reflected to another point.
Alhazen showed through experiment that light travels in straight lines, and carried out various experiments with lenses, mirrors, refraction, and reflection.

Focus (optics)

focusfocal pointfocusing
A convex hyperbolic mirror will reflect rays emanating from the focal point in front of the mirror as if they were emanating from the focal point behind the mirror.

Virtual image

virtualvirtual objectvirtual objects
In other words, a virtual image is found by tracing real rays that emerge from an optical device (lens, mirror, or some combination) backward to perceived or apparent origins of ray divergences.

Vacuum deposition

vapor depositionVacuum coatingvacuum deposited
An aluminium glass mirror is made of a float glass manufactured using vacuum coating, i.e. aluminium powder is evaporated (or "sputtered") onto the exposed surface of the glass in a vacuum chamber and then coated with two or more layers of waterproof protective paint.

Output coupler

cavity dumping
For transmissive mirrors, such as one-way mirrors, beam splitters, or laser output couplers, the transmissivity of the mirror is an important consideration.
In its most common form, an output coupler consists of a partially reflective mirror, sometimes called a beamsplitter.

Substrate (materials science)

substratesubstratessolid substrate
Mirrors are manufactured by applying a reflective coating to a suitable substrate.
In optics, glass may be used as a substrate for an optical coating—either an antireflection coating to reduce reflection, or a mirror coating to enhance it.

Justus von Liebig

Justus LiebigLiebigJustus Freiherr von Liebig
The invention of the silvered-glass mirror is credited to German chemist Justus von Liebig in 1835.
Although it was not widely adopted until after Liebig's death, when safety legislation finally prohibited the use of mercury in making mirrors, Liebig proposed a process for silvering that eventually became the basis of modern mirror-making.

Optical flat

optically flatflatoptical flats
The surface quality is typically measured with items like interferometers or optical flats, and are usually measured in wavelengths of light .
Optical flats are sometimes given an optical coating and used as precision mirrors or optical windows for special purposes, such as in a Fabry–Pérot interferometer or laser cavity.

Obsidian

dragonglassa mysterious black substanceglasses
The earliest manufactured mirrors were pieces of polished stone such as obsidian, a naturally occurring volcanic glass.
It was also polished to create early mirrors.

Solar power

solarsolar-poweredsolar power plant
Mirrors are integral parts of a solar power plant.
Concentrated solar power systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam.

Glass

glassmakersilicate glassvitreous
Glass was a desirable material for mirrors.

Mouth mirror

dental mirror
The head of the mirror is usually round, and the most common sizes used are the No.

First surface mirror

first surfacefirst surface mirrorssecond surface mirror
Telescopes and other precision instruments use front silvered or first surface mirrors, where the reflecting surface is placed on the front (or first) surface of the glass (this eliminates reflection from glass surface ordinary back mirrors have).
A first surface mirror or front surface mirror (also commonly abbreviated FS mirror or FSM) is a mirror with the reflective surface being above a backing, as opposed to the conventional, second surface mirror with the reflective surface behind a transparent substrate such as glass or acrylic.

Parabolic trough

solar troughsolar parabolic troughparabolic trough power
The one shown in the adjacent picture uses concentrated solar power from an array of parabolic troughs.
A parabolic trough is a type of solar thermal collector that is straight in one dimension and curved as a parabola in the other two, lined with a polished metal mirror.