Mishneh Torah

Maimonides (artist's conceptual drawing)
A page of a medieval Jerusalem Talmud manuscript, from the Cairo Geniza
Torah scroll
The single scroll of the arm-tefillin
A sukkah booth
A Ketubah in Hebrew, a Jewish marriage-contract outlining the duties of the husband.
Herod's Temple, as imagined in the Holyland Model of Jerusalem. It is currently situated adjacent to the Shrine of the Book exhibit at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem.
The Sanhedrin, from an 1883 encyclopedia
Title page from Sefer Shaarei Teshuvah (1960 pocket edition) by Yonah Gerondi (d.1263), first published in 1505.
Title page of Karo's Shulchan Aruch
Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, known as "the Lubavitcher Rebbe", studied the Mishneh Torah daily and encouraged other Jews to follow along with him in an annual study cycle.

Code of Rabbinic Jewish religious law (Halakha) authored by Maimonides (Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon/Rambam).

- Mishneh Torah

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Temple in Jerusalem

Two ancient Israelite and Jewish places of worship on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem have been called the Temple in Jerusalem, or the Holy Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, Modern: Bēt HaMīqdaš, Tiberian: Bēṯ HamMīqdāš; بيت المقدس Bait al-Maqdis).

Herod's Temple as imagined in the Holyland Model of Jerusalem. It is currently situated adjacent to the Shrine of the Book exhibit at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem.
The Trumpeting Place inscription, a stone (2.43×1 m) with Hebrew writing "To the Trumpeting Place" uncovered during archaeological excavations by Benjamin Mazar at the southern foot of the Temple Mount is believed to be a part of the complex of the Second Temple.
Remnants of the 1st-century Stairs of Ascent in front of the Double Gate, discovered by archaeologist Benjamin Mazar.
Diagram of the Temple (top of diagram is north)
Model of Second Temple made by Michael Osnis from Kedumim.
Ezekiel's Temple as imagined by Charles Chipiez in the 19th century.
Model of the First Temple, included in a Bible manual for teachers (1922)
The Foundation Stone in the floor of the Dome of the Rock shrine in Jerusalem. The round hole at upper left penetrates to a small cave, known as the Well of Souls, below. The cage-like structure just beyond the hole covers the stairway entrance to the cave (south is towards the top of the image).
The bottom of the Foundation Stone, photo taken from the Well of Souls
Arch of Titus relief showing the Menorah from the Temple as spoils of the Romans

Jewish rabbi and philosopher Moses Maimonides gave the following definition of "Temple" in his Mishne Torah (Hil.

Halakha

Collective body of Jewish religious laws which is derived from the written and Oral Torah.

A full set of the Babylonian Talmud
Sefer Torah at Glockengasse Synagogue (museum exhibits), Cologne
Hasidim walk to the synagogue, Rehovot, Israel.
A mixed-gender, egalitarian Conservative service at Robinson's Arch, Western Wall
Set of Mishneh Torah
Shulchan Aruch HaRav
Peninei Halakha Set
An illuminated manuscript of Arba'ah Turim from 1435

Halakha constitutes the practical application of the 613 mitzvot ("commandments") in the Torah, as developed through discussion and debate in the classical rabbinic literature, especially the Mishnah and the Talmud (the "Oral Torah"), and as codified in the Mishneh Torah and Shulchan Aruch.

Talmud

Central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law (halakha) and Jewish theology.

The first page of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a. The center column contains the Talmud text, beginning with a section of Mishnah. The Gemara begins 14 lines down with the abbreviation גמ (gimmel-mem) in larger type. Mishnah and Gemara sections alternate throughout the Talmud. The blocks of text on either side are the Rashi and Tosafot commentaries, printed in Rashi script. Other notes and cross references are in the margins.
An early printing of the Talmud (Ta'anit 9b); with commentary by Rashi
A page of a medieval Jerusalem Talmud manuscript, from the Cairo Geniza
A full set of the Babylonian Talmud
Talmudic saying on the Divine Presence
Koren Talmud Bavli
The Talmud on display in the Jewish Museum of Switzerland brings together parts from the first two Talmud prints by Daniel Bomberg and Ambrosius Froben.
Jewish Scene I
Jewish Scene II
A Controversy Whatsoever on Talmud<ref>See Schleicher's paintings at MutualArt.</ref>
At the Rabbi's
Jews studying Talmud, París, c. 1880–1905
Samuel Hirszenberg, Talmudic School, c. 1895–1908
Ephraim Moses Lilien, The Talmud Students, engraving, 1915
Maurycy Trębacz, The Dispute, c. 1920–1940
Solomon's Haggadoth, bronze relief from the Knesset Menorah, Jerusalem, by Benno Elkan, 1956
Hilel's Teachings, bronze relief from the Knesset Menorah
Jewish Mysticism: Jochanan ben Sakkai, bronze relief from the Knesset Menorah
Yemenite Jews studying Torah in Sana&#039;a
Oz veHadar edition of the first page of the Babylonian Talmud, with elements numbered in a spiraling rainbowː (1) Joshua Boaz ben Simon Baruch's Mesorat haShas, (2) Joel Sirkis's Hagahot (3) Akiva Eiger's Gilyon haShas, (4) Completion of Solomon ben Isaac's commentary from the Soncino printing, (5) Nissim ben Jacob's commentary, (6) Hananel ben Hushiel's commentary, (7) a survey of the verses quoted, (8) Joshua Boaz ben Simon Baruch's Ein Mishpat/Ner Mitzvah, (9) the folio and page numbers, (10) the tractate title, (11) the chapter number, (12), the chapter heading, (13), Solomon ben Isaac's commentary, (14) the Tosafot, (15) the Mishnah, (16) the Gemara, (17) an editorial footnote.

It was also an important primary source for the study of the Babylonian Talmud by the Kairouan school of Chananel ben Chushiel and Nissim ben Jacob, with the result that opinions ultimately based on the Jerusalem Talmud found their way into both the Tosafot and the Mishneh Torah of Maimonides.

Anno Mundi

Calendar era based on the biblical accounts of the creation of the world and subsequent history.

A Jewish gravestone using the Year After Creation (Anno Mundi) chronology, found just outside the Rotunda of Thessaloniki
Inscription in Ballybough Cemetery, Ireland, indicating Anno Mundi 5618 (AD 1857)
The inscription over the Bevis Marks Synagogue, City of London, gives a year in Anno Mundi (5461) and Anno Domini (1701).

The new system reached its definitive form in 1178 when Maimonides completed the Mishneh Torah.

Mezuzah

Piece of parchment, known as a klaf, contained in a decorative case and inscribed with specific Hebrew verses from the Torah ( and ).

Historic Ashkenazi mezuzah at the entrance to the monumental POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews (2014) in Warsaw, containing the Jewish parchment of the mezuzah
Ashkenazi mezuzah, as accepted in Rabbinical Judaism; the case is tilted and features the Hebrew letter (Shin), as is commonplace in such.
A Sephardic Macedonian mezuzah, as accepted in Rabbinical Judaism; the mezuzah case is vertical and features the Hebrew letter (Shin)
President of Israel Reuven Rivlin putting up a mezuzah at Beit HaNassi, 2017
Mezuzah affixed to a door frame.
Clear mezuzah case in Jerusalem, Israel
Samaritan Mezuzah in Israel, written exposed, in Samaritan Hebrew. This one reads, "Blessed is the One who said: I will look with favor upon you, and make you fertile and multiply you; and I will maintain My covenant with you. The LORD will open for you His bounteous store, the heavens, to provide rain for your land in season and to bless all your undertakings. "

In this regard it is worthwhile to refer to the often cited passage from Rambam's Mishneh Torah which states:

Jewish prayer

Prayer recitation that forms part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism.

Morning Prayer, 2005.
Jews praying in Jerusalem (HaKotel HaMaaravi), 2010.
Rabbi Yisrael Meir HaCohen Kagan—the "Chofetz Chaim"—at prayer towards the end of his life.
An Israeli soldier lays tefillin at the Western Wall (Kotel) prior to prayer.
Members of the Israel Defense Forces' Givati Brigade pray the Evening Service (Ma'ariv) at the Western Wall, October 2010.
IDF soldier, Asael lubotzky prays with tefillin.
Minyan Ma'ariv prayer in a Jaffa Tel Aviv flea-market shop
Jewish women praying by the Western Wall, early 1900s
Women praying in the Western Wall tunnel at the closest physical point to the Holy of Holies

Another formulation of the prayers was that appended by Maimonides to the laws of prayer in his Mishneh Torah: this forms the basis of the Yemenite liturgy, and has had some influence on other rites.

Nachmanides

Leading medieval Jewish scholar, Sephardic rabbi, philosopher, physician, kabbalist, and biblical commentator.

21st-century artistic depiction of Nachmanides in Acre, Israel
Nachmanides's letter to his son displayed on the Ramban synagogue in Jerusalem
A street in Jerusalem bears his name

In a letter addressed to the French rabbis, he draws attention to the virtues of Maimonides and holds that Maimonides' Mishneh Torah – his Code of Jewish Law – not only shows no leniency in interpreting prohibitions within Jewish law, but may even be seen as more stringent, which in Nachmanides' eyes was a positive factor.

Repentance in Judaism

One element of atoning for sin in Judaism.

Herod's Temple, as imagined in the Holyland Model of Jerusalem. It is currently situated adjacent to the Shrine of the Book exhibit at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem.

See especially Maimonides' Rules of Repentance in the Mishneh Torah.

Shulchan Aruch

Most widely consulted of the various legal codes in Judaism.

He follows Maimonides' example, as seen in Mishneh Torah, rather than that of Jacob ben Asher, who seldom decides between ancient authorities.

Torah study

Study of the Torah, Hebrew Bible, Talmud, responsa, rabbinic literature and similar works, all of which are Judaism's religious texts.

Rabbis debating the Talmud, 1870
A historic painting of Jews studying Torah
Students in the Mir Yeshiva, Jerusalem studying Talmud as a chavrusa
A Torah class in Jerusalem
Rabbis engaged in Talmud study, early 20th century
A Shiur being given by the Rosh Yeshiva at Yeshivat Har Etzion
Rabbi and his students in Moscow, Russia
Yeshivat Har Etzion in Alon Shevut
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Mishneh Torah - daily study (1 or 3-year cycle): see Daily Rambam Study