The Misls primarily employed cavalry in warfare.
A map of the Punjab region showing the different doabs

Cited as one of the causes of the weakening of the Mughal Empire prior to Nader Shah's invasion of India in 1738–1740.

- Misl

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Sikh Empire

State originating in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Ranjit Singh, who established an empire based in the Punjab.

Sikh Empire in 1839 (shown on map with modern national borders)
Nawab Jassa Singh Ahluwalia
Nawab Baghel Singh
The expanding empire in 1809 CE. The Cis-Sutlej states are visible south of the Sutlej river
Ranjit Singh holding court in 1838 CE
Indian subcontinent in 1805 CE.
Nanakshahi coins of Sikh empire
The Samadhi of Ranjit Singh is located in Lahore, Pakistan, adjacent to the iconic Badshahi Mosque
Ranjit Singh, {{Circa|1830}}.<ref>Miniature painting from the photo album of princely families in the Sikh and Rajput territories by Colonel James Skinner (1778–1841)</ref>
{{center|1=Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited near the Akal Takht and Golden Temple, Amritsar, Punjab, India.}}
Sikh warrior helmet with butted mail neckguard, 1820–1840, iron overlaid with gold with mail neckguard of iron and brass

It was forged on the foundations of the Khalsa from a collection of autonomous Sikh misls.


Second largest city in the Indian state of Punjab, after Ludhiana.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited near the Akal Takht and Golden Temple, Amritsar, Punjab, India.
The Jallianwalla Bagh in 1919, months after the massacre
Bullet marks on the walls of the park premises
Statue of Maharaja Ranjit Singh in Amritsar
The Golden Temple is one of the most important places of worship in the city
Lakshmi Narayan Mandir, popularly known as Durgiana temple, is a popular place of worship among city's residents.
Sri Guru Ramdas Ji International Airport
Amritsar Junction
Amritsar Inter State Bus Stand
Khalsa College

In 1762, Ahmad Shah of the Durrani Empire invaded the Sikh Confederacy, besieged Amritsar, massacred the populace and destroyed the city.

Banda Singh Bahadur

Sikh warrior and a commander of Khalsa army.

Statue of Baba Banda Bahadur at Chappar Chiri, near Mohali(Punjab)
Night view of Fateh Burj, Chappar Chiri, Sahibzada Ajit Singh Nagar, Punjab, India.
Shaheed Baba Banda Singh Bahadur memorial at Chhapar Chiri,near Mohali.
Places related with life of Baba Banda Singh Bahadur
Statue of Veer Banda Bairagi in Birla Mandir Delhi.
Shaheed Baba Banda Singh Bahadur is being executed at Delhi,sculpture at 
 Mehdiana Sahib,near Jagraon in Ludhiana district, India
Banda Bairagi Memorial in Khanda, near Sonipat, Haryana

After establishing his authority and Khalsa rule in Punjab, Banda Singh Bahadur abolished the zamindari system, and granted property rights to the tillers of the land.


Title of royal and nobility that was originally used to denote princes, noblemen, kings and other aristocrats.

Sardar-I-Azam, Prince Abdol Majid Mirza of Qajar Persia c. 1920s.
Pakistani President Ayub Khan and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy with the prized gelding "Sardar".
Grand Vizier Ahmet Tevfik Pasha, the last Ottoman Serdar-ı Azam.
Serdar Janko Vukotić of the Principality and Kingdom of Montenegro.
A Maratha Durbar showing the Chief (Raja) and the nobles (Sardars, Jagirdars, Istamuradars & Mankaris) of the state.
A Sikh sardar
Bhakti Thapa, a Gorkhali Sardar

The term sardar was also used by Sikh leaders and generals who held important positions in various Sikh Misls, and later the Sikh Empire.


Sikhs ( or ; ਸਿੱਖ, ) are people who adhere to Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the late 15th century in the Punjab region of present-day Pakistan, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh listening to Guru Granth Sahib being recited at the Golden Temple, Amritsar
Gurdwara Janam Asthan, the birthplace of Guru Nanak
The Samadhi of Emperor Ranjit Singh in Lahore, Pakistan
The Golden Temple
A Sikh Khalsa Army sowar's battle helmet
Sikh armour and weapons
Kanga, Kara and Kirpan: three of the five Sikh articles of faith
Woman playing the dilruba
India's Sikh population and their percentage of the total population
Map showing world Sikh population areas and historical migration patterns (2004 estimate)
A group of Sikh people
Sikhs in the First World War, marching with their scripture, Guru Granth Sahib
French postcard depicting the arrival of the 15th Sikh Regiment in France during World War I; the bilingual postcard reads, "Gentlemen of India marching to chasten the German hooligans"
Indian sikh soldiers in Italian campaign
Sikh soldier with captured Swastika flag of Nazi Germany
Japanese soldiers shooting blindfolded Sikh prisoners in World War II
Sikhs in London protesting against Indian government actions
Opaque watercolour-on-paper Nakashi art; about 1880, by an unknown artist from Lahore or Amritsar, and used to decorate the walls of Harmandir Sahib
Darbar Sahib, circa 1870

After defeating the Afghans and Mughals, sovereign states called Misls were formed under Jassa Singh Ahluwalia.


Geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northwestern India.

Taxila in Pakistan is a World Heritage Site
Menander I Soter (165/155 – 130 BCE), conqueror of the Punjab, carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab and ruled the Punjab until his death in 130BC.
A section of the Lahore Fort built by the Mughal emperor Akbar
The Punjab, 1849
The Punjab, 1880
Punjab Province (British India), 1909
The snow-covered Himalayas
Ethnic Punjabis in India and Pakistan
Dominant Mother Tongue in each Pakistani District as of the 2017 Pakistan Census
Lahore Fort, Lahore
Golden Temple, Amritsar
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Punjab, Pakistan
Punjab, India, 2014
Haryana, India
Himachal Pradesh, India
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Golden Temple, Amritsar
Clock Tower, Faisalabad
Aerial view of Multan Ghanta Ghar chawk
Open Hand monument, Chandigarh
Faisal Masjid (Margalla Hills)
Anupgarh fort in Anupgarh city
Bhatner fort in Hanumangarh city
Phulkari embroidery from Patiala

At the time of the formation of the Dal Khalsa in 1748 at Amritsar, Punjab had been divided into 36 areas and 12 separate Sikh principalities, called Misl.

Sarbat Khalsa

Biannual deliberative assembly (on the same lines as a Parliament in a Direct Democracy) of the Sikhs held at Amritsar in Panjab during the 18th century.

One of four main entrances to the Harmandir Sahib, one of the holiest shrines of Sikhism
Meetings of the Sarbat Khalsa began with an Ardās, a Sikh prayer for guidance.

It literally translates to the "entire Sikh Nation" but as a political institution it refers to the meetings of the Dal Khalsa, Sikh Misls, and the legislature of the Sikh Empire.

Datar Kaur

The queen consort of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the founder of the Sikh Empire and the mother of his successor, Maharaja Kharak Singh.

He wanted to unite the Sikh Misls and consolidate his position as the head of the Sukerchakia Misl, as well as to re-establish Nakai and Sukerchakia relations.

Sada Kaur

Formidable Sikh leader of the late 18th and early 19th century.

Rani Sada Kaur in battle

The people of Lahore who were tired of the rule of Bhangi misl requested Sada Kaur and Ranjit Singh to take over Lahore.

Phulkian Misl

Phulkian Misl is a Sikh misl of named after Choudhary Phul Sidhu.