A report on Mistle thrush

In Kazakhstan
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Male (left) passing earthworms to female on nest
The mistle thrush derives its English and scientific names from mistletoe, a favourite food.
A castor bean tick swollen with the blood of its host
Mistle Thrush and Alpine Chough by Giovanni da Udine

Bird common to much of Europe, temperate Asia and North Africa.

- Mistle thrush

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Overall

Song thrush

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Thrush that breeds across the West Palearctic.

Thrush that breeds across the West Palearctic.

A parent feeding chicks in their nest in a New Zealand garden
A Song Thrush in Germany
In flight
Juvenile in New Zealand
Juvenile in a forest near Dombaih, Russia (Caucasus Mountains)
Three eggs in a nest
Broken shells of grove snails on an 'anvil'
In New Zealand
Song thrush in Slovenia

A molecular study indicated that the song thrush's closest relatives are the similarly plumaged mistle thrush (T. viscivorus) and Chinese thrush (T. mupinensis); these three species are early offshoots from the Eurasian lineage of Turdus thrushes after they spread north from Africa.

Common blackbird

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Species of true thrush.

Species of true thrush.

Female of subspecies merula
Historic image of blackbird in Nederlandsche Vogelen (1770)
Male blackbird with earthworm
Adult male feeding on cherries in Lausanne, Switzerland
A male attempting to distract a kestrel close to its nest
"Sing a Song for Sixpence" cover illustration
T. m. cabrerae on Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain
Juvenile T. m. merula in England
Young adult T. m. merula in Oxfordshire
A leucistic adult male in England with much white in the plumage
Eggs, Collection Museum Wiesbaden
Eggs in a nest
Two chicks in a nest

Although two European thrushes, the song thrush and mistle thrush, are early offshoots from the Eurasian lineage of Turdus thrushes after they spread north from Africa, the blackbird is descended from ancestors that had colonised the Canary Islands from Africa and subsequently reached Europe from there.

Fieldfare

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Member of the thrush family Turdidae.

Member of the thrush family Turdidae.

Fieldfares in winter
Berries form an important part of the winter diet
Fieldfare eating worms
Fieldfare in front of the window
Eggs, Collection Museum Wiesbaden, Germany
thumb|left|Nest and chicks

Although two European thrushes, the song thrush and mistle thrush, are early offshoots from the Eurasian lineage of Turdus thrushes after they spread north from Africa, the fieldfare is descended from ancestors that had colonised the Caribbean islands from Africa and subsequently reached Europe from there.

Redwing

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Bird in the thrush family, Turdidae, native to Europe and the Palearctic, slightly smaller than the related song thrush.

Bird in the thrush family, Turdidae, native to Europe and the Palearctic, slightly smaller than the related song thrush.

Head of T. i. coburni in Iceland
Egg, Collection Museum Wiesbaden
Nests are often constructed on the ground.
A spectrogram showing an example of the song structure of a Redwing in Iceland. Terminology is applied.

Although two European thrushes, the song thrush and mistle thrush, are early offshoots from the Eurasian lineage of Turdus thrushes after they spread north from Africa, the redwing is descended from ancestors that had colonised the Caribbean islands from Africa and subsequently reached Europe from there.

Viscum album

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Species of mistletoe in the family Santalaceae, commonly known as European mistletoe, common mistletoe or simply as mistletoe .

Species of mistletoe in the family Santalaceae, commonly known as European mistletoe, common mistletoe or simply as mistletoe .

Viscum album in the Netherlands
Each arrow overshot his head (1902) by Elmer Boyd Smith, depicting the blind god Höðr shooting his brother, the god Baldr, with a mistletoe arrow
Mistletoe postcard, circa 1900
19th century illustration by Franz Eugen Köhler
On an apple tree in Essex, England
On an apple tree in Essex, England
In abundance on an apple tree (in Franche-Comté).
Sticky seed on a branch
In Versailles, France
Fruit of V. a. album, in Poland
V. a. austriacum on Pinus sylvestris, Poland
Fruit, in Gryfino, NW Poland.
Viscum album in France, winter
Viscum album in Ukraine, spring
Cross section of wood

Some birds have immunity to the poison and enjoy the berries, especially the mistle thrush which is named for its favourite food.

Chinese thrush

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Species of bird in the family Turdidae.

Species of bird in the family Turdidae.

A recent molecular study places the Chinese thrush's closest relatives as the similarly plumaged European species, the song thrush (T. philomelos) and the mistle thrush (T. viscivorus), all three species early offshoots from the main Turdus radiation around the world.

Common cuckoo

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Member of the cuckoo order of birds, Cuculiformes, which includes the roadrunners, the anis and the coucals.

Member of the cuckoo order of birds, Cuculiformes, which includes the roadrunners, the anis and the coucals.

Common cuckoo in flight
A Eurasian cuckoo (C. c. bakeri) from Pangolakha Wildlife Sanctuary in East Sikkim, India.
Cuckoo adult (top) mimics sparrowhawk, giving female time to lay eggs parasitically
This Eurasian reed warbler is raising a common cuckoo.
Cuckoo eggs mimicking smaller eggs, in this case of reed warbler
Cuculus canorus canorus in a nest Acrocephalus arundinaceus - MHNT
Cuculus canorus bangsi in a nest Phoenicurus moussieri - MHNT
A chick of the common cuckoo in the nest of a tree pipit
Golden cuckoo in the coat of arms of Suomenniemi

283) Mistle thrush (Turdus viscivorus)

Bohemian waxwing

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Starling-sized passerine bird that breeds in the northern forests of the Palearctic and North America.

Starling-sized passerine bird that breeds in the northern forests of the Palearctic and North America.

Bombycilla garrulus in Ontario, Canada
The distinctive red wing tips
Northern coniferous forest breeding habitat.
A winter flock in Poland
Female on nest
Egg, Collection Museum Wiesbaden
Nest and eggs
Eating a berry, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska
Feeding on rowan
The Eurasian sparrowhawk hunts Bohemian waxwings.

Waxwings forage in large flocks, sometimes of several hundred birds, which enables them to overwhelm birds such as mistle thrushes attempting to defend their fruit trees.

Northern goshawk

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Species of medium-large raptor in the family Accipitridae, a family which also includes other extant diurnal raptors, such as eagles, buzzards and harriers.

Species of medium-large raptor in the family Accipitridae, a family which also includes other extant diurnal raptors, such as eagles, buzzards and harriers.

Adult in the Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, in a pine tree that typifies the habitat used locally
Juvenile (left) and adult by Louis Agassiz Fuertes
Juvenile in flight, the most likely age and condition to mistake a goshawk for another species
An adult goshawk shows its richly streaked plumage.
Large juvenile Cooper's hawks such as this are at times mistaken for a goshawk
Typical adult with a strong brownish-gray cast, from the nominate subspecies, A. g. gentilis
Typical adult from the American subspecies (A. g. atricapillus) showing its strong supercilium, red eyes, black head, and blue-gray back
A captive specimen of whitish large goshawk of Siberian origin, possibly part of A. g. albidus.
Adult goshawks maintain territories with display flights
Goshawks are particularly agile hunters of the woodlands
A juvenile goshawk beginning to pluck its prey, a likely rock dove.
Northern goshawks most often prey on birds, especially in Eurasia
Adult on Corsica with its fresh prey, a common wood pigeon
Hawk and Black-Game (Bruno Liljefors, 1884), a painting of a goshawk at the moment of catching a black grouse
Goshawks sometimes become habitual fowl killers. This juvenile was caught pursuing chickens inside a hen house.
Illustrating a goshawk attempting to catch a rabbit, by G. E. Lodge
Woodpeckers such as northern flickers often fall victim to goshawks
Juvenile in Japan with a young bird prey item
A goshawk preying on a brown rat in a fairly urbanized area.
Chasing an osprey, most likely to rob it of food, but the osprey is even considered possible prey
Illustration of the formidable talons and beak, which are both proportionately large relative to their size, and give them a predatory advantage over many other raptors
Prey selection frequently overlaps between goshawks and American martens, seldom will both species prey on the other
Egg Collection Museum Wiesbaden
Nests are usually large structures placed quite high near the canopy on mature, tall trees, as seen on this birch in Norway
Mother goshawk seldom leaves the nest in either the incubation or the brooding stage, until the young are about 2 weeks
Nestling northern goshawks in Germany
Two juveniles from Pennsylvania after they've become "branchers", or have left the nest but are not yet flying competently
Goshawks may be killed by collisions with man-made objects
Juvenile goshawk from Poland
Falconer's bird in Scotland
Iranian falconer with a trained goshawk

Thrush taken have ranged in size from the 26.4 g western bluebird (Sialia mexicana), the smallest bluebird and lightest North American thrush on average, to the 118 g mistle thrush (Turdus viscivorus), Europe's largest thrush.