Mitochondrial DNA

mtDNAmitochondrialmitochondrial genomemitochondrial genesmitochondrial genemitogenomemitogenomicmtmitochondrial genomesmitochondria
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).wikipedia
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Human mitochondrial genetics

human mitochondrial DNAmitochondrial DNAmtDNA
Human mitochondrial DNA was the first significant part of the human genome to be sequenced.
Human mitochondrial genetics is the study of the genetics of human mitochondrial DNA (the DNA contained in human mitochondria).

Cell nucleus

nucleusnucleinuclear
Mitochondrial DNA is only a small portion of the DNA in a eukaryotic cell; most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts.
The cell nucleus contains all of the cell's genome, except for a small fraction of mitochondrial DNA, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in a complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes.

Human genome

genomehuman DNAhuman geneticist
Human mitochondrial DNA was the first significant part of the human genome to be sequenced.
The human genome is a complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.

Mitochondrion

mitochondriamitochondrialmitochondrial membrane
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Although most of a cell's DNA is contained in the cell nucleus, the mitochondrion has its own independent genome that shows substantial similarity to bacterial genomes.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants, fungi and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus as nuclear DNA, and some in the mitochondria as mitochondrial DNA or in chloroplasts as chloroplast DNA.

Nuclear DNA

nuclearnDNAnuclear genome
In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution.
Nuclear DNA encodes for the majority of the genome in eukaryotes, with mitochondrial DNA and plastid DNA coding for the rest.

Eukaryote

Eukaryotaeukaryoticeukaryotes
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution.
Mitochondria contain their own DNA, which has close structural similarities to bacterial DNA, and which encodes rRNA and tRNA genes that produce RNA which is closer in structure to bacterial RNA than to eukaryote RNA.

MT-ATP8

8
MT-ATP8 (or ATP8) is a mitochondrial gene with the full name 'mitochondrially encoded ATP synthase membrane subunit 8' that encodes a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase, ATP synthase F o subunit 8 (or subunit A6L).

Mammal

mammalsMammaliamammalian
In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution.
Estimates for the divergence times between these three placental groups range from 105 to 120 million years ago, depending on the type of DNA used (such as nuclear or mitochondrial) and varying interpretations of paleogeographic data.

MT-ATP6

ATP synthase F0 subunit 6atp6
MT-ATP6 (or ATP6) is a mitochondrial gene with the full name 'mitochondrially encoded ATP synthase membrane subunit 6' that encodes the ATP synthase F o subunit 6 (or subunit/chain A).

POLG2

Mitochondrial DNA is replicated by the DNA polymerase gamma complex which is composed of a 140 kDa catalytic DNA polymerase encoded by the POLG gene and two 55 kDa accessory subunits encoded by the POLG2 gene.
Mutations in this gene result in autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions.

Chloroplast

chloroplastschloroplast stromaplastoglobuli
Mitochondrial DNA is only a small portion of the DNA in a eukaryotic cell; most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts.
Unlike prokaryotic DNA molecules, chloroplast DNA molecules contain introns (plant mitochondrial DNAs do too, but not human mtDNAs).

Silene conica

sand catchfly
Some plant species have enormous mitochondrial genomes, with Silene conica mtDNA containing as many as 11,300,000 base pairs.
conica'' appears to have a very rapid rate of mitochondrial mutation, and has the largest mitochondrial genome (11.3 Mb) ever identified.

Cytochrome c oxidase subunit II

COX2COIIMT-CO2
The MT-CO2 gene is located on the p arm of mitochondrial DNA at position 12 and it spans 683 base pairs.

Plasmodium falciparum

P. falciparumfalciparumblood stage
The smallest mitochondrial genome sequenced to date is the 5,967 bp mtDNA of the parasite Plasmodium falciparum.
praefalciparum'', a parasite of gorillas, as supported by mitochondrial, apicoplastic and nuclear DNA sequences.

Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I

cytochrome-c oxidase ICOX1COI
One of 37 mitochondrial genes, the MT-CO1 gene is located from nucleotide pairs 5904 to 7444 on the guanine-rich heavy (H) section of mtDNA.

Intron

intronsintragenicintronic
There are six main genome types found in mitochondrial genomes, classified by their structure (e.g. circular versus linear), size, presence of introns or plasmid like structures, and whether the genetic material is a singular molecule or collection of homogeneous or heterogeneous molecules.
In contrast, the mitochondrial genomes of vertebrates are entirely devoid of introns, while those of eukaryotic microorganisms may contain many introns.

Symbiogenesis

endosymbiotic theorysecondary endosymbiosisendosymbiotic
This theory is called the endosymbiotic theory.
The presence of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in mitochondria and proteins, derived from mtDNA, suggest that this organelle may have been a prokaryote prior to its integration into the proto-eukaryote.

MT-CYB

MTCYTBCYB5BCYB_HUMAN
The MT-CYB gene is located on the p arm of mitochondrial DNA in position 12 and spans 1,140 base pairs.

MT-TR

The MT-TR gene is located on the p arm of the non-nuclear mitochondrial DNA at position 12 and it spans 65 base pairs.

MT-ND3

NU3M_HUMAN
MT-ND3 is located in human mitochondrial DNA from base pair 10,059 to 10,404.

MT-TN

The MT-TN gene is located on the p arm of the non-nuclear mitochondrial DNA at position 12 and it spans 73 base pairs.

MT-TD

The MT-TD gene is located on the p arm of the mitochondrial DNA at position 12 and it spans 67 base pairs.

MT-TG

The MT-TG gene is located on the p arm of the mitochondrial DNA at position 12 and it spans 68 base pairs.

MT-TI

The MT-TI gene is located on the p arm of the mitochondrial DNA at position 12 and it spans 69 base pairs.