Two mitochondria from mammalian lung tissue displaying their matrix and membranes as shown by electron microscopy
Simplified structure of a mitochondrion.
Cross-sectional image of cristae in a rat liver mitochondrion to demonstrate the likely 3D structure and relationship to the inner membrane
Electron transport chain in the mitochondrial intermembrane space
Transmission electron micrograph of a chondrocyte, stained for calcium, showing its nucleus (N) and mitochondria (M).
Typical mitochondrial network (green) in two human cells (HeLa cells)
Model of the yeast multimeric tethering complex, ERMES
Evolution of MROs
The circular 16,569 bp human mitochondrial genome encoding 37 genes, i.e., 28 on the H-strand and 9 on the L-strand.

Double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

- Mitochondrion

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Cellular respiration

Set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert chemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate , and then release waste products.

Typical eukaryotic cell
Out of the cytoplasm it goes into the Krebs cycle with the acetyl CoA. It then mixes with CO2 and makes 2 ATP, NADH, and FADH. From there the NADH and FADH go into the NADH reductase, which produces the enzyme. The NADH pulls the enzyme's electrons to send through the electron transport chain. The electron transport chain pulls H+ ions through the chain. From the electron transport chain, the released hydrogen ions make ADP for an result of 32 ATP. O2 provides most of the energy for the process and combines with protons and the electrons to make water. Lastly, ATP leaves through the ATP channel and out of the mitochondria.
Stoichiometry of aerobic respiration and most known fermentation types in eucaryotic cell. Numbers in circles indicate counts of carbon atoms in molecules, C6 is glucose C6H12O6, C1 carbon dioxide CO2. Mitochondrial outer membrane is omitted.

Although carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are consumed as reactants, aerobic respiration is the preferred method of pyruvate breakdown in glycolysis, and requires pyruvate to the mitochondria in order to be fully oxidized by the citric acid cycle.

Inner mitochondrial membrane

Two mitochondria from mammalian lung tissue displaying their matrix and membranes as shown by electron microscopy

The inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) is the mitochondrial membrane which separates the mitochondrial matrix from the intermembrane space.

Mitochondrial disease

Group of disorders caused by mitochondrial dysfunction.

Micrograph showing ragged red fibers, a finding seen in various types of mitochondrial diseases. Muscle biopsy. Gomori trichrome stain.
Example of a pedigree for a genetic trait inherited by mitochondrial DNA in animals and humans. Offspring of the males with the trait don't inherit the trait. Offspring of the females with the trait always inherit the trait (independently from their own gender).

Mitochondria are the organelles that generate energy for the cell and are found in every cell of the human body except red blood cells.

Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA is the small circular chromosome found inside mitochondria. These organelles, found in all eukaryotic cells, are the powerhouse of the cell. The mitochondria, and thus mitochondrial DNA, are passed exclusively from mother to offspring through the egg cell.
Electron microscopy reveals mitochondrial DNA in discrete foci. Bars: 200 nm. (A) Cytoplasmic section after immunogold labelling with anti-DNA; gold particles marking mtDNA are found near the mitochondrial membrane (black dots in upper right). (B) Whole mount view of cytoplasm after extraction with CSK buffer and immunogold labelling with anti-DNA; mtDNA (marked by gold particles) resists extraction. From Iborra et al., 2004.
Human mitochondrial DNA with the 37 genes on their respective H- and L-strands.
Human mitochondrial DNA with groups of protein-, rRNA- and tRNA-encoding genes.
The involvement of mitochondrial DNA in several human diseases.
Animal species mtDNA base composition was retrieved from the MitoAge database and compared to their maximum life span from AnAge database.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Unicellular organism

Organism that consists of a single cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of multiple cells.

Modern stromatolites in Shark Bay, Western Australia. It can take a century for a stromatolite to grow 5 cm.
A bottom-dwelling community found deep in the European Arctic.
Paramecium tetraurelia, a ciliate, with oral groove visible
A scanning electron microscope image of a diatom
Transmission electron microscope image of budding Ogataea polymorpha

Prokaryotes lack membrane-bound organelles, such as mitochondria or a nucleus.


Protein synthesis

Hepatocyte and sinusoid (venule) in a section of rat liver
Schemic diagram of Biliary system

Hepatocytes display an eosinophilic cytoplasm, reflecting numerous mitochondria, and basophilic stippling due to large amounts of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes.

Adenosine triphosphate

Organic compound and hydrotrope that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells, such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse propagation, condensate dissolution, and chemical synthesis.

Interactive animation of the structure of ATP
The cycles of synthesis and degradation of ATP; 2 and 1 represent input and output of energy, respectively.
This image shows a 360-degree rotation of a single, gas-phase magnesium-ATP chelate with a charge of −2. The anion was optimized at the UB3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) theoretical level and the atomic connectivity modified by the human optimizer to reflect the probable electronic structure.
An example of the Rossmann fold, a structural domain of a decarboxylase enzyme from the bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis with a bound flavin mononucleotide cofactor.

ATP production by a non-photosynthetic aerobic eukaryote occurs mainly in the mitochondria, which comprise nearly 25% of the volume of a typical cell.


Microsporidia are a group of spore-forming unicellular parasites.

Xenoma on flatfish caused by Glugea stephani
Dictyocoela diporeiae. A, meront and spore; B, spore wall; C, polar filament
A hyperparasitic microsporidian, Nosema podocotyloidis, a parasite of a digenean which is itself a parasite of a fish.

Microsporidia lack mitochondria, instead possessing mitosomes.


Entire set of proteins that is, or can be, expressed by a genome, cell, tissue, or organism at a certain time.

General schema showing the relationships of the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome (lipidome).
The proteome can be used to determine the presence of different types of cancers.
This image shows a two-dimensional gel with color-coded proteins. This is a way to visualize proteins based on their mass and isoelectric point.
An Orbitrap mass spectrometer commonly used in proteomics

For instance, the mitochondrial proteome may consist of more than 3000 distinct proteins.


One of the liquids found inside cells ).

The cytosol is a crowded solution of many different types of molecules that occupy up to 30% of the cytoplasmic volume.
Intracellular fluid content in humans
Carboxysomes are protein-enclosed bacterial microcompartments within the cytosol. On the left is an electron microscope image of carboxysomes, and on the right a model of their structure.

For example, the mitochondrial matrix separates the mitochondrion into many compartments.