A report on Mitochondrion

Two mitochondria from mammalian lung tissue displaying their matrix and membranes as shown by electron microscopy
Simplified structure of a mitochondrion.
Cross-sectional image of cristae in a rat liver mitochondrion to demonstrate the likely 3D structure and relationship to the inner membrane
Electron transport chain in the mitochondrial intermembrane space
Transmission electron micrograph of a chondrocyte, stained for calcium, showing its nucleus (N) and mitochondria (M).
Typical mitochondrial network (green) in two human cells (HeLa cells)
Model of the yeast multimeric tethering complex, ERMES
Evolution of MROs
The circular 16,569 bp human mitochondrial genome encoding 37 genes, i.e., 28 on the H-strand and 9 on the L-strand.

Double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

- Mitochondrion
Two mitochondria from mammalian lung tissue displaying their matrix and membranes as shown by electron microscopy

162 related topics with Alpha

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Rotenone

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Odorless, colorless, crystalline isoflavone used as a broad-spectrum insecticide, piscicide, and pesticide.

Odorless, colorless, crystalline isoflavone used as a broad-spectrum insecticide, piscicide, and pesticide.

Rotenone works by interfering with the electron transport chain within complex I in mitochondria, which places it in IRAC MoA class 21 (by itself in 21B).

Proteins in different cellular compartments and structures tagged with green fluorescent protein

Cytoplasm

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All of the material within a eukaryotic cell, enclosed by the cell membrane, except for the cell nucleus.

All of the material within a eukaryotic cell, enclosed by the cell membrane, except for the cell nucleus.

Proteins in different cellular compartments and structures tagged with green fluorescent protein

It is the hyaloplasm of light microscopy, a highly complex, polyphasic system in which all resolvable cytoplasmic elements are suspended, including the larger organelles such as the ribosomes, mitochondria, the plant plastids, lipid droplets, and vacuoles.

Mitochondrial network (green) in two human cells (HeLa cells)

Mitochondrial fission

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Mitochondrial network (green) in two human cells (HeLa cells)

Mitochondrial fission is the process where mitochondria divide or segregate into two separate mitochondrial organelles.

The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin filaments are shown in red, and microtubules composed of beta tubulin are in green.

Cytoskeleton

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Complex, dynamic network of interlinking protein filaments present in the cytoplasm of all cells, excluding bacteria and archaea.

Complex, dynamic network of interlinking protein filaments present in the cytoplasm of all cells, excluding bacteria and archaea.

The eukaryotic cytoskeleton. Actin filaments are shown in red, and microtubules composed of beta tubulin are in green.

intracellular transport (associated with dyneins and kinesins, they transport organelles like mitochondria or vesicles).

Proto-mitochondrion

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The proto-mitochondrion is the hypothetical ancestral bacterial endosymbiont from which all mitochondria in eukaryotes are thought to descend, after an episode of symbiogenesis which created the aerobic eukaryotes.

A series of codons in part of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule. Each codon consists of three nucleotides, usually corresponding to a single amino acid. The nucleotides are abbreviated with the letters A, U, G and C. This is mRNA, which uses U (uracil). DNA uses T (thymine) instead. This mRNA molecule will instruct a ribosome to synthesize a protein according to this code.

Genetic code

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Set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material into proteins.

Set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material into proteins.

A series of codons in part of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule. Each codon consists of three nucleotides, usually corresponding to a single amino acid. The nucleotides are abbreviated with the letters A, U, G and C. This is mRNA, which uses U (uracil). DNA uses T (thymine) instead. This mRNA molecule will instruct a ribosome to synthesize a protein according to this code.
The genetic code
Reading frames in the DNA sequence of a region of the human mitochondrial genome coding for the genes MT-ATP8 and MT-ATP6 (in black: positions 8,525 to 8,580 in the sequence accession NC_012920 ). There are three possible reading frames in the 5' → 3' forward direction, starting on the first (+1), second (+2) and third position (+3). For each codon (square brackets), the amino acid is given by the vertebrate mitochondrial code, either in the +1 frame for MT-ATP8 (in red) or in the +3 frame for MT-ATP6 (in blue). The MT-ATP8 genes terminates with the TAG stop codon (red dot) in the +1 frame. The MT-ATP6 gene starts with the ATG codon (blue circle for the M amino acid) in the +3 frame.
Examples of notable mutations that can occur in humans.
Axes 1, 2, 3 are the first, second, and third positions in the codon. The 20 amino acids and stop codons (X) are shown in single letter code.
Genetic code logo of the Globobulimina pseudospinescens mitochondrial genome by FACIL. The logo shows the 64 codons from left to right, predicted alternatives in red (relative to the standard genetic code). Red line: stop codons. The height of each amino acid in the stack shows how often it is aligned to the codon in homologous protein domains. The stack height indicates the support for the prediction.

That scheme is often referred to as the canonical or standard genetic code, or simply the genetic code, though variant codes (such as in mitochondria) exist.

Alphaproteobacteria

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Class of bacteria in the phylum Pseudomonadota .

Class of bacteria in the phylum Pseudomonadota .

Moreover, the class is sister to the protomitochondrion, the bacterium that was engulfed by the eukaryotic ancestor and gave rise to the mitochondria, which are organelles in eukaryotic cells (See endosymbiotic theory).

Philip Siekevitz

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American cell biologist who spent most of his career at Rockefeller University.

American cell biologist who spent most of his career at Rockefeller University.

Siekevtiz's work elucidated the role of mitochondria in generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) required for protein synthesis, which led him to become interested in general matters of energy metabolism.

The 16,569 bp long human mitochondrial genome with the protein-coding (red, orange, yellow), ribosomal RNA (blue), and transfer RNA genes (white). Non-coding mtDNA control region in grey.

Human mitochondrial genetics

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The 16,569 bp long human mitochondrial genome with the protein-coding (red, orange, yellow), ribosomal RNA (blue), and transfer RNA genes (white). Non-coding mtDNA control region in grey.
Mitochondrial inheritance patterns
The reason for maternal inheritance in mitochondrial DNA is that when the sperm enters the egg cell, it discards its middle part, which contains its mitochondria, so that only its head with the nucleus penetrates the egg cell.

Human mitochondrial genetics is the study of the genetics of human mitochondrial DNA (the DNA contained in human mitochondria).

Metamonad

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The metamonads are microscopic eukaryotic organisms, a large group of flagellate amitochondriate Loukozoa.