Mitral valve prolapse

Barlow's syndromemitral valve prolapse syndromeprolapseleaky heart valveM'''itral valve prolapseMitral (valve) prolapsemitral valve disorderMitral valve prolapse, familial, autosomal dominantMitral valve prolapse, familial, X linked
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a valvular heart disease characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole.wikipedia
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John Brereton Barlow

John B. BarlowJohn Barlow
The condition was first described by John Brereton Barlow in 1966.
In the late 1950s he returned to South Africa to Johannesburg Hospital where he became Professor of Cardiology in the research unit and carried out significant studies on cardiac disorders as well as discovering the cause of a well known mitral valve disorder.

Valvular heart disease

heart valve diseaseCardiac Valve Diseasevalve disease
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a valvular heart disease characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole.
Major types of valvular heart disease not included in the table include mitral valve prolapse, rheumatic heart disease and endocarditis.

Mitral insufficiency

mitral regurgitationmitral valve diseasemitral valve regurgitation
In severe cases of classic MVP, complications include mitral regurgitation, infective endocarditis, congestive heart failure, and, in rare circumstances, cardiac arrest.
Patients with mitral valve prolapse may have a holosystolic murmur or often a mid-to-late systolic click and a late systolic murmur.

Marfan syndrome

Marfan's syndromeMarfanMarfanoid
MVP may occur with greater frequency in individuals with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome or polycystic kidney disease.
The most serious complications involve the heart and aorta, with an increased risk of mitral valve prolapse and aortic aneurysm.

Palpitations

palpitationheart palpitationsheart palpitation
Historically, the term mitral valve prolapse syndrome has been applied to MVP associated with palpitations, atypical precordial pain, dyspnea on exertion, low body mass index, and electrocardiogram abnormalities (ventricular tachycardia), syncope, low blood pressure, headaches, lightheadedness, and other signs suggestive of autonomic nervous system dysfunction (dysautonomia).
A mid-systolic click and heart murmur may indicate mitral valve prolapse.

Pectus excavatum

funnel chestchest indentabnormal indentation
Other risk factors include Graves disease and chest wall deformities such as pectus excavatum.
In severe cases, the right atrium may be compressed, mitral valve prolapse may be present, and physical capability may be limited due to base lung capacity being decreased.

Handgrip maneuver

The handgrip maneuver diminishes the murmur of an MVP and the murmur of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Mitral valve prolapse: The click and the murmur of mitral valve prolapse are delayed because left atrial volume also increases due to mitral regurgitation along with increased left ventricular volume.

Ehlers–Danlos syndromes

Ehlers-Danlos syndromeEhlers–Danlos syndromeEhlers Danlos Syndrome
MVP may occur with greater frequency in individuals with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan syndrome or polycystic kidney disease.

Valsalva maneuver

Valsalva manoeuvreValsalvaany activity that further increases the intracranial pressure
In contrast to most other heart murmurs, the murmur of mitral valve prolapse is accentuated by standing and valsalva maneuver (earlier systolic click and longer murmur) and diminished with squatting (later systolic click and shorter murmur).

J. Michael Criley

It was subsequently termed mitral valve prolapse by J. Michael Criley.
In addition, he is also credited with the term mitral valve prolapse, after demonstrating to Dr. Barlow that it was not aneurysm of the mitral leaflet but rather displacement of the leaflet that led to the condition.

Chordae tendineae

chordae tendinaeTendon of Todarochord
Both valsalva maneuver and standing decrease venous return to the heart thereby decreasing left ventricular diastolic filling (preload) and causing more laxity on the chordae tendineae.
The chordae tendineae prevent the eversion, prolapse, by becoming tense thus pulling the flaps, holding them in closed position.

Mitral valve

mitralbicuspid valvemitral annulus
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a valvular heart disease characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole.
Rheumatic heart disease often affects the mitral valve; the valve may also prolapse with age, and be affected by infective endocarditis.

Heart valve

heart valvesvalvesatrioventricular valves
Rheumatic fever is common worldwide and responsible for many cases of damaged heart valves.
A major valvular heart disease is mitral valve prolapse, which is a weakening of connective tissue called myxomatous degeneration of the valve.

Dermatan sulfate

dermatandermatan sulfdermatan sulfate (DS)
This is due to an excess of dermatan sulfate, a glycosaminoglycan.
An excess of dermatan sulfate in the mitral valve is characteristic of myxomatous degeneration of the leaflets leading to redundancy of valve tissue and ultimately, mitral valve prolapse (into the left atrium) and insufficiency.

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a valvular heart disease characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole.

Systole

systolicsystolic pressureventricular systole
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a valvular heart disease characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole.

Myxoma

myxomatous degenerationCardiac myxomacardiac myxomas
It is the primary form of myxomatous degeneration of the valve.

Infective endocarditis

bacterial endocarditisinfectious endocarditisAcute infective endocarditis
In severe cases of classic MVP, complications include mitral regurgitation, infective endocarditis, congestive heart failure, and, in rare circumstances, cardiac arrest.

Heart failure

congestive heart failurecardiac failurechronic heart failure
In severe cases of classic MVP, complications include mitral regurgitation, infective endocarditis, congestive heart failure, and, in rare circumstances, cardiac arrest.

Cardiac arrest

sudden cardiac deathsudden deathcardiopulmonary arrest
In severe cases of classic MVP, complications include mitral regurgitation, infective endocarditis, congestive heart failure, and, in rare circumstances, cardiac arrest.

Echocardiography

echocardiogramechocardiographicechocardiograph
The diagnosis of MVP depends upon echocardiography, which uses ultrasound to visualize the mitral valve.

Ultrasound

ultrasonicultrasonicsultrasounds
The diagnosis of MVP depends upon echocardiography, which uses ultrasound to visualize the mitral valve.

Auscultation

auscultatoryauscultateAuscultator
Upon auscultation of an individual with mitral valve prolapse, a mid-systolic click, followed by a late systolic murmur heard best at the apex, is common.

Heart sounds

heartbeatheart soundsecond heart sound
Upon auscultation of an individual with mitral valve prolapse, a mid-systolic click, followed by a late systolic murmur heard best at the apex, is common.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathyAsymmetric septal hypertrophyFeline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
The only other heart murmur that follows this pattern is the murmur of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.