Mixture

A diagram representing at the microscopic level the differences between homogeneous mixtures, heterogeneous mixtures, compounds, and elements

Material made up of two or more different chemical substances which are not chemically bonded.

- Mixture
A diagram representing at the microscopic level the differences between homogeneous mixtures, heterogeneous mixtures, compounds, and elements

9 related topics

Alpha

Hydrogen's purple glow in its plasma state, the most abundant in the universe

Material

Hydrogen's purple glow in its plasma state, the most abundant in the universe

Material is a substance or mixture of substances that constitutes an object.

Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water. The salt is the solute and the water the solvent.

Solution (chemistry)

Making a saline water solution by dissolving table salt (NaCl) in water. The salt is the solute and the water the solvent.
Water is a good solvent because the molecules are polar and capable of forming hydrogen bonds (1).

In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.

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Colloid

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Colloidal silica gel with light opalescence
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Examples of a stable and of an unstable colloidal dispersion.
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Measurement principle of multiple light scattering coupled with vertical scanning
Aerogel
Jello cubes
Whipped cream
Mist
Tyndall effect in an opalite: it scatters blue light making it appear blue from the side, but orange light shines through; opal is a gel in which water is dispersed in silica crystals
Milk - emulsion of liquid butterfat globules dispersed in water

A colloid is a mixture in which one substance consisting of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.

A suspension of flour mixed in a glass of water, showing the Tyndall effect

Suspension (chemistry)

A suspension of flour mixed in a glass of water, showing the Tyndall effect

In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture of a fluid that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.

Vapour–liquid equilibrium of 2-propanol/water showing positive azeotropic behaviour.

Azeotrope

Vapour–liquid equilibrium of 2-propanol/water showing positive azeotropic behaviour.
Positive azeotrope – mixture of chloroform and methanol
Negative azeotrope – mixture of formic acid and water
Construction of the p-v-x diagram appropriate for an azeotrope
Phase diagram of a heteroazeotrope. Vertical axis is temperature, horizontal axis is composition. The dotted vertical line indicates the composition of the combined layers of the distillate whenever both layers are present in the original mixture.
Double azeotrope of benzene and hexafluorobenzene. Proportions are by weight.
Total vapor pressure of mixtures as a function of composition at a chosen constant temperature
Phase diagram of a positive azeotrope. Vertical axis is temperature, horizontal axis is composition.
Phase diagram of a negative azeotrope. Vertical axis is temperature, horizontal axis is composition.
Azeotrope composition shift due to pressure swing.
Saddle azeotropic system Methanol/Acetone/Chloroform calculated with mod. UNIFAC

An azeotrope or a constant heating point mixture is a mixture of two or more liquids whose proportions cannot be altered or changed by simple distillation.

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table

Chemical element

A chemical element refers to all aspects of the species of atoms that have a certain number of protons in their nuclei, including the pure substance consisting only of that species.

A chemical element refers to all aspects of the species of atoms that have a certain number of protons in their nuclei, including the pure substance consisting only of that species.

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table
Estimated distribution of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Only the fraction of the mass and energy in the universe labeled "atoms" is composed of chemical elements.
Periodic table showing the cosmogenic origin of each element in the Big Bang, or in large or small stars. Small stars can produce certain elements up to sulfur, by the alpha process. Supernovae are needed to produce "heavy" elements (those beyond iron and nickel) rapidly by neutron buildup, in the r-process. Certain large stars slowly produce other elements heavier than iron, in the s-process; these may then be blown into space in the off-gassing of planetary nebulae
Abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar System. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (Li, Be, B) are rare because they are poorly synthesized in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers (the Oddo-Harkins rule), and (2) a general decrease in abundance as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
Mendeleev's 1869 periodic table: An experiment on a system of elements. Based on their atomic weights and chemical similarities.
Dmitri Mendeleev
Henry Moseley

Nearly all other naturally occurring elements occur in the Earth as compounds or mixtures.

Schematics of an agitated vessel with a Rushton turbine and baffles

Mixing (process engineering)

Schematics of an agitated vessel with a Rushton turbine and baffles
Machine for incorporating liquids and finely ground solids
Schematic drawing of a fluidized bed reactor
A magnetic stirrer
Axial flow impeller (left) and radial flow impeller (right).
Industrial Paddle Mixer
Industrial Paddle Mixer.
Industrial V Blender.
Industrial Ribbon Blender.
Industrial Double Cone Blender.
Industrial High shear Mixer/Granulator.
Drum-Blender
Double shaft mixer for high-viscosity materials

In industrial process engineering, mixing is a unit operation that involves manipulation of a heterogeneous physical system with the intent to make it more homogeneous.

Steam and liquid water are two different forms of the same chemical (pure) substance: water.

Chemical substance

Form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties.

Form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties.

Steam and liquid water are two different forms of the same chemical (pure) substance: water.
Colors of a single chemical (Nile red) in different solvents, under visible and UV light, showing how the chemical interacts dynamically with its solvent environment.
Native sulfur crystals. Sulfur occurs naturally as elemental sulfur, in sulfide and sulfate minerals and in hydrogen sulfide.
Potassium ferricyanide is a compound of potassium, iron, carbon and nitrogen; although it contains cyanide anions, it does not release them and is nontoxic.
Cranberry glass, while appearing homogeneous, is a mixture consisting of glass and gold colloidal particles of about 40nm in diameter, giving it a red color.
Chemicals in graduated cylinders and beaker.

Chemical substances are often called 'pure' to set them apart from mixtures.

An oil painting of a chemist (Ana Kansky, painted by Henrika Šantel in 1932)

Chemistry

Scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter.

Scientific study of the properties and behavior of matter.

An oil painting of a chemist (Ana Kansky, painted by Henrika Šantel in 1932)
Laboratory, Institute of Biochemistry, University of Cologne in Germany.
Solutions of substances in reagent bottles, including ammonium hydroxide and nitric acid, illuminated in different colors
A diagram of an atom based on the Bohr model
Standard form of the periodic table of chemical elements. The colors represent different categories of elements
Carbon dioxide (CO2), an example of a chemical compound
A ball-and-stick representation of the caffeine molecule (C8H10N4O2).
A 2-D structural formula of a benzene molecule (C6H6)
Diagram showing relationships among the phases and the terms used to describe phase changes.
An animation of the process of ionic bonding between sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) to form sodium chloride, or common table salt. Ionic bonding involves one atom taking valence electrons from another (as opposed to sharing, which occurs in covalent bonding)
In the methane molecule (CH4), the carbon atom shares a pair of valence electrons with each of the four hydrogen atoms. Thus, the octet rule is satisfied for C-atom (it has eight electrons in its valence shell) and the duet rule is satisfied for the H-atoms (they have two electrons in their valence shells).
Emission spectrum of iron
During chemical reactions, bonds between atoms break and form, resulting in different substances with different properties. In a blast furnace, iron oxide, a compound, reacts with carbon monoxide to form iron, one of the chemical elements, and carbon dioxide.
The crystal lattice structure of potassium chloride (KCl), a salt which is formed due to the attraction of K+ cations and Cl− anions. Note how the overall charge of the ionic compound is zero.
Hydrogen bromide exists in the gas phase as a diatomic molecule
Democritus' atomist philosophy was later adopted by Epicurus (341–270 BCE).
15th-century artistic impression of Jābir ibn Hayyān (Geber), a Perso-Arab alchemist and pioneer in organic chemistry.
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier is considered the "Father of Modern Chemistry".
In his periodic table, Dmitri Mendeleev predicted the existence of 7 new elements, and placed all 60 elements known at the time in their correct places.
Top: Expected results: alpha particles passing through the plum pudding model of the atom undisturbed. 
Bottom: Observed results: a small portion of the particles were deflected, indicating a small, concentrated charge.

Matter can be a pure chemical substance or a mixture of substances.