Mobile phone

Two decades of evolution of mobile phones, from a 1992 Motorola 8900X-2 to the 2014 iPhone 6 Plus
Martin Cooper of Motorola, shown here in a 2007 reenactment, made the first publicized handheld mobile phone call on a prototype DynaTAC model on 3 April 1973.
The Motorola DynaTAC 8000X. In 1983, it became the first commercially available handheld cellular mobile phone.
Dupuis and Haug during a GSM meeting in Belgium, April 1992
Personal Handy-phone System mobiles and modems, 1997–2003
Active mobile broadband subscriptions per 100 inhabitants.
Cellular networks work by only reusing radio frequencies (in this example frequencies f1-f4) in non adjacent cells to avoid interference
Typical mobile phone mini-SIM card
Android smartphones
A text message (SMS)
Growth in mobile phone subscribers per country from 1980 to 2009
Mobile phone subscribers per 100 inhabitants. 2014 figure is estimated.
Mobile payment system
A driver using two handheld mobile phones at once
A sign in the U.S. restricting cell phone use to certain times of day (no cell phone use between 7:30am-9:00am and 2:00pm-4:15pm)
Scrapped mobile phones

Portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.

- Mobile phone
Two decades of evolution of mobile phones, from a 1992 Motorola 8900X-2 to the 2014 iPhone 6 Plus

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An old rotary dial telephone

Telephone

Telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.

Telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.

An old rotary dial telephone
AT&T push button telephone made by Western Electric, model 2500 DMG black, 1980
Alexander Graham Bell's Telephone Patent Drawing
Replica of the telettrofono, invented by Antonio Meucci and credited by several sources as the first telephone.
Bell placing the first New York to Chicago telephone call in 1892
Reis's telephone
Bell's first telephone transmitter, ca. 1876, reenacted 50 years later
Acoustic telephone ad, The Consolidated Telephone Co., Jersey City, New Jersey, 1886
1896 telephone from Sweden
Wooden wall telephone with a hand-cranked magneto generator
An IP desktop telephone attached to a computer network, with touch-tone dialing
Fixed telephone lines per 100 inhabitants 1997–2007
Ericsson DBH 1001 (ca. 1931), the first combined telephone made with a Bakelite housing and handset.
Telephone used by American soldiers (WWII, Minalin, Pampanga, Philippines)
Modern sound-powered emergency telephone
One type of mobile phone, called a cell phone

Hand-held mobile phones were introduced for personal service starting in 1973.

Cellular network standards and generation timeline.

2G

Short for second-generation cellular network.

Short for second-generation cellular network.

Cellular network standards and generation timeline.

1) Digitally encrypted phone conversations, at least between the mobile phone and the cellular base station but not necessarily in the rest of the network.

Mobile phone tower

Mobile telephony

Mobile phone tower
Mobile telephone antennas tower
Booth presenting the first Dutch vehicle or watercraft telephone ("Mobilofoon"), a collaboration of the Royal Dutch Automobile Club (KNAC), and the Dutch Postal, Telegraph and Telephone (PTT) at 1948 Amsterdam International Autoshow (AutoRAI).
Use of an early mobile phone in Austria, 1964
Mobile phone subscriptions, not subscribers, per 100 inhabitants 1997-2007
Mr Dupuis and Mr Haug during a GSM meeting in Belgium, April 1992
This Railfone found on some Amtrak trains in North America uses cellular technology.
Cellular phones allow people to communicate from almost anywhere at their leisure.
Cellular antenna disguised to look like a tree
Mobile phone shop in Uganda

Mobile telephony is the provision of telephone services to phones which may move around freely rather than stay fixed in one location.

Nokia 3310 3G (2017 version), an advanced feature phone.

Feature phone

Nokia 3310 3G (2017 version), an advanced feature phone.
An opened Sony Ericsson W910i, a slide-action feature phone from 2007.

A feature phone (also spelled featurephone) is a type or class of mobile phone that retains the form factor of earlier generations of mobile telephones, typically with press-button based inputs and a small non-touch display.

Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) integrated circuits in dual in-line packages. These packages have a transparent window that shows the die inside. The window is used to erase the memory by exposing the chip to ultraviolet light.

Integrated circuit

Set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, usually silicon.

Set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, usually silicon.

Erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM) integrated circuits in dual in-line packages. These packages have a transparent window that shows the die inside. The window is used to erase the memory by exposing the chip to ultraviolet light.
Integrated circuit from an EPROM memory microchip showing the memory blocks, the supporting circuitry and the fine silver wires which connect the integrated circuit die to the legs of the packaging
Virtual detail of an integrated circuit through four layers of planarized copper interconnect, down to the polysilicon (pink), wells (greyish), and substrate (green)
Jack Kilby's original hybrid integrated circuit from 1958. This was the first integrated circuit, and was made from germanium.
Robert Noyce invented the first monolithic integrated circuit in 1959. The chip was made from silicon.
A-to-D converter IC in a DIP
The die from an Intel 8742, an 8-bit NMOS microcontroller that includes a CPU running at 12 MHz, 128 bytes of RAM, 2048 bytes of EPROM, and I/O in the same chip
Rendering of a small standard cell with three metal layers (dielectric has been removed). The sand-colored structures are metal interconnect, with the vertical pillars being contacts, typically plugs of tungsten. The reddish structures are polysilicon gates, and the solid at the bottom is the crystalline silicon bulk.
Schematic structure of a CMOS chip, as built in the early 2000s. The graphic shows LDD-MISFET's on an SOI substrate with five metallization layers and solder bump for flip-chip bonding. It also shows the section for FEOL (front-end of line), BEOL (back-end of line) and first parts of back-end process.
A Soviet MSI nMOS chip made in 1977, part of a four-chip calculator set designed in 1970
Upper interconnect layers on an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor die

Computers, mobile phones and other home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs such as modern computer processors and microcontrollers.

An undamped spring–mass system is an oscillatory system

Radio frequency

Oscillation rate of an alternating electric current or voltage or of a magnetic, electric or electromagnetic field or mechanical system in the frequency range from around 20 kHz to around 300 GHz.

Oscillation rate of an alternating electric current or voltage or of a magnetic, electric or electromagnetic field or mechanical system in the frequency range from around 20 kHz to around 300 GHz.

An undamped spring–mass system is an oscillatory system

Radio frequencies are used in communication devices such as transmitters, receivers, computers, televisions, and mobile phones, to name a few.

A modern corporate office building in Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

Mobile phone operator

Mobile telecommunications company that provides wireless Internet GSM services for mobile device users.

Mobile telecommunications company that provides wireless Internet GSM services for mobile device users.

A modern corporate office building in Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.

One of the first successful public commercial mobile phone networks was the ARP network in Finland, launched in 1971.

Motorola

American multinational telecommunications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, United States.

American multinational telecommunications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, United States.

Local branch in Glostrup, Denmark
Motorola vacuum tube carton
Dr. Martin Cooper of Motorola made the first private handheld mobile phone call on a larger prototype model in 1973. This is a reenactment in 2007.

Motorola's wireless telephone handset division was a pioneer in cellular telephones.

Motorola Mobility

American consumer electronics and telecommunications company, and a subsidiary of Chinese multinational technology company Lenovo.

American consumer electronics and telecommunications company, and a subsidiary of Chinese multinational technology company Lenovo.

The installation of the 2013–2014 Motorola Mobility logo near the main Google campus, following Google's purchase. The office on the photo has since been closed.
Black RAZR V3
1st generation Moto X
Moto X Style
2nd generation Moto G
Moto G4 Plus
Moto G7 Plus
Moto E5 Plus
Nexus 6
Droid Turbo
Moto Z 1st generation with Moto Style Shell
Moto M
First generation Moto 360
Original Motorola logo
Motorola Mobility logo between 2011 and 2013.
Motorola logo between 2013 and 2014.
Motorola logo from 2015 to 2016.

Motorola Mobility was formed on January 4, 2011, after a split of Motorola into two separate companies, with Motorola Mobility assuming the company's consumer-oriented product lines (including its mobile phone business, as well as its cable modems and pay television set-top boxes), while Motorola Solutions assumed the company's enterprise-oriented product lines.

A handheld on-board communication station of the maritime mobile service

Wireless

Transfer of information between two or more points without the use of an electrical conductor, optical fiber or other continuous guided medium for the transfer.

Transfer of information between two or more points without the use of an electrical conductor, optical fiber or other continuous guided medium for the transfer.

A handheld on-board communication station of the maritime mobile service
Bell and Tainter's photophone, of 1880.
Marconi transmitting the first radio signal across the Atlantic.
Power MOSFETs, which are used in RF power amplifiers to boost radio frequency (RF) signals in long-distance wireless networks.
An 8-beam free space optics laser link, rated for 1 Gbit/s at a distance of approximately 2 km. The receptor is the large disc in the middle, the transmitters the smaller ones. To the top and right corner a monocular for assisting the alignment of the two heads.

It encompasses various types of fixed, mobile, and portable applications, including two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and wireless networking.