Mobile phonewikipedia
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
mobile phonecell phonemobilemobile phonescellular phonecell phonescellphonemobile telephonecellular telephonemobile telephony

GSM services

mobile data servicewireless mobile dataservices
In addition to telephony, 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, short-range wireless communications (infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, video games, and digital photography.
Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) services are a standard collection of applications and features available to mobile phone subscribers all over the world.

Cellular network

cellular networkcellularmobile network
Modern mobile telephone services use a cellular network architecture, and, therefore, mobile telephones are called cellular telephones or cell phones, in North America.
This enables a large number of portable transceivers (e.g., mobile phones, tablets and laptops equipped with mobile broadband modems, pagers, etc.) to communicate with each other and with fixed transceivers and telephones anywhere in the network, via base stations, even if some of the transceivers are moving through more than one cell during transmission.

HMD Global

NokiaHMD Global OyHMD
For feature phones (or "dumbphones") as of 2016, the largest were Samsung, Nokia, and Alcatel.
HMD Global Oy, branded as HMD, is a Finnish mobile phone company, made up of the mobile phone business that Nokia had sold to Microsoft in 2014, then bought back in 2016.

Multimedia Messaging Service

MMSmultimedia messagingpicture messaging
In addition to telephony, 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, short-range wireless communications (infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, video games, and digital photography.
Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) is a standard way to send messages that include multimedia content to and from a mobile phone over a cellular network.

Mobile telephony

mobile telephonymobile communicationmobile communications
The advances in mobile telephony have been traced in successive "generations", starting with the early zeroth-generation (0G) services, such as Bell System's Mobile Telephone Service and its successor, the Improved Mobile Telephone Service.
Mobile telephony is the provision of telephone services to phones which may move around freely rather than stay fixed in one location.

Motorola DynaTAC

DynaTAC8000xlate-1980s or early-1990s mobile phoneDynaTAC 8000 Series
In 1983, the DynaTAC 8000x was the first commercially available handheld mobile phone.
DynaTAC is a series of cellular telephones manufactured by Motorola, Inc. from 1983 to 1994.

Motorola Mobility

MotorolaMotorola IsraelMotorola Mobility
The first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing c. 2 kilograms (4.4 lbs).
In the split, Motorola Mobility took the company's consumer-oriented product lines, including its mobile phone business and its cable modems and set-top boxes for digital cable and satellite television services.

Telephone

telephonephonetelephones
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
Hand-held mobile phones were introduced for personal service starting in 1973.

John Francis Mitchell

John F. Mitchell
The first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing c. 2 kilograms (4.4 lbs).
Mitchell led the pioneering development and implementation of the Motorola’s mobile phone technology producing the first portable transistorized pager and cell phone; was the driving force behind building quality into engineering, and the establishment of the Motorola University and Six Sigma Institute; and launched the global Iridium Satellite Constellation.

Mobile radio telephone

mobile radio telephone0Gmanual mobile telephone system
The advances in mobile telephony have been traced in successive "generations", starting with the early zeroth-generation (0G) services, such as Bell System's Mobile Telephone Service and its successor, the Improved Mobile Telephone Service.
Mobile radio telephone systems were telephone systems of wireless type that preceded the modern cellular mobile form of telephony technology.

Telephone call

telephone callcallphone call
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
The call may use land line, mobile phone, satellite phone or any combination thereof.

Samsung Electronics

SamsungSamsung Smart TVSamsung Electronics America
In first quarter of 2016, the top smartphone developers worldwide were Samsung, Apple, and Huawei, with smartphone sales represented 78 percent of total mobile phone sales.
It is the world's largest manufacturer of mobile phones and smartphones, started with the original Samsung Solstice and later fueled by the popularity of its Samsung Galaxy line of devices.

Martin Cooper (inventor)

Martin CooperMarty CooperDr. Martin Cooper
The first handheld mobile phone was demonstrated by John F. Mitchell and Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973, using a handset weighing c. 2 kilograms (4.4 lbs).
He is considered the "father of the (handheld) cell phone" and is also cited as the first person in history to make a handheld cellular phone call in public.

Public switched telephone network

public switched telephone networkPSTNtelephone network
The radio frequency link establishes a connection to the switching systems of a mobile phone operator, which provides access to the public switched telephone network (PSTN).
Originally a network of fixed-line analog telephone systems, the PSTN is now almost entirely digital in its core network and includes mobile and other networks, as well as fixed telephones.

Satellite phone

satellite phonesatellite telephonesatellite telephony
A satellite telephone, satellite phone, or satphone is a type of mobile phone that connects to orbiting satellites instead of terrestrial cell sites.

Voice over LTE

VoLTEvoice over LTE (VoLTE)Voice Over LTE
Some audio-quality enhancing features, such as Voice over LTE and HD Voice, have appeared and are often available on newer smartphones.
Voice over Long-Term Evolution (VoLTE) is a standard for high-speed wireless communication for mobile phones and data terminals - including IoT devices and wearables.

Internet access

broadband internetbroadbandbroadband Internet access
In addition to telephony, 2000s-era mobile phones support a variety of other services, such as text messaging, MMS, email, Internet access, short-range wireless communications (infrared, Bluetooth), business applications, video games, and digital photography.
Additionally, Mobile broadband access allows smart phones and other digital devices to connect to the Internet from any location from which a mobile phone call can be made, subject to the capabilities of that mobile network.

Subscriber identity module

SIMSIM cardnano-SIM
GSM feature phones require a small microchip called a Subscriber Identity Module or SIM card, in order to function.
A subscriber identity module or subscriber identification module (SIM), widely known as a SIM card, is an integrated circuit that is intended to securely store the international mobile subscriber identity (IMSI) number and its related key, which are used to identify and authenticate subscribers on mobile telephony devices (such as mobile phones and computers).

Feature phone

feature phonefeature phonesfeaturephone
GSM feature phones require a small microchip called a Subscriber Identity Module or SIM card, in order to function. Mobile phones offering only those capabilities are known as feature phones; mobile phones which offer greatly advanced computing capabilities are referred to as smartphones.
Other feature phones are specifically designed for the elderly, and yet others for religious purposes.

SIM lock

unlockedlockedSIM unlocked
The SIM card allows users to change phones by simply removing the SIM card from one mobile phone and inserting it into another mobile phone or broadband telephony device, provided that this is not prevented by a SIM lock.
A SIM lock, simlock, network lock, carrier lock or (master) subsidy lock is a technical restriction built into GSM and CDMA mobile phones by mobile phone manufacturers for use by service providers to restrict the use of these phones to specific countries and/or networks.

Integrated circuit

integrated circuitintegrated circuitsmicrochip
GSM feature phones require a small microchip called a Subscriber Identity Module or SIM card, in order to function.
Computers, mobile phones, and other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs.

Mobile operating system

mobile operating systemmobile platformsmobile OS
By contrast, smartphones generally use a mobile operating system that often shares common traits across devices.
Mobile operating system milestones mirror the development of mobile phones and smartphones:

IDEN

iDENNextel radiosList of iDEN networks
Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN) is a mobile telecommunications technology, developed by Motorola, which provides its users the benefits of a trunked radio and a cellular telephone.

Network switching subsystem

HLRMSCnetwork switching subsystem
The SIM securely stores the service-subscriber key (IMSI) and the K i used to identify and authenticate the user of the mobile phone.
Network switching subsystem (NSS) (or GSM core network) is the component of a GSM system that carries out call out and mobility management functions for mobile phones roaming on the network of base stations.

WiMAX

Wimaxwireless broadband4G WiMAX
The first two commercially available technologies billed as 4G were the WiMAX standard, offered in North America by Sprint, and the LTE standard, first offered in Scandinavia by TeliaSonera.
Mobile WiMAX was a replacement candidate for cellular phone technologies such as GSM and CDMA, or can be used as an overlay to increase capacity.