Moche culture

MocheMochicaMoche civilizationMochica cultureMoche (culture)Moche PeopleMochesAyapeccoastalMoche Material Culture
The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture or the Early, Pre- or Proto-Chimú) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, Trujillo, Peru from about 100 to 700 AD during the Regional Development Epoch.wikipedia
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Peru

PerúRepublic of PeruPeruvian
The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture or the Early, Pre- or Proto-Chimú) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, Trujillo, Peru from about 100 to 700 AD during the Regional Development Epoch.
On the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca, Wari, and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica.

Department of Lambayeque

LambayequeLambayeque RegionLambayeque Department
The Moche cultural sphere is centered on several valleys on the north coast of Peru in regions La Libertad, Lambayeque, Jequetepeque, Chicama, Moche, Virú, Chao, Santa, and Nepena and occupied 250 miles of desert coastline and up to 50 miles inland.
Lambayeque is a region in northwestern Peru known for its rich Moche and Chimú historical past.

Moche, Trujillo

MocheMoche city
The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture or the Early, Pre- or Proto-Chimú) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, Trujillo, Peru from about 100 to 700 AD during the Regional Development Epoch.
It is located in the Moche Valley and was the center of development of the ancient Moche or Mochica culture.

Periodization of pre-Columbian Peru

Cultural periods of PeruMiddle HorizonPre-Inca cultures
The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture or the Early, Pre- or Proto-Chimú) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, Trujillo, Peru from about 100 to 700 AD during the Regional Development Epoch.

Huaca del Sol

Huacas del Sol y de la LunaTemples of the Sun and MoonSol
The Huaca del Sol, a pyramidal adobe structure on the Rio Moche, was the largest pre-Columbian structure in Peru, but it was partly destroyed when Spanish Conquistadores looted its graves for gold in the 16th century.
The Huaca del Sol is an adobe brick temple built by the Moche civilization (100 CE to 800 CE) on the northern coast of what is now Peru.

Cupisnique

According to some scholars this was a short transition period between the Cupisnique and the Moche cultures.
Izumi Shimada calls Cupisnique a possible ancestor of Mochica (Moche) culture with no mention of Chavin.

Jequetepeque River

Jequetepeque ValleyJequetepequeriver Jequetepeque
The Moche cultural sphere is centered on several valleys on the north coast of Peru in regions La Libertad, Lambayeque, Jequetepeque, Chicama, Moche, Virú, Chao, Santa, and Nepena and occupied 250 miles of desert coastline and up to 50 miles inland.
In the Jequetepeque valley archeological sites of the Moche culture were found like San Jose de Moro and Pakatnamu.

Huanchaco

Huanchaco Beach
Other major Moche sites include Sipan, Loma Negra, Dos Cabezas, Pacatnamu, the El Brujo complex, Mocollope, Cerro Mayal, Galindo, Huanchaco, and Pañamarka.
Some accounts suggest the name "Huanchaco" originate from "Gua-Kocha, a Quechua word meaning "beautiful lake". During the period of the Chimú culture, 800 to 1400, Huanchaco was the port for Chan Chan, which was established 4 km away. It was also the main port during Moche period, and was described by Inca Garcilaso de la Vega as the preferred port of the Incas.

Pacatnamu

Other major Moche sites include Sipan, Loma Negra, Dos Cabezas, Pacatnamu, the El Brujo complex, Mocollope, Cerro Mayal, Galindo, Huanchaco, and Pañamarka.
There are two periods of occupation-an early period when Moche ceramics were in use, and a later period characterized by the use of Chimu ceramics.

Huaca de la Luna

The nearby Huaca de la Luna is better preserved.
Huaca de la Luna ("Temple/Shrine of the Moon") is a large adobe brick structure built mainly by the Moche people of northern Peru.

El Brujo

El Brujo Archaeological Complex
Other major Moche sites include Sipan, Loma Negra, Dos Cabezas, Pacatnamu, the El Brujo complex, Mocollope, Cerro Mayal, Galindo, Huanchaco, and Pañamarka. In 2005, a mummified Moche woman known as the Lady of Cao was discovered at the Huaca Cao Viejo, part of the El Brujo archaeological site on the outskirts of present-day Trujillo, Peru.
Huaca Prieta is the earliest part of the complex but the biggest constructions on the site belong to the Moche culture.

Department of La Libertad

La LibertadLa Libertad RegionLa Libertad Province
The Moche cultural sphere is centered on several valleys on the north coast of Peru in regions La Libertad, Lambayeque, Jequetepeque, Chicama, Moche, Virú, Chao, Santa, and Nepena and occupied 250 miles of desert coastline and up to 50 miles inland.
From 200 A.C., the first one to expand beyond its cradle was the Moche or Mochica culture.

Moche Valley

Valley of MocheMochevalley of Santa Catalina
The Moche cultural sphere is centered on several valleys on the north coast of Peru in regions La Libertad, Lambayeque, Jequetepeque, Chicama, Moche, Virú, Chao, Santa, and Nepena and occupied 250 miles of desert coastline and up to 50 miles inland.
The pre-Columbian cultures Moche and Chimu emerged here.

Alpaca

alpacasVicugna pacosLama pacos
The Moche wove textiles, mostly using wool from vicuña and alpaca.
The Moche people of Northern Peru often used alpaca images in their art.

Pampa Grande

Pampa Grande, in the Lambayeque Valley, on the shore of the Chancay River, became one of the largest Moche sites anywhere, and occupied the area of more than 400 ha.
Later, during the Moche period (600–700 AD), the city was a major regional capital.

Christopher B. Donnan

While some scholars, such as Christopher B. Donnan and Izumi Shimada, argue that the sacrificial victims were the losers of ritual battles among local elites, others, such as John Verano and Richard Sutter, suggest that the sacrificial victims were warriors captured in territorial battles between the Moche and other nearby societies.
He has researched the Moche civilization of ancient Peru for more than fifty years, conducting numerous excavations of Peruvian archaeological sites.

El Niño

El NinoEl Nino-Southern OscillationEl Niño Southern Oscillation
Studies of ice cores drilled from glaciers in the Andes reveal climatic events between 536 and 594 AD, possibly a super El Niño, that resulted in 30 years of intense rain and flooding followed by 30 years of drought, part of the aftermath of the climate changes of 535–536.
For example, it is thought that El Niño affected the Moche in modern-day Peru, who sacrificed humans in order to try to prevent the rains.

Chimú culture

ChimuChimúChimu culture
The Moche civilization (alternatively, the Mochica culture or the Early, Pre- or Proto-Chimú) flourished in northern Peru with its capital near present-day Moche, Trujillo, Peru from about 100 to 700 AD during the Regional Development Epoch.
The culture arose about 900 AD, succeeding the Moche culture, and was later conquered by the Inca emperor Topa Inca Yupanqui around 1470, fifty years before the arrival of the Spanish in the region.

Moche portrait vessel

delightful portrait vasesMoche Portrait CeramicMoche pottery
The Moche are known for their portraiture pottery.
Moche portrait vessels are ceramic vessels featuring highly individualized and naturalistic representations of human faces that are unique to the Moche culture of Peru.

Extreme weather events of 535–536

climate changes of 535–536Climate changes of 535-536Extreme weather events of 535-536
Studies of ice cores drilled from glaciers in the Andes reveal climatic events between 536 and 594 AD, possibly a super El Niño, that resulted in 30 years of intense rain and flooding followed by 30 years of drought, part of the aftermath of the climate changes of 535–536.

Trujillo, Peru

TrujilloTrujillo, La Libertad Trujillo
In 2005, a mummified Moche woman known as the Lady of Cao was discovered at the Huaca Cao Viejo, part of the El Brujo archaeological site on the outskirts of present-day Trujillo, Peru.
This was a site of the great prehistoric Moche and Chimu cultures before the Inca conquest and subsequent expansion.

Huaca Rajada

SipánSipanTumba Real
Other major Moche sites include Sipan, Loma Negra, Dos Cabezas, Pacatnamu, the El Brujo complex, Mocollope, Cerro Mayal, Galindo, Huanchaco, and Pañamarka.
Huaca Rajada, also known as Sipán, is a Moche archaeological site in northern Peru in the Lambayeque Valley, that is famous for the tomb of Lord of Sipán (El Señor de Sipán), excavated by Walter Alva and his wife Susana Meneses beginning in 1987.

Recuay culture

Recuay
The coastal Moche culture also co-existed (or overlapped in time) with the slightly earlier Recuay culture in the highlands.
The Recuay culture was a pre-Columbian culture of highland Peru that flourished from 200 BC to AD 600 and was related to the Moche culture of the north coast.

Lady of Cao

Dama de CaoSeñora de CaoThe Lady of Cao
In 2005, a mummified Moche woman known as the Lady of Cao was discovered at the Huaca Cao Viejo, part of the El Brujo archaeological site on the outskirts of present-day Trujillo, Peru.
The Lady of Cao is a name given to a female Moche mummy discovered at the archeological site El Brujo, which is located about 45 km north of Trujillo in the La Libertad Region of Peru.

San Jose de Moro

San José de Moro
San Jose de Moro is another northern site in the Jequetepeque valley.
San José de Moro is a Moche archaeological site in the Pacanga District, Chepén Province, La Libertad Region, of Northwestern Peru.