Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets
A chart comparing the chemical structures of different amphetamine derivatives
Modafinil tablets – Modalert 200
Roasted coffee beans, a common source of caffeine.
Tablets containing MDMA
Lines of illicit cocaine, used as a recreational stimulant
Catha edulis

Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant medication used to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, and obstructive sleep apnea.

- Modafinil

Neurocognitive enhancing effects of stimulants, specifically modafinil, amphetamine and methylphenidate have been documented in healthy adolescents, and is a commonly cited reason among illicit drug users for use, particularly among college students in the context of studying.

- Stimulant
Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets

11 related topics

Alpha

Amphetamine

Amphetamine (contracted from a lpha- m ethyl ph en et hyl amine ) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

There was low- to moderate-strength evidence of no benefit for most of the other medications used in RCTs, which included antidepressants (bupropion, mirtazapine, sertraline), antipsychotics (aripiprazole), anticonvulsants (topiramate, baclofen, gabapentin), naltrexone, varenicline, citicoline, ondansetron, prometa, riluzole, atomoxetine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration agents inspect packages for illegal drug shipments at an international mail facility in New York

Controlled Substances Act

Statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.

Statute establishing federal U.S. drug policy under which the manufacture, importation, possession, use, and distribution of certain substances is regulated.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration agents inspect packages for illegal drug shipments at an international mail facility in New York

αMT (alpha-methyltryptamine), a psychedelic, stimulant, and entactogen drug of the tryptamine class that was originally developed as an antidepressant by workers at Upjohn in the 1960s.

The eugeroic drug modafinil (sold in the U.S. as Provigil) as well as its (R)-enantiomer armodafinil (sold in the U.S. as Nuvigil)

Dextroamphetamine

Dexamphetamine 5 mg generic name tablets
Dexedrine Spansule 5, 10 and 15 mg capsules, a sustained-release dosage form of dextroamphetamine
Adderall 20 mg tablets, some broken in half, with a lengthwise-folded US dollar bill along the bottom

Dextroamphetamine (D-AMP) is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant and an amphetamine enantiomer that is prescribed for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.

Newer stimulant medications or awakeness promoting agents with different side effect profiles, such as modafinil, are being investigated and sometimes issued for this reason.

The concentration of orexin-A neuropeptides in the cerebrospinal fluid of narcoleptic individuals is usually very low

Narcolepsy

Long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep–wake cycles.

Long-term neurological disorder that involves a decreased ability to regulate sleep–wake cycles.

The concentration of orexin-A neuropeptides in the cerebrospinal fluid of narcoleptic individuals is usually very low

Medications used include modafinil, sodium oxybate and methylphenidate.

The main treatment of excessive daytime sleepiness in narcolepsy is central nervous system stimulants such as methylphenidate, amphetamine, dextroamphetamine, modafinil, and armodafinil.

A drawing of someone with insomnia from the 14th century

Insomnia

Sleep disorder in which people have trouble sleeping.

Sleep disorder in which people have trouble sleeping.

A drawing of someone with insomnia from the 14th century
Potential complications of insomnia.
Normison (temazepam) is a benzodiazepine commonly prescribed for insomnia and other sleep disorders.

Use of psychoactive drugs (such as stimulants), including certain medications, herbs, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines, methylphenidate, aripiprazole, MDMA, modafinil, or excessive alcohol intake

Methamphetamine

About the stimulant drug.

About the stimulant drug.

Desoxyn (Methamphetamine Hydrochloride) 100 tablets.
A 2010 study ranking various illegal and legal drugs based on statements by drug-harm experts. Methamphetamine was found to be the fourth most damaging to society.
A suspected case of meth mouth
This diagram depicts the neuroimmune mechanisms that mediate methamphetamine-induced neurodegeneration in the human brain. The NF-κB-mediated neuroimmune response to methamphetamine use which results in the increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier arises through its binding at and activation of sigma receptors, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), the dysregulation of glutamate transporters (specifically, EAAT1 and EAAT2) and glucose metabolism, and excessive Ca2+ ion influx in glial cells and dopamine neurons.
This illustration depicts the normal operation of the dopaminergic terminal to the left, and the dopaminergic terminal in the presence of methamphetamine to the right. Methamphetamine reverses the action of the dopamine transporter (DAT) by activating TAAR1 (not shown). TAAR1 activation also causes some of the dopamine transporters to move into the presynaptic neuron and cease transport (not shown). At VMAT2 (labeled VMAT), methamphetamine causes dopamine efflux (release).
Shards of pure methamphetamine hydrochloride, also known as crystal meth
Pervitin, a methamphetamine brand used by German soldiers during World War II, was dispensed in these tablet containers.
U.S. drug overdose related fatalities in 2017 were 70,200, including 10,333 of those related to psychostimulants (including methamphetamine).

Methamphetamine (contracted from N-methylamphetamine) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.

There was low- to moderate-strength evidence of no benefit for most of the other medications used in RCTs, which included antidepressants (bupropion, mirtazapine, sertraline), antipsychotics (aripiprazole), anticonvulsants (topiramate, baclofen, gabapentin), naltrexone, varenicline, citicoline, ondansetron, prometa, riluzole, atomoxetine, dextroamphetamine, and modafinil.

Sorrowing Old Man (At Eternity's Gate)
by Vincent van Gogh (1890)

Major depressive disorder

Mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of pervasive low mood, low self-esteem, and loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities.

Mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of pervasive low mood, low self-esteem, and loss of interest or pleasure in normally enjoyable activities.

Sorrowing Old Man (At Eternity's Gate)
by Vincent van Gogh (1890)
An 1892 lithograph of a woman diagnosed with melancholia
A cup analogy demonstrating the diathesis–stress model that under the same amount of stressors, person 2 is more vulnerable than person 1, because of their predisposition.
Caricature of a man with depression
Physical exercise is one recommended way to manage mild depression.
Sertraline (Zoloft) is used primarily to treat major depression in adults.
Diagnoses of depression go back at least as far as Hippocrates.
The 16th American president, Abraham Lincoln, had "melancholy", a condition that now may be referred to as clinical depression.

Limited evidence suggests stimulants, such as amphetamine and modafinil, may be effective in the short term, or as adjuvant therapy.

A tin containing drugs and drug paraphernalia

Substance abuse

Use of a drug in amounts or by methods which are harmful to the individual or others.

Use of a drug in amounts or by methods which are harmful to the individual or others.

A tin containing drugs and drug paraphernalia
A person sniffing an inhalant
A drug user receiving an injection of the opiate heroin
A 2010 study ranking various illegal and legal drugs based on statements by drug-harm experts. Alcohol was found to be the overall most dangerous drug.
1991 Indian postage stamp bearing the slogan – Beware of drugs
Drug use is higher in countries with high economic inequality
Total recorded alcohol per capita consumption (15+), in litres of pure alcohol<ref>Global Status Report on Alcohol 2004</ref>
Total yearly U.S. drug deaths.<ref name=NIDA-deaths>Overdose Death Rates. By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).</ref>
US yearly overdose deaths, and the drugs involved.<ref name=NIDA-deaths/>

Drug misuse is a term used commonly when prescription medication with sedative, anxiolytic, analgesic, or stimulant properties are used for mood alteration or intoxication ignoring the fact that overdose of such medicines can sometimes have serious adverse effects.

Several other medications, often ones originally used in other contexts, have also been shown to be effective including bupropion and modafinil.

Modafinil is a common nootropic

Nootropic

Nootropics (, or ) (colloquial: smart drugs and cognitive enhancers) are drugs, supplements, and other substances that are claimed to improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, attention, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.

Nootropics (, or ) (colloquial: smart drugs and cognitive enhancers) are drugs, supplements, and other substances that are claimed to improve cognitive function, particularly executive functions, attention, memory, creativity, or motivation, in healthy individuals.

Modafinil is a common nootropic
Hebbian version of the Yerkes–Dodson law

In 2008, the most commonly used class of drug was stimulants, such as caffeine.

Eugeroics (armodafinil and modafinil) – are classified as "wakefulness-promoting agents"; modafinil increases alertness, particularly in sleep-deprived individuals, and facilitates reasoning and problem solving in non-ADHD youth. In a systematic review of small, preliminary studies where the effects of modafinil were examined, when simple psychometric assessments were considered, modafinil intake enhanced executive function. Modafinil may not produce improvements in mood or motivation in sleep deprived or non-sleep deprived individuals.

Pediatric polysomnography

Excessive daytime sleepiness

Characterized by persistent sleepiness and often a general lack of energy, even during the day after apparently adequate or even prolonged nighttime sleep.

Characterized by persistent sleepiness and often a general lack of energy, even during the day after apparently adequate or even prolonged nighttime sleep.

Pediatric polysomnography

Drugs like modafinil, Armodafinil, Xyrem (sodium oxybate) oral solution, have been approved as treatment for EDS symptoms in the U.S. There is declining usage of other drugs such as methylphenidate (Ritalin), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), amphetamine (Adderall), lisdexamfetamine (Vyvanse), methamphetamine (Desoxyn), and pemoline (Cylert), as these psychostimulants may have several adverse effects and may lead to dependency, especially when illicitly misused.