Modern Greek

GreekModernModern Greek languageDemoticRomaicmodern spoken GreekNew Greekdemotic dialectDemotic GreekDhimotiki
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα) refers collectively to the dialects of the Greek language spoken in the modern era, and includes Standard Modern Greek.wikipedia
637 Related Articles

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα) refers collectively to the dialects of the Greek language spoken in the modern era, and includes Standard Modern Greek.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká) is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

Byzantine Empire

ByzantineEastern Roman EmpireByzantines
The end of the Medieval Greek period and the beginning of Modern Greek is often symbolically assigned to the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, even though that date marks no clear linguistic boundary and many characteristic modern features of the language arose centuries earlier, between the fourth and the fifteenth centuries AD.
The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and even as late as the 19th century Greeks typically referred to Modern Greek as Romaiika "Romaic."

Katharevousa

Katharevousa GreekGreekformerly
During most of the period, the language existed in a situation of diglossia, with regional spoken dialects existing side by side with learned, more archaic written forms, as with the vernacular and learned varieties (Dimotiki and Katharevousa) that co-existed throughout much of the 19th and 20th centuries.
Katharevousa (Καθαρεύουσα, literally "purifying [language]") is a conservative form of the Modern Greek language conceived in the late 18th century as a compromise between Ancient Greek and the Demotic Greek of the time.

Anatolia

Asia MinorAsiatic TurkeyAnatolian Plateau
As shown in Ptochoprodromic and Acritic poems, Demotic Greek was the vernacular already before the 11th century and called the "Roman" language of the Byzantine Greeks, notably in peninsular Greece, the Greek islands, coastal Asia Minor, Constantinople, and Cyprus.
Anatolia (from Greek: Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ, "east" or "[sun]rise"; Anadolu), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία, Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"; Küçük Asya), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula or the Anatolian plateau, is a large peninsula in West Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent.

Greece

GreekHellenic RepublicGreeks
As shown in Ptochoprodromic and Acritic poems, Demotic Greek was the vernacular already before the 11th century and called the "Roman" language of the Byzantine Greeks, notably in peninsular Greece, the Greek islands, coastal Asia Minor, Constantinople, and Cyprus.
The Greek people spoke a form of Greek called Demotic.

Ionian Islands

Ionian IslandIonianHeptanese
The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek, Katharevousa: Ἰόνιοι Νῆσοι, Ionioi Nēsoi) are a group of islands in Greece.

Athens

Athens, GreeceAthenianAthenians
Athens sprawls across the central plain of Attica that is often referred to as the Athens or Attica Basin (Greek: Λεκανοπέδιο Αττικής).

Diglossia

diglossic diglossicdiglossic linguistic area
During most of the period, the language existed in a situation of diglossia, with regional spoken dialects existing side by side with learned, more archaic written forms, as with the vernacular and learned varieties (Dimotiki and Katharevousa) that co-existed throughout much of the 19th and 20th centuries.
Ferguson's classic examples include Standard German/Swiss German, Standard Arabic/Arabic vernaculars, Standard French/Creole in Haiti, and Katharevousa/Dimotiki in Greece.

Koine Greek

GreekKoineNew Testament Greek
Strictly speaking, Demotic refers to all popular varieties of Modern Greek that followed a common evolutionary path from Koine and have retained a high degree of mutual intelligibility to the present.
As the dominant language of the Byzantine Empire, it developed further into Medieval Greek, which then turned into Modern Greek.

Russia

Russian FederationRUSRussian
Rumeíka or Mariupolitan Greek is a dialect spoken in about 17 villages around the northern coast of the Sea of Azov in southern Ukraine and Russia.
The current name of the country, Россия (Rossija), comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία (Rosía ) in Modern Greek.

Sarakatsani

KarakachansSarakatsanKarakachani
The Sarakatsani speak a northern Greek dialect, Sarakatsanika, which contains many archaic Greek elements that have not survived in other variants of modern Greek.

Romaniote Jews

RomanioteRomaniotesRomaniote Jew
Yevanic is a recently extinct language of Romaniote Jews.
Their distinct language was Judaeo-Greek, a Greek dialect that contained Hebrew along with some Aramaic and Turkish words but now speak modern Greek or the languages of their new home countries.

Medieval Greek

Byzantine GreekGreekByzantine
The end of the Medieval Greek period and the beginning of Modern Greek is often symbolically assigned to the fall of the Byzantine Empire in 1453, even though that date marks no clear linguistic boundary and many characteristic modern features of the language arose centuries earlier, between the fourth and the fifteenth centuries AD.
Medieval Greek is the link between this vernacular, known as Koine Greek, and Modern Greek.

Demotic Greek

DemoticDimotikiDhimotiki
During most of the period, the language existed in a situation of diglossia, with regional spoken dialects existing side by side with learned, more archaic written forms, as with the vernacular and learned varieties (Dimotiki and Katharevousa) that co-existed throughout much of the 19th and 20th centuries.
Demotic Greek (δημοτική γλώσσα, dimotikí glóssa, "language of the people") or dimotiki (δημοτική, dimotikí), is the modern vernacular form of the Greek language.

Iotacism

itacismitacisticitacisms
This came about through a series of mergers, especially towards (iotacism).
Iotacism (ιωτακισμός, iotakismos) or itacism is the process of vowel shift by which a number of vowels and diphthongs converged towards the pronunciation in post-classical Greek and Modern Greek.

Byzantine Greeks

Byzantine GreekByzantinesGreek
As shown in Ptochoprodromic and Acritic poems, Demotic Greek was the vernacular already before the 11th century and called the "Roman" language of the Byzantine Greeks, notably in peninsular Greece, the Greek islands, coastal Asia Minor, Constantinople, and Cyprus.
Other than the Western term "Graikoi" ("Greeks"), which was not in common use, but used as a term of self-designation up to the 19th century by scholars and small numbers of people related to the West, the modern Greek people still use the Byzantine term "Romaioi," or "Romioi," ("Romans") to refer to themselves, as well as the term "Romaic" ("Roman") to refer to their Modern Greek language.

Acute accent

acuteĺsíneadh fada
There are two diacritical symbols, the acute accent which indicates stress and the diaeresis marking a vowel letter as not being part of a digraph.

Diaeresis (diacritic)

diaeresisumlauttrema
There are two diacritical symbols, the acute accent which indicates stress and the diaeresis marking a vowel letter as not being part of a digraph.
In Modern Greek, αϊ and οϊ represent the diphthongs and, and εϊ the disyllabic sequence, whereas αι, οι, and ει transcribe the simple vowels,, and.

Mariupol

ZhdanovMariupol, UkrainePavlovsk
The Greek-speaking inhabitants of Crimea were invited by Catherine the Great to resettle in the new city of Mariupol after the Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) to escape the then Muslim-dominated Crimea.
Modern scholars distinguish five subdialects of Rumeíka according to their similarity to standard Modern Greek.

Sigma

Σlunate sigmafinal sigma
The letter sigma additionally has a special final form.
In both Ancient and Modern Greek, the sigma represents the voiceless alveolar fricative.

Greek diacritics

polytonicpolytonic orthographymonotonic orthography
Demotic Greek has officially been taught in monotonic Greek script since 1982.
Monotonic orthography (from "single" and "accent") is the standard system for Modern Greek.

Doric Greek

DoricDoric dialectNorthwest Greek
Tsakonian evolved directly from Laconian (ancient Spartan) and therefore descends from Doric Greek.

Attic Greek

AtticAttic dialectClassical Attic
Together, Attic and Ionic are the primary influences on Modern Greek.

Mariupol Greek

Mariupolitan GreekRumeíkaGreek minority
Mariupolitan Greek, also known as Rumeíka (Rumaiica, from Ρωμαίικα, "Romaic"; Румейский язык; Румейська мова), is the Greek dialect spoken by the ethnic Greeks living along the northern coast of the Sea of Azov, in southeastern Ukraine.

Griko dialect

GrikoGriko languageGrico
Southern Italian or Italiot comprises both Calabrian and Griko varieties, spoken by around 15 villages in the regions of Calabria and Apulia.
Some Greek linguists consider it to be a Modern Greek dialect and often call it Katoitaliótika (Κατωιταλιώτικα, "Southern Italian") or Grekanika, whereas its own speakers call it Greko (Γκραίκο, in Calabria) or Griko (Γκρίκο, in Salento).