Modernization theory

modernizationmodernisationmodernizemodernizingmodernizedmodernisation theorymodernisemodernisingmodernizationsModernization theorists
Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies.wikipedia
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Dependency theory

dependencyacademic dependencybureaucrat capitalism
Modernization theory is subject to criticism originating among socialist and free-market ideologies, world-systems theorists, globalization theorists and dependency theorists among others.
The theory arose as a reaction to modernization theory, an earlier theory of development which held that all societies progress through similar stages of development, that today's underdeveloped areas are thus in a similar situation to that of today's developed areas at some time in the past, and that, therefore, the task of helping the underdeveloped areas out of poverty is to accelerate them along this supposed common path of development, by various means such as investment, technology transfers, and closer integration into the world market.

Traditional society

traditional societiestraditionaltraditional cultures
Modernization refers to a model of a progressive transition from a 'pre-modern' or 'traditional' to a 'modern' society.
Within modernisation theory, traditional society is also the first stage of economic development as established in W.W. Rostow's Economic Growth Model.

Urbanization

urbanisationurbanizedUrban
Historians link modernization to the processes of urbanization and industrialization and the spread of education.
The phenomenon has been closely linked to modernization, industrialization, and the sociological process of rationalization.

World-systems theory

World Systems Theoryworld systemworld-systems analysis
Modernization theory is subject to criticism originating among socialist and free-market ideologies, world-systems theorists, globalization theorists and dependency theorists among others.

Talcott Parsons

ParsonsParsonianParsons, Talcot
Modernization theory originated from the ideas of German sociologist Max Weber (1864–1920), which provided the basis for the modernization paradigm developed by Harvard sociologist Talcott Parsons (1902–1979).
In the early 1960s, it became obvious that his ideas had a great impact on much of the theories of modernization at the time.

Ronald Inglehart

R. InglehartRonald F. Inglehart
Ronald Inglehart and Christian Welzel contend that the realization of democracy is not based solely on an expressed desire for that form of government, but democracies are born as a result of the admixture of certain social and cultural factors.
Building on this work, he subsequently developed a revised version of Modernization theory, Evolutionary Modernization Theory, which argues that economic development, welfare state institutions and the long peace between major powers since 1945, are reshaping human motivations in ways that have important implications concerning gender roles, sexual norms, the role of religion, economic behavior and the spread of democracy.

Thailand

ThaiSiamTHA
Peerenboom explores the relationships among democracy, the rule of law and their relationship to wealth by pointing to examples of Asian countries, such as Taiwan and South Korea, which have successfully democratized only after economic growth reached relatively high levels and to examples of countries such as the Philippines, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia and India, which sought to democratize at lower levels of wealth but have not done as well.
The period brought about increasing modernisation and Westernisation of Thai society.

Developing country

developing countriesdeveloping worlddeveloping nations
Its proponents argue that resources typically flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former.
The concept of the developing nation is found, under one term or another, in numerous theoretical systems having diverse orientations — for example, theories of decolonization, liberation theology, Marxism, anti-imperialism, modernization, social change and political economy.

Timeline of the Gwangmu Reform

Gwangmu Reform timeline
This reform also was one of the most successful for modernising in a short period of time during Korean history.

Walt Whitman Rostow

Walt RostowWalt W. RostowW.W. Rostow
President John F. Kennedy (1961–63) relied on economists W.W. Rostow on his staff and outsider John Kenneth Galbraith for ideas on how to promote rapid economic development in the "Third World", as it was called at the time.
This became one of the important concepts in the theory of modernization in social evolutionism.

Ecological modernization

ecological modernisationEcological modernization theory
Some scholars explicitly refer to general modernization theory as well as non-Marxist world-system theory, others don’t.

Immanuel Wallerstein

WallersteinWallerstein, ImmanuelI. Wallerstein
From the 1971s, modernization theory has been criticized by numerous scholars, including Andre Gunder Frank (1929–2005) and Immanuel Wallerstein (1930-2019).
Contrary to affirmative theories of modernization and capitalism, Wallerstein did not conceive of these differences as mere residues or irregularities that can and will be overcome as the system evolves.

Bielefeld School

Geschichte und Gesellschaft
Modernization theory was presented by Wehler and his Bielefeld School as the way to transform "traditional" German history, that is, national political history, centered on a few "great men," into an integrated and comparative history of German society encompassing societal structures outside politics.

Max Weber

WeberWeberianWeber, Max
Modernization theory originated from the ideas of German sociologist Max Weber (1864–1920), which provided the basis for the modernization paradigm developed by Harvard sociologist Talcott Parsons (1902–1979).

Social evolution

evolution of the societiessocialsocial evolutionary theories
Modernization theory both attempts to identify the social variables that contribute to social progress and development of societies and seeks to explain the process of social evolution.

Globalization

globalisationglobalizedglobal
Modernization theory is subject to criticism originating among socialist and free-market ideologies, world-systems theorists, globalization theorists and dependency theorists among others.

Industrialisation

industrializationindustrializedindustrialised
Historians link modernization to the processes of urbanization and industrialization and the spread of education.

Sociology

sociologistsociologicalsociologists
In sociological critical theory, modernization is linked to an overarching process of rationalisation.

Critical theory

critical theoristcriticalcritical theorists
In sociological critical theory, modernization is linked to an overarching process of rationalisation.

Rationalization (sociology)

rationalizationrationalisationrationality
In sociological critical theory, modernization is linked to an overarching process of rationalisation.

Social Darwinism

Social DarwinistSocial Darwiniansocial Darwinists
Sociological theories of the late 19th century such as Social Darwinism provided a basis for asking what were the laws of evolution of human society.

Early modern period

early moderncolonial eraearly modern era
Global trade has grown continuously since the European discovery of new continents in the Early modern period; it increased particularly as a result of the Industrial Revolution and the mid-20th century adoption of the shipping container.

Industrial Revolution

industrialindustrialismindustrial era
Global trade has grown continuously since the European discovery of new continents in the Early modern period; it increased particularly as a result of the Industrial Revolution and the mid-20th century adoption of the shipping container.

Shipping container

containershipping containerscontainers
Global trade has grown continuously since the European discovery of new continents in the Early modern period; it increased particularly as a result of the Industrial Revolution and the mid-20th century adoption of the shipping container.