Modularity

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Broadly speaking, modularity is the degree to which a system's components may be separated and recombined, often with the benefit of flexibility and variety in use.wikipedia
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Modular design

modularmodulemodules
Modular design, or "modularity in design", is an approach (design theory and practice) that subdivides a system into smaller parts called modules or skids, which can be independently created, modified, replaced or exchanged between different systems.

Modular art

ModulArt
Modularity has found renewed interest among proponents of ModulArt, a form of modular art in which the constituent parts can be physically reconfigured, removed and/or added to.
Modularity enters the modern artistic repertory largely through the disciplines of industrial design and architecture.

Lee Altenberg

Another stream of research on modularity in biology that should be of particular interest to scholars in other disciplines is that of Günter Wagner and Lee Altenberg.
This includes the discovery of mechanisms that lead to the evolution of evolvability, and modularity in the genotype-phenotype map.

Lev Manovich

Manovich, Lev
In The Language of New Media, Lev Manovich proposes five “principles of new media”—to be understood “not as absolute laws but rather as general tendencies of a culture undergoing computerization.” The five principles are numerical representation, modularity, automation, variability, and transcoding.

Contemporary art

contemporarycontemporary artistContemporary art museum

Loose coupling

loosely coupledlooser couplingloosely-coupled
Unlike a tightly integrated product whereby each component is designed to work specifically (and often exclusively) with other particular components in a tightly coupled system, modular products are systems of components that are “loosely coupled.”

Adobe Photoshop

PhotoshopPSDphotoshopped
In Photoshop, modularity is most evident in layers; a single image can be composed of many layers, each of which can be treated as an entirely independent and separate entity.

World Wide Web

WebWWWthe web
The entire Web, Manovich notes, has a modular structure, composed of independent sites and pages, and each webpage itself is composed of elements and code that can be independently modified.

Profit center

profit centreprofitprofit centres
The co-ordination of the modules is often carried out by using internal market mechanisms, in particular by the implementation of profit centers.

Jerry Fodor

FodorFodor, JerryFodorian
Though originally disavowed by Jerry Fodor, other psychologists have embraced it, and it is readily apparent in the use of modularity in biology (e.g., each module of an organism can be decomposed into finer modules), social processes and artifacts (e.g., we can think of a skyscraper in terms of blocks of floors, a single floor, elements of a floor, etc.), mathematics (e.g., the modulus 6 may be further divided into the moduli 1, 2 and 3), and technological and organizational systems (e.g., an organization may be composed of divisions, which are composed of teams, which are composed of individuals)

Max Coltheart

Prof. Max Coltheart
Notably, Fodor's "not assembled" feature contrasts sharply with the use of modularity in other fields in which modular systems are seen to be hierarchically nested (that is, modules are themselves composed of modules, which in turn are composed of modules, etc.) However, Max Coltheart notes that Fodor's commitment to the non-assembled feature appears weak, and other scholars (e.g., Block ) have proposed that Fodor's modules could be decomposed into finer modules.