Modulation

modulatedmodulatordigital modulationmodulatemodulatingmodulatesunmodulatedmodanalog modulationmodes
In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.wikipedia
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Amplitude modulation

AMamplitude modulatedamplitude-modulated
Most radio systems in the 20th century used frequency modulation (FM) or amplitude modulation (AM) for radio broadcast.
Amplitude modulation (AM) is a modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave.

Modem

modemsdial-up modem56k modem
A modem (from modulator–demodulator) can perform both operations.
A modem modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information.

Quadrature amplitude modulation

QAM64-QAM64QAM
Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is the name of a family of digital modulation methods and a related family of analog modulation methods widely used in modern telecommunications to transmit information.

Single-sideband modulation

SSBsingle sidebandsingle-sideband
In radio communications, single-sideband modulation (SSB) or single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation (SSB-SC) is a type of modulation used to transmit information, such as an audio signal, by radio waves.

Carrier wave

carrier frequencycarriercarrier signal
In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted. In this case, the carrier frequency is typically in the same order or much lower than the modulating waveform (see frequency modulation synthesis or ring modulation synthesis).
In telecommunications, a carrier wave, carrier signal, or just carrier, is a waveform (usually sinusoidal) that is modulated (modified) with an input signal for the purpose of conveying information.

Angle modulation

Angle modulation is a class of carrier modulation that is used in telecommunications transmission systems.

Phase modulation

phase modulatedPMphase-modulated
Phase modulation (PM) is a modulation pattern for conditioning communication signals for transmission.

Symbol rate

symbolbaud rateSR
If the modem plays a melody consisting of 1000 tones per second, the symbol rate is 1000 symbols/second, or 1000 baud.
In digital communications, symbol rate, also known as baud rate and modulation rate, is the number of symbol changes, waveform changes, or signaling events across the transmission medium per time unit using a digitally modulated signal or a line code.

Baud

megabaudkilobaudBaud rate
If the modem plays a melody consisting of 1000 tones per second, the symbol rate is 1000 symbols/second, or 1000 baud.
It is the number of distinct symbol changes (signaling events) made to the transmission medium per second in a digitally modulated signal or a bd rate line code.

Constellation diagram

constellationconstellation pointssignal constellation
In the case of PSK, ASK or QAM, where the carrier frequency of the modulated signal is constant, the modulation alphabet is often conveniently represented on a constellation diagram, showing the amplitude of the I signal at the x-axis, and the amplitude of the Q signal at the y-axis, for each symbol.
A constellation diagram is a representation of a signal modulated by a digital modulation scheme such as quadrature amplitude modulation or phase-shift keying.

Keying (telecommunications)

keyingkeyed-on
The most fundamental digital modulation techniques are based on keying:
Keying is a family of modulation forms where the modulating signal takes one of a specific (predetermined) number of values at all times.

Bit rate

bitratedata ratedata transfer rate
Since each tone (i.e., symbol) represents a message consisting of two digital bits in this example, the bit rate is twice the symbol rate, i.e. 2000 bits per second.
For most line codes and modulation methods:

Data transmission

data transferdigital communicationsdigital communication
The aim of pulse modulation methods is to transfer a narrowband analog signal, for example, a phone call over a wideband baseband channel or, in some of the schemes, as a bit stream over another digital transmission system. Most textbooks would consider digital modulation schemes as a form of digital transmission, synonymous to data transmission; very few would consider it as analog transmission.
The messages are either represented by a sequence of pulses by means of a line code (baseband transmission), or by a limited set of continuously varying wave forms (passband transmission), using a digital modulation method.

Analog transmission

analoganalogueanalog connections
Most textbooks would consider digital modulation schemes as a form of digital transmission, synonymous to data transmission; very few would consider it as analog transmission.
It could be the transfer of an analog source signal, using an analog modulation method such as frequency modulation (FM) or amplitude modulation (AM), or no modulation at all.

Ring modulation

ring modulatorring modulatorsring modulated
In this case, the carrier frequency is typically in the same order or much lower than the modulating waveform (see frequency modulation synthesis or ring modulation synthesis).
A particular elegance of the ring modulator is that it is bidirectional: the signal flow can be reversed allowing the same circuit with the same carrier to be used either as a modulator or demodulator, for example in low-cost radio transceivers.

Demodulation

demodulatordemodulatedemodulates
A demodulator (sometimes detector or demod) is a device that performs demodulation, the inverse of modulation.
There are many types of modulation so there are many types of demodulators.

Telecommunication

telecommunicationscommunicationstelecom
In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.
The shaping of a signal to convey information is known as modulation.

Digital data

digitaldigital informationdigitally
The aim of digital modulation is to transfer a digital bit stream over an analog communication channel, for example over the public switched telephone network (where a bandpass filter limits the frequency range to 300–3400 Hz) or over a limited radio frequency band.

Frequency-shift keying

FSKfrequency shift keyingAFSK
Audio frequency-shift keying (AFSK) is a modulation technique by which digital data is represented by changes in the frequency (pitch) of an audio tone, yielding an encoded signal suitable for transmission via radio or telephone.

Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access

OFDMAOrthogonal Frequency Division Multiple AccessOFDM
OFDM can be extended to multi-user channel access method in the orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) and multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) schemes, allowing several users to share the same physical medium by giving different sub-carriers or spreading codes to different users.
Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) is a multi-user version of the popular orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) digital modulation scheme.

Phase-shift keying

QPSKBPSKPSK
Phase-shift keying (PSK) is a digital modulation process which conveys data by changing (modulating) the phase of a constant frequency reference signal (the carrier wave).

Direct digital synthesis

Direct digital synthesizerDDSDirect Digital
DDS is used in applications such as signal generation, local oscillators in communication systems, function generators, mixers, modulators, sound synthesizers and as part of a digital phase-locked loop.

Pulse shaping

pulse-shapingpulse shaperpulse
Typically pulse shaping occurs after line coding and modulation.

Digital signal

digitaldigital signalsDigital signal (electronics)
According to one definition of digital signal, the modulated signal is a digital signal.
The shape of the waveform depends the transmission scheme, which may be either a line coding scheme allowing baseband transmission; or a digital modulation scheme, allowing passband transmission over long wires or over a limited radio frequency band.

8VSB

8-VSB8-Bit Vestigal SidebandATSC
8VSB is the modulation method used for broadcast in the ATSC digital television standard.