Mohamed M. Atalla

Mohamed AtallaMartin Mohamed AtallaMohamed Mohamed Atalla
Mohamed Mohamed Atalla (محمد محمد عطاالله; August 4, 1924 – December 30, 2009) was an Egyptian-American engineer, physical chemist, cryptographer, inventor and entrepreneur.wikipedia
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Hardware security module

security systemsHSMHSMs
He is also known as the founder of the data security company Atalla Corporation (now Utimaco Atalla), founded in 1972, which introduced the first hardware security module and was a pioneer in online security. In 1973, he released the first hardware security module, the "Atalla Box" which encrypted PIN and ATM messages, and went on to secure the majority of the world's ATM transactions.
The first hardware security module (HSM) was invented by Egyptian engineer Mohamed Atalla (anglicized to Martin "John" M. Atalla) in 1972.

Thermal oxidation

controlled oxidationthermal oxide thermally grown oxide
Most importantly, his invention of the MOSFET (metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor, or MOS transistor) in 1959, along with his earlier surface passivation and thermal oxidation processes (the basis for silicon semiconductor technology such as the monolithic integrated circuit chip), revolutionized the electronics industry.
The thermal oxidation process was developed in the late 1950s by Egyptian engineer Mohamed Atalla, who initially used it for the surface passivation of silicon semiconductors, before he later used the process to fabricate the first MOSFETs (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors) with Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs.

Dawon Kahng

He made a series of breakthroughs in semiconductor technology during 1956–1962, starting with his development of the surface passivation and thermal oxidation processes (the basis for silicon semiconductor technologies such as the planar process and monolithic integrated circuit chips), followed by his invention of the MOSFET (with Dawon Kahng) in 1959, then the PMOS and NMOS fabrication processes, his proposal of the MOS integrated circuit chip in 1960, and the demonstration of nanolayer transistors and practical Schottky diodes.
He is best known for inventing the MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor), also known as the MOS transistor, with Mohamed Atalla in 1959.

Passivation (chemistry)

passivationsurface passivationpassivating
Most importantly, his invention of the MOSFET (metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor, or MOS transistor) in 1959, along with his earlier surface passivation and thermal oxidation processes (the basis for silicon semiconductor technology such as the monolithic integrated circuit chip), revolutionized the electronics industry.
Also known as the Atalla passivation technique, the surface passivation process was originally developed by Mohamed M. Atalla at Bell Labs in the late 1950s.

Digital Revolution

computer revolutioncomputerizationThird Industrial Revolution
Atalla's pioneering work at Bell laid the foundations for modern electronics, the silicon revolution, and the Digital Revolution.
In the late 1950s, Bell Labs engineer Mohamed M. Atalla demonstrated the effectiveness of silicon as a semiconductor material with his process of surface passivation by thermal oxidation.

Semiconductor device fabrication

fabricatedsemiconductor fabricationsemiconductor manufacturing
He made a series of breakthroughs in semiconductor technology during 1956–1962, starting with his development of the surface passivation and thermal oxidation processes (the basis for silicon semiconductor technologies such as the planar process and monolithic integrated circuit chips), followed by his invention of the MOSFET (with Dawon Kahng) in 1959, then the PMOS and NMOS fabrication processes, his proposal of the MOS integrated circuit chip in 1960, and the demonstration of nanolayer transistors and practical Schottky diodes.
The first MOSFET (metal-oxide-silicon field-effect transistor) semiconductor devices were fabricated by Egyptian engineer Mohamed Atalla and Korean engineer Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs between 1959 and 1960.

Hewlett-Packard

HPHewlett PackardHewlett-Packard Company
His invention of the MOSFET was initially overlooked at Bell, which led to him resigning from Bell and joining Hewlett-Packard (HP), founding its Semiconductor Lab in 1962 and then HP Labs in 1966, before leaving to join Fairchild Semiconductor, founding its Microwave & Optoelectronics division in 1969.
HP Associates was co-founded by another former Bell Labs researcher, MOSFET (MOS transistor) inventor Mohamed Atalla, who served as Director of Semiconductor Research.

Semiconductor industry

semiconductorSemiconductorssemiconductor company
He later left the semiconductor industry, and became an entrepreneur in cryptography, data security and cybersecurity.
The most widely used semiconductor device is the MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor, or MOS transistor), which was invented by Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959.

Cairo University

University of CairoEgyptian UniversityFuad I University
Born in Port Said, Egypt, he was educated at Cairo University in Egypt and then Purdue University in the United States, before joining Bell Labs in 1949 and later adopting the more anglicized "John" or "Martin" '''M.

Planar process

planar technologyplanarmicrofabricated
He made a series of breakthroughs in semiconductor technology during 1956–1962, starting with his development of the surface passivation and thermal oxidation processes (the basis for silicon semiconductor technologies such as the planar process and monolithic integrated circuit chips), followed by his invention of the MOSFET (with Dawon Kahng) in 1959, then the PMOS and NMOS fabrication processes, his proposal of the MOS integrated circuit chip in 1960, and the demonstration of nanolayer transistors and practical Schottky diodes.
The planar process was developed at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1959 by Jean Hoerni, who adopted the surface passivation and thermal oxidation methods originally developed by Mohamed Atalla at Bell Labs in 1957.

Light-emitting diode

LEDLEDslight emitting diodes
His work at HP and Fairchild included further research on Schottky diodes, in addition to research on gallium arsenide (GaAs), gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP), indium arsenide (InAs) and light-emitting diode (LED) technologies, contributing to the development of high-frequency network analyzers, developing the first practical LED displays, and proposing LED optical readers.
Hewlett-Packard (HP) was engaged in research and development (R&D) on practical LEDs between 1962 and 1968, by a research team under Howard C. Borden, Gerald P. Pighini and Mohamed M. Atalla at HP Associates and HP Labs.

HP Labs

Hewlett-Packard LaboratoriesHP LaboratoriesHewlett Packard Laboratories
His invention of the MOSFET was initially overlooked at Bell, which led to him resigning from Bell and joining Hewlett-Packard (HP), founding its Semiconductor Lab in 1962 and then HP Labs in 1966, before leaving to join Fairchild Semiconductor, founding its Microwave & Optoelectronics division in 1969.
HP Labs was created with the help of former Bell Labs engineer and MOSFET (MOS transistor) inventor Mohamed Atalla, who later left in 1972.

Silicon

Sisilicon revolutionsilicium
Most importantly, his invention of the MOSFET (metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor, or MOS transistor) in 1959, along with his earlier surface passivation and thermal oxidation processes (the basis for silicon semiconductor technology such as the monolithic integrated circuit chip), revolutionized the electronics industry. Atalla's pioneering work at Bell laid the foundations for modern electronics, the silicon revolution, and the Digital Revolution.
A breakthrough in silicon semiconductor technology came with the work of Egyptian engineer Mohamed M. Atalla, who developed the process of surface passivation by thermal oxidation at Bell Labs in the late 1950s.

Automated teller machine

ATMATMsautomatic teller machine
In 1973, he released the first hardware security module, the "Atalla Box" which encrypted PIN and ATM messages, and went on to secure the majority of the world's ATM transactions.
Mohamed Atalla invented the first hardware security module (HSM), dubbed the "Atalla Box", a security system which encrypted PIN and ATM messages, and protected offline devices with an un-guessable PIN-generating key.

Nanoelectronics

nanoelectronicBio-nano generatordeep sub-micron
He made a series of breakthroughs in semiconductor technology during 1956–1962, starting with his development of the surface passivation and thermal oxidation processes (the basis for silicon semiconductor technologies such as the planar process and monolithic integrated circuit chips), followed by his invention of the MOSFET (with Dawon Kahng) in 1959, then the PMOS and NMOS fabrication processes, his proposal of the MOS integrated circuit chip in 1960, and the demonstration of nanolayer transistors and practical Schottky diodes.
In 1960, Egyptian engineer Mohamed Atalla and Korean engineer Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs fabricated the first MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor) with a gate oxide thickness of 100 nm, along with a gate length of 20µm.

Personal identification number

PINPINsPIN code
In 1972, he founded Atalla Corporation, and filed a patent for a remote PIN security system over telecommunications networks, a precursor to telephone banking, Internet security and e-commerce.
Mohamed M. Atalla invented the first PIN-based hardware security module (HSM), dubbed the "Atalla Box", a security system which encrypted PIN and ATM messages, and protected offline devices with an un-guessable PIN-generating key.

Egyptian Americans

Egyptian AmericanEgyptian-AmericanEgyptian
Mohamed Mohamed Atalla (محمد محمد عطاالله; August 4, 1924 – December 30, 2009) was an Egyptian-American engineer, physical chemist, cryptographer, inventor and entrepreneur.
Mohamed Atalla

Fairchild Semiconductor

FairchildFairchild Semiconductor CorporationFairchild Camera & Instrument Corporation, Semiconductor Division
His invention of the MOSFET was initially overlooked at Bell, which led to him resigning from Bell and joining Hewlett-Packard (HP), founding its Semiconductor Lab in 1962 and then HP Labs in 1966, before leaving to join Fairchild Semiconductor, founding its Microwave & Optoelectronics division in 1969. According to Fairchild Semiconductor engineer Chih-Tang Sah, the work of Atalla and his team during 1956–1960 was "the most important and significant technology advance" in silicon semiconductor technology, including the history of transistors and microelectronics.
In turn, Hoerni's planar process was inspired by the surface passivation method developed by Mohamed Atalla at Bell Labs in 1957.

History of the transistor

bipolar transistorhistory of transistorinvention of the transistor
According to Fairchild Semiconductor engineer Chih-Tang Sah, the work of Atalla and his team during 1956–1960 was "the most important and significant technology advance" in silicon semiconductor technology, including the history of transistors and microelectronics.
The MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor), also known as the MOS transistor, was later invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959, which led to the mass-production of MOS transistors for a wide range of uses.

Telephone banking

telephonephonebanking by telephone
In 1972, he founded Atalla Corporation, and filed a patent for a remote PIN security system over telecommunications networks, a precursor to telephone banking, Internet security and e-commerce.
In 1972, Egyptian engineer Mohamed M. Atalla, the founder of Atalla Corporation, filed for a remote personal verification system which utilized encryption techniques to assure telephone link security while entering personal ID information, which would be transmitted as encrypted data over telecommunications networks to a remote location for verification.

LED display

LED screensLEDLED screen
His work at HP and Fairchild included further research on Schottky diodes, in addition to research on gallium arsenide (GaAs), gallium arsenide phosphide (GaAsP), indium arsenide (InAs) and light-emitting diode (LED) technologies, contributing to the development of high-frequency network analyzers, developing the first practical LED displays, and proposing LED optical readers.
Its development was led by Howard C. Borden, Gerald P. Pighini, and Egyptian engineer Mohamed M. Atalla, at HP Associates and HP Labs, who had engaged in research and development (R&D) on practical LEDs between 1962 and 1968.

NMOS logic

NMOSn-MOSN-channel
He made a series of breakthroughs in semiconductor technology during 1956–1962, starting with his development of the surface passivation and thermal oxidation processes (the basis for silicon semiconductor technologies such as the planar process and monolithic integrated circuit chips), followed by his invention of the MOSFET (with Dawon Kahng) in 1959, then the PMOS and NMOS fabrication processes, his proposal of the MOS integrated circuit chip in 1960, and the demonstration of nanolayer transistors and practical Schottky diodes.
The MOSFET was invented by Egyptian engineer Mohamed M. Atalla and Korean engineer Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959, and demonstrated in 1960.

Atherton, California

AthertonAtherton, CA
He died in Atherton, California, on December 30, 2009.

Bell Labs

Bell LaboratoriesBell Telephone LaboratoriesAT&T Bell Laboratories
Born in Port Said, Egypt, he was educated at Cairo University in Egypt and then Purdue University in the United States, before joining Bell Labs in 1949 and later adopting the more anglicized "John" or "Martin" '''M.
In 1959, Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng invented the metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), and presented their invention in 1960.

Internet security

securityWeb Securityonline security
He is also known as the founder of the data security company Atalla Corporation (now Utimaco Atalla), founded in 1972, which introduced the first hardware security module and was a pioneer in online security. In 1972, he founded Atalla Corporation, and filed a patent for a remote PIN security system over telecommunications networks, a precursor to telephone banking, Internet security and e-commerce.
In 1972, Egyptian engineer Mohamed M. Atalla filed for a remote PIN verification system, which utilized encryption techniques to assure telephone link security while entering personal ID information, which would be transmitted as encrypted data over telecommunications networks to a remote location for verification.