Mohammad Mosaddegh

MosaddeghMossadeghMossadeqMohammad MossadeghMohammed MosaddeqDr MosaddeqDr. Mohammad MossadeghMohammed MossadeghMossaddeghnationalized the oil industry
Mohammad Mosaddegh (16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was the 35th prime minister of Iran, holding office from 1951 until 1953, when his government was overthrown in a coup d'état orchestrated by the United States' Central Intelligence Agency and the United Kingdom's MI6.wikipedia
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1953 Iranian coup d'état

coup d'état1953 coupcoup
Mohammad Mosaddegh (16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was the 35th prime minister of Iran, holding office from 1951 until 1953, when his government was overthrown in a coup d'état orchestrated by the United States' Central Intelligence Agency and the United Kingdom's MI6. While the coup is at times referred to in the West as Operation Ajax after its CIA cryptonym, in Iran it is referred to as the 28 Mordad 1332 Coup d'état, after its date on the Iranian calendar.
The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état, was the overthrow of Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation Boot") and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project or "Operation Ajax"), and the first United States covert action to overthrow a foreign government during peacetime.

Fazlollah Zahedi

General Fazlollah ZahediFazlollah [ZahediGeneral Zahedi
Following an initial, failed coup attempt by the CIA/MI6-backed General Fazlollah Zahedi, Mosaddegh was successfully deposed four days later on 19 August 1953, with Zahedi succeeding him as prime minister.
Fazlollah Zahedi (, pronounced ; c. 1892 – 2 September 1963) was an Iranian general and statesman who replaced the democratically elected Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh through a coup d'état, in which he played a major role.

Prime Minister of Iran

Prime MinisterDeputy Prime Minister of IranDeputy Prime Minister of Iran for Revolutionary Affairs
Mohammad Mosaddegh (16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was the 35th prime minister of Iran, holding office from 1951 until 1953, when his government was overthrown in a coup d'état orchestrated by the United States' Central Intelligence Agency and the United Kingdom's MI6.
In 1951, Mohammed Mosaddeq became Prime Minister but was overthrown in a counter coup d'état in 1953.

BP

British PetroleumBP plcBP Australia
His government's most significant policy, however, was the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry, which had been built by the British on Persian lands since 1913 through the Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC/AIOC) (later British Petroleum and BP).
In March 1951, Razmara was assassinated and Mohammed Mossadeq, a nationalist, was elected as the new prime minister by the Majlis of Iran (parliament).

Central Intelligence Agency

CIAC.I.A.Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)
Mohammad Mosaddegh (16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was the 35th prime minister of Iran, holding office from 1951 until 1953, when his government was overthrown in a coup d'état orchestrated by the United States' Central Intelligence Agency and the United Kingdom's MI6.
In 1951, Mohammad Mosaddegh, a member of the National Front, was elected Iranian prime-minister.

Secret Intelligence Service

MI6SISBritish Intelligence
Mohammad Mosaddegh (16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was the 35th prime minister of Iran, holding office from 1951 until 1953, when his government was overthrown in a coup d'état orchestrated by the United States' Central Intelligence Agency and the United Kingdom's MI6.
SIS activities included a range of covert political actions, including the overthrow of Mohammed Mossadeq in Iran in the 1953 Iranian coup d'état (in collaboration with the US Central Intelligence Agency).

House arrest

home detentionhome confinementhome
Mosaddegh was imprisoned for three years, then put under house arrest until his death and was buried in his own home so as to prevent a political furor.
Mohammad Mosaddegh, former Premier of Iran was deposed by coup in 1953 with support of the United States. Following three years of imprisonment, he was placed under house arrest until his death.

Mostowfi ol-Mamalek

Hassan MostowfiHassan MostofiHassan Mostowfi al-Mamalek
During this period he also served as deputy leader of the Society of Humanity, under Mostowfi ol-Mamalek.
Mostowfi was also second cousins with Mohammad Mossadegh.

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

ShahShah of Iranthe Shah
In 1941, Reza Shah Pahlavi was forced by the British to abdicate in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
During Mohammad Reza's reign, the Iranian oil industry was briefly nationalised, under Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh, until a US and UK-backed coup d'état deposed Mosaddegh and brought back foreign oil firms.

Hossein Fatemi

Hosseyn Fâtemi
This time he took the lead of Jebhe Melli (National Front of Iran, created in 1949), an organization he had founded with nineteen others such as Hossein Fatemi, Ahmad Zirakzadeh, Ali Shayegan and Karim Sanjabi, aiming to establish democracy and end the foreign presence in Iranian politics, especially by nationalizing the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company's (AIOC) operations in Iran.
A close associate of Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh, he proposed nationalization of Iranian oil and gas assets.

National Front (Iran)

National FrontNational Front of IranSecond National Front
This time he took the lead of Jebhe Melli (National Front of Iran, created in 1949), an organization he had founded with nineteen others such as Hossein Fatemi, Ahmad Zirakzadeh, Ali Shayegan and Karim Sanjabi, aiming to establish democracy and end the foreign presence in Iranian politics, especially by nationalizing the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company's (AIOC) operations in Iran.
The National Front of Iran is an opposition political organization in Iran, founded by Mohammad Mosaddegh in 1949.

Ahmad Zirakzadeh

This time he took the lead of Jebhe Melli (National Front of Iran, created in 1949), an organization he had founded with nineteen others such as Hossein Fatemi, Ahmad Zirakzadeh, Ali Shayegan and Karim Sanjabi, aiming to establish democracy and end the foreign presence in Iranian politics, especially by nationalizing the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company's (AIOC) operations in Iran.
Ahmad Zirakzadeh (6 March 1908 – 25 August 1993) was one of the founders of National Front of Iran, an Iranian party which was considered the backbone of Mohammad Mosaddegh's government.

Tehran School of Political Science

Advanced School of Political ScienceCollege of political sciences'' (Madraseh-ye olum-e siyasi)School of Political Science
Mosaddegh taught at the Tehran School of Political Science at the start of World War I before beginning his political career.
Mohammad Mosaddegh, Prime Minister

Mordad

AmordādMordad / AmordadMordad 2
While the coup is at times referred to in the West as Operation Ajax after its CIA cryptonym, in Iran it is referred to as the 28 Mordad 1332 Coup d'état, after its date on the Iranian calendar.
28 - 1332 - Iranian Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh is overthrown in a coup d'état with the backing of the United States Central Intelligence Agency, beginning the nearly 25-year reign of the pro-US Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi.

Tudeh Party of Iran

Tudeh PartyTudehthe Tudeh Party
Kashani's Islamic scholars, as well as the Tudeh Party, proved to be two of Mosaddegh's key political allies, although relations with both were often strained.
Formed in 1941, with Soleiman Mohsen Eskandari as its head, it had considerable influence in its early years and played an important role during Mohammad Mosaddegh's campaign to nationalize the Anglo-Persian Oil Company and his term as prime minister.

CIA cryptonym

cryptonymTPBEDAMNcodename
While the coup is at times referred to in the West as Operation Ajax after its CIA cryptonym, in Iran it is referred to as the 28 Mordad 1332 Coup d'état, after its date on the Iranian calendar.
TPAJAX: Overthrow of Mohammed Mossadeq, Prime Minister of Iran, in the 1953 Iranian coup orchestrated by a joint US/UK operation

Persian Constitutional Revolution

Constitutional RevolutionIranian Constitutional Revolutionconstitutional period
Mosaddegh started his political career with the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1905-07.
Mohammed Mosaddeq – Liberal Nationalist and future Prime Minister of Iran.

Mozzafar Baghai

BaghaiMozaffar Baqai
They included Mozzafar Baghai, head of the worker-based Toilers party; Hossein Makki, who had helped lead the takeover of the Abadan refinery and was at one point considered Mosaddegh's heir apparent; and most outspokenly Ayatollah Kashani, who damned Mosaddegh with the "vitriol he had once reserved for the British".
Baghai made himself known as a fiery critic of the British and he allied himself with those of like mind, including Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh (a man who had risen to prominence as a fierce critic of Reza Shah, the despotic ruler of Iran from 1921–1941, and of the British control of the oil fields and that country's interference in Iran's internal affairs).

Karim Sanjabi

Karim SanjâbiSanjabi
This time he took the lead of Jebhe Melli (National Front of Iran, created in 1949), an organization he had founded with nineteen others such as Hossein Fatemi, Ahmad Zirakzadeh, Ali Shayegan and Karim Sanjabi, aiming to establish democracy and end the foreign presence in Iranian politics, especially by nationalizing the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company's (AIOC) operations in Iran.
Sanjabi was a loyal supporter of Mohammad Mossadegh and he later served as minister of education under Mossadegh in 1952.

Qajar dynasty

PersiaQajarQajar Iran
Mosaddegh was born to a prominent Persian family of high officials in Tehran on 16 June 1882; his father, Mirza Hideyatu'llah Ashtiani, was a finance minister under the Qajar dynasty, and his mother, Princess Malek Taj Najm-es-Saltaneh, was the granddaughter of the reformist Qajar prince Abbas Mirza, and a great-granddaughter of Fath-Ali Shah Qajar.
Mohammad Mosaddegh, prime minister of Iran and nephew of Prince Abdol Hossein Mirza Farmanfarma.

Pahlavi dynasty

IranPahlaviShah of Iran
On 12 December 1925, the Majlis deposed the young Shah Ahmad Shah Qajar, and declared Reza Shah the new monarch of the Imperial State of Persia, and the first Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty.
He wanted to continue the reform policies of his father, but a contest for control of the government soon erupted between him and an older professional politician, the nationalistic Mohammad Mosaddegh.

Abadan Crisis

an economic crisisIranian oil crisisnationalization of oil
This Abadan Crisis reduced Iran's oil income to almost nothing, putting a severe strain on the implementation of Mosaddegh's promised domestic reforms.
In stark contrast, Iranian Premier Mohammad Mosaddegh believed the 1933 concession granted to the AIOC by Iran was "immoral as well as illegal".

Ashraf Pahlavi

Princess AshrafAshrafPrincess Ashraf of Iran
With his emergency powers, Mosaddegh tried to strengthen his newly-established autocracy by limiting the monarchy's powers, cutting the Shah's personal budget, forbidding him to communicate directly with foreign diplomats, transferring royal lands back to the state and expelling the Shah's politically active sister Ashraf Pahlavi.
In an International Journal of Middle East Studies article, writer Mark Gasiorowski states that the Shah "was not consulted about the decision to undertake the coup, about its manner of execution, or about the candidate chosen to replace Mossadegh" and that the coup was instead largely executed by the United States and others looking to undermine Mossadegh's leadership.

Ali Shayegan

This time he took the lead of Jebhe Melli (National Front of Iran, created in 1949), an organization he had founded with nineteen others such as Hossein Fatemi, Ahmad Zirakzadeh, Ali Shayegan and Karim Sanjabi, aiming to establish democracy and end the foreign presence in Iranian politics, especially by nationalizing the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company's (AIOC) operations in Iran.
Dr. Shayegan, one of the leaders of the National Front of Iran, was also a Member of Parliament, the Minister of Education and a close aide to Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh, whose government was overthrown by army officers loyal to the Shah in 1953 in a coup d'état orchestrated by the CIA.

Kermit Roosevelt Jr.

Kermit RooseveltKim Roosevelt[Kermit] Roosevelt
Soon afterward, according to his later published accounts, the chief of the CIA's Near East and Africa division, Kermit Roosevelt, Jr. the grandson of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt, arrived in Tehran to direct it. In 2000, The New York Times made partial publication of a leaked CIA document titled Clandestine Service History – Overthrow of Premier Mosaddegh of Iran – November 1952-August 1953.
Kermit "Kim" Roosevelt Jr. (February 16, 1916 – June 8, 2000), a grandson of U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt, was a Harvard-educated career intelligence officer who served in the Office of Strategic Services, forerunner to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), during and following the second world war, went on to found Arabist organizations such as the American Friends of the Middle East, and then to play a critical role in the CIA's deposition of Mohammad Mossadegh, the democratically elected leader of Iran, in August 1953.